Please write an answer to each of the two questions below:


Question Description

Please write an answer to each of the two questions below. The suggested lengths for your answers are intended only as guidelines.

Do not use any other sources than those assigned for the course.

1. Edmund Burke and Karl Marx all rejected the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen” of the French Revolution. Address the key elements of their disagreement with the Declaration. Of the two, which do you find most persuasive? (2 pages/600 words)

2. Lynn Hunt attributes immense importance to the novel in bringing about a change in Europeans’ views of rights. Lynn Hunt, Inventing Human Rights: A History (New York: Norton, 2007). ISBN 978- 0393331998

A. What is her argument, and do you accept it?

B. Evaluate Charles Dickens’s Hard Times and Hannah More’s “Slavery: A Poem” as tests of her thesis. In other words, do you think a novel such as Hard Times might have changed the way people think or feel about rights, and if so how? (4 pages/1200 words). Charles Dickens: Hard Times

General Remarks

1. Papers must be typed and double-spaced. Margins should be one inch all around, and the font size should be 12-point. Please put page numbers on your paper. Do not use unusually large fonts, larger than normal spacing between paragraphs, and large headers and footers. Proper grammar and punctuation improve the clarity and power of your essay, but your essay will be graded mostly on its content.

2. Please put your answers in one document, stapled together. Please do not rewrite the question on your answer sheet. Just type the question number and then your answer. Please leave four extra lines in between your answers.

3. You must cite any work from which you quote or cite. You may place the name and page number of the source you are citing at the end of the sentence in which a quotation or paraphrase of the author’s work appears. For instance, (Rousseau, 2).

There is no need to submit a “works cited” page since all your citations will be to the materials I have assigned. Make sure that you put any direct quotations in quotation marks.

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Hannah More (1745-1833), SLAVERY, A POEM. (1788) IF Heaven has into being deign'd to call Thy light, O LIBERTY! to shine on all; Bright intellectual Sun! why does thy ray To earth distribute only partial day? Since no resisting cause from spirit flows 5 Thy penetrating essence to oppose; No obstacles by Nature's hand imprest, Thy subtle and ethereal beams arrest; Nor motion's laws can speed thy active course, Nor strong repulsion's pow'rs obstruct thy force; 10 Since there is no convexity in MIND, Why are thy genial beams to parts confin'd? Page 2While the chill North with thy bright ray is blest, Why should fell darkness half the South invest? Was it decreed, fair Freedom! at thy birth, 15 That thou shou'd'st ne'er irradiate all the earth? While Britain basks in thy full blaze of light, Why lies sad Afric quench'd in total night? Thee only, sober Goddess! I attest, In smiles chastis'd, and decent graces drest. 20 Not that unlicens'd monster of the crowd, Whose roar terrific bursts in peals so loud, Deaf'ning the ear of Peace: fierce Faction's tool; Of rash Sedition born, and mad Misrule; Whose stubborn mouth, rejecting Reason's rein, 25 No strength can govern, and no skill restrain; Whose magic cries the frantic vulgar draw To spurn at Order, and to outrage Law; Page 3To tread on grave Authority and Pow'r, And shake the work of ages in an hour: 30 Convuls'd her voice, and pestilent her breath, She raves of mercy, while she deals out death: Each blast is fate; she darts from either hand Red conflagration o'er th' astonish'd land; Clamouring for peace, she rends the air with noise, 1 35 And to reform a part, the whole destroys. O, plaintive Southerne! * whose impassion'd strain So oft has wak'd my languid Muse in vain! Now, when congenial themes her cares engage, She burns to emulate thy glowing page; 40 Her failing efforts mock her fond desires, She shares thy feelings, not partakes thy fires. Strange pow'r of song! the strain that warms the heart Seems the same inspiration to impart; Page 4Touch'd by the kindling energy alone, 45 We think the flame which melts us is our own; Deceiv'd, for genius we mistake delight, Charm'd as we read, we fancy we can write. Tho' not to me, sweet Bard, thy pow'rs belong, Fair Truth, a hallow'd guide! inspires my song. 50 Here Art wou'd weave her gayest flow'rs in vain, For Truth the bright invention wou'd disdain. For no fictitious ills these numbers flow, But living anguish, and substantial woe; No individual griefs my bosom melt, 55 For millions feel what Oronoko felt: Fir'd by no single wrongs, the countless host I mourn, by rapine dragg'd from Afric's coast. Perish th' illiberal thought which wou'd debase The native genius of the sable race! 60 Page 5Perish the proud philosophy, which sought To rob them of the pow'rs of equal thought! Does then th' immortal principle within Change with the casual colour of a skin? Does matter govern spirit? or is mind 65 Degraded by the form to which 'tis join'd? No: they have heads to think, and hearts to feel, And souls to act, with firm, tho' erring zeal; For they have keen affections, kind desires, Love strong as death, and active patriot fires; 70 All the rude energy, the fervid flame, 2 Of high-soul'd passion, and ingenuous shame: Strong, but luxuriant virtues boldly shoot From the wild vigour of a savage root. Nor weak their sense of honour's proud control, 75 For pride is virtue in a Pagan soul; Page 6A sense of worth, a conscience of desert, A high, unbroken haughtiness of heart; That self-same stuff which erst proud empires sway'd, Of which the conquerors of the world were made. 80 Capricious fate of man! that very pride In Afric scourg'd, in Rome was deify'd. No Muse, O * Qua-shi! shall thy deeds relate, No statue snatch thee from oblivious fate! Page 7For thou wast born where never gentle Muse 85 On Valour's grave the flow'rs of Genius strews; And thou wast born where no recording page Plucks the fair deed from Time's devouring rage. Had Fortune plac'd thee on some happier coast, Where polish'd souls heroic virtue boast, 90 To thee, who sought'st a voluntary grave, Th' uninjur'd honours of thy name to save, Whose generous arm thy barbarous Master spar'd, Altars had smok'd, and temples had been rear'd. Whene'er to Asric's shores I turn my eyes, 95 Horrors of deepest, deadliest guilt arise; Page 8I see, by more than Fancy's mirror shewn, The burning village, and the blazing town: See the dire victim torn from social life, The shrieking babe, the agonizing wife! 100 She, wretch forlorn! is dragg'd by hostile hands, To distant tyrants sold, in distant lands! Transmitted miseries, and successive chains, The sole sad heritage her child obtains! Ev'n this last wretched boon their foes deny, 105 To weep together, or together die. By felon hands, by one relentless stroke, See the fond links of feeling Nature broke! 3 The fibres twisting round a parent's heart, Torn from their grasp, and bleeding as they part. 110 Hold, murderers, hold! nor aggravate distress; Respect the passions you yourselves possess; Page 9Ev'n you, of ruffian heart, and ruthless hand, Love your own offspring, love your native land. Ah! leave them holy Freedom's cheering smile, 115 The heav'n-taught fondness for the parent soil; Revere affections mingled with our frame, In every nature, every clime the same; In all, these feelings equal sway maintain; In all the love of HOME and FREEDOM reign: 120 And Tempe's vale, and parch'd Angola's sand, One equal fondness of their sons command. Th' unconquer'd Savage laughs at pain and toil, Basking in Freedom's beams which gild his native soil. Does thirst of empire, does desire of fame, 125 (For these are specious crimes) our rage inflame? No: sordid lust of gold their fate controls, The basest appetite of basest souls; Page 10Gold, better gain'd, by what their ripening sky, Their fertile fields, their arts * and mines supply. 130 What wrongs, what injuries does Oppression plead To smooth the horror of th' unnatural deed? What strange offence, what aggravated sin? They stand convicted—of a darker skin! Barbarians, hold! th' opprobrious commerce spare, 135 Respect his sacred image which they bear: Tho' dark and savage, ignorant and blind, They claim the common privilege of kind; Let Malice strip them of each other plea, They still are men, and men shou'd still be free. 140 Insulted Reason loaths th' inverted trade— Dire change! the agent is the purchase made! Page 11Perplex'd, the baffled Muse involves the tale; Nature confounded, well may language fail! The outrag'd Goddess with abhorrent eyes 4 145 Sees MAN the traffic, SOULS the merchandize! Plead not, in reason's palpable abuse, Their sense of * feeling callous and obtuse: From heads to hearts lies Nature's plain appeal, Tho' few can reason, all mankind can feel. 150 Tho' wit may boast a livelier dread of shame, A loftier sense of wrong refinement claim; Tho' polish'd manners may fresh wants invent, And nice distinctions nicer souls torment; Tho' these on finer spirits heavier fall, 155 Yet natural evils are the same to all. Page 12Tho' wounds there are which reason's force may heal, There needs no logic sure to make us feel. The nerve, howe'er untutor'd, can sustain A sharp, unutterable sense of pain; 160 As exquisitely fashion'd in a slave, As where unequal fate a sceptre gave. Sense is as keen where Congo's sons preside, As where proud Tiber rolls his classic tide. Rhetoric or verse may point the feeling line, 165 They do not whet sensation, but define. Did ever slave less feel the galling chain, When Zeno prov'd there was no ill in pain? Their miseries philosophic quirks deride, Slaves groan in pangs disown'd by Stoic pride. 170 When the fierce Sun darts vertical his beams, And thirst and hunger mix their wild extremes; Page 13When the sharp iron * wounds his inmost soul, And his strain'd eyes in burning anguish roll; Will the parch'd negro find, ere he expire, 175 No pain in hunger, and no heat in fire? For him, when fate his tortur'd frame destroys, What hope of present fame, or future joys? For this, have heroes shorten'd nature's date; For that, have martyrs gladly met their fate; 180 But him, forlorn, no hero's pride sustains, 5 No martyr's blissful visions sooth his pains; Sullen, he mingles with his kindred dust, For he has learn'd to dread the Christian's trust; Page 14To him what mercy can that Pow'r display, 185 Whose servants murder, and whose sons betray? Savage! thy venial error I deplore, They are not Christians who infest thy shore. O thou sad spirit, whose preposterous yoke The great deliverer Death, at length, has broke! 190 Releas'd from misery, and escap'd from care, Go, meet that mercy man deny'd thee here. In thy dark home, sure refuge of th' oppress'd, The wicked vex not, and the weary rest. And, if some notions, vague and undefin'd, 195 Of future terrors have assail'd thy mind; If such thy masters have presum'd to teach, As terrors only they are prone to preach; (For shou'd they paint eternal Mercy's reign, Where were th' oppressor's rod, the captive's chain?) 200 Page 15If, then, thy troubled soul has learn'd to dread The dark unknown thy trembling footsteps tread; On HIM, who made thee what thou art, depend; HE, who withholds the means, accepts the end. Not thine the reckoning dire of LIGHT abus'd, 205 KNOWLEDGE disgrac'd, and LIBERTY misus'd; On thee no awful judge incens'd shall sit For parts perverted, and dishonour'd wit. Where ignorance will be found the surest plea, How many learn'd and wise shall envy thee! 210 And thou, WHITE SAVAGE! whether lust of gold, Or lust of conquest, rule thee uncontrol'd! Hero, or robber!—by whatever name Thou plead thy impious claim to wealth or fame; Whether inferior mischiefs be thy boast, 215 A petty tyrant rifling Gambia's coast: Page 16Or bolder carnage track thy crimson way, Kings dispossess'd, and Provinces thy prey; 6 Panting to tame wide earth's remotest bound; All Cortez murder'd, all Columbus found; 220 O'er plunder'd realms to reign, detested Lord, Make millions wretched, and thyself abhorr'd;— In Reason's eye, in Wisdom's fair account, Your sum of glory boasts a like amount; The means may differ, but the end's the same; 225 Conquest is pillage with a nobler name. Who makes the sum of human blessings less, Or sinks the stock of general happiness, No solid same shall grace, no true renown, His life shall blazon, or his memory crown. 230 Had those advent'rous spirits who explore Thro' ocean's trackless wastes, the far-sought shore; Page 17Whether of wealth insatiate, or of pow'r, Conquerors who waste, or ruffians who devour: Had these possess'd, O COOK! thy gentle mind, 235 Thy love of arts, thy love of humankind; Had these pursued thy mild and liberal plan, DISCOVERERS had not been a curse to man! Then, bless'd Philanthropy! thy social hands Had link'd dissever'd worlds in brothers bands; 240 Careless, if colour, or if clime divide; Then, lov'd, and loving, man had liv'd, and died. The purest wreaths which hang on glory's shrine, For empires founded, peaceful PENN! are thine; No blood-stain'd laurels crown'd thy virtuous toil, 245 No slaughter'd natives drench'd thy fair-earn'd soil. Still thy meek spirit in thy * flock survives, Consistent still, their doctrines rule their lives; Page 18Thy followers only have effac'd the shame Inscrib'd by SLAVERY on the Christian name. 250 Shall Britain, where the soul of Freedom reigns, Forge chains for others she herself disdains? Forbid it, Heaven! O let the nations know The liberty she loves she will bestow; Not to herself the glorious gift confin'd, 7 255 She spreads the blessing wide as humankind; And, scorning narrow views of time and place, Bids all be free in earth's extended space. What page of human annals can record A deed so bright as human rights restor'd? 260 O may that god-like deed, that shining page, Redeem OUR fame, and consecrate OUR age! And see, the cherub Mercy from above, Descending softly, quits the sphere of love! Page 19On feeling hearts she sheds celestial dew, 265 And breathes her spirit o'er th' enlighten'd few; From soul to soul the spreading influence steals, Till every breast the soft contagion feels. She bears, exulting, to the burning shore The loveliest office Angel ever bore; 270 To vindicate the pow'r in Heaven ador'd, To still the clank of chains, and sheathe the sword; To cheer the mourner, and with soothing hands From bursting hearts unbind th' Oppressor's bands; To raise the lustre of the Christian name, 275 And clear the foulest blot that dims its fame. As the mild Spirit hovers o'er the coast, A fresher hue the wither'd landscapes boast; Her healing smiles the ruin'd scenes repair, And blasted Nature wears a joyous air. 280 Page 20She spreads her blest commission from above, Stamp'd with the sacred characters of love; She tears the banner stain'd with blood and tears, And, LIBERTY! thy shining standard rears! As the bright ensign's glory she displays, 285 See pale OPPRESSION faints beneath the blaze! The giant dies! no more his frown appals, The chain untouch'd, drops off; the fetter falls. Astonish'd echo tells the vocal shore, Oppression's fall'n, and Slavery is no more! 290 The dusky myriads crowd the sultry plain, 8 And hail that mercy long invok'd in vain. Victorious Pow'r! she bursts their two-fold bands, And FAITH and FREEDOM spring from Mercy's hands, FINIS.;view=fulltext 9 ...
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Tutor Answer

School: Rice University



Human Rights
Institutional Affiliation
1. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Known as the most vocal critic of the French Revolution, Edmund Burke also managed to
criticize the French Declaration of the rights of Man and citizens. His criticisms of the
document were portrayed in his book, Reflections on the Revolution in France. The book was
a best seller and led to the change of British's opinion on the French revolution. Burke was
known to many as the defender of natural rights. However, he found that the natural rights as
described under the France declaration of rights were not only dangerous but a bit extreme.
Despite his basic description of the natural rights, which were portrayed in the document,
his criticisms, focused more on the abstract rights that had been described in the declaration.
His objections o these rights relied on the natural-rights theory. He rejected the rights on the
basis that the rights had been established for political dominance, which would lead to the
establishment of the constitutional monarchy. Hence, the republic will not be under
democratic leadership (Edmund, 96-117). According to Burke, the natural rights were
supposed to be taken as sacred things. Therefore, the right ought to have been independent
and secured against a person who has power or authority or against chicane. That was the
only way that the rights would be preserved. To him, there was a difference between the right
to freedom and the right equality. Equality could not be achieved unless God would have
offered the right. The right to liberty, on the other hand, will be one of the rights, which
would be governed by the government. Hence, the rights in the document did not focus on
democracy but instead concentrated on imperialism (Burke, 96-117).


The document gave rise to an era of anarchy where the rights abstract rights in the France
declaration did not seek to provide the all the citizens with security or with liberty or with
proper or to give the freedom from oppression. Karl Marx presented a similar criticism, and
his criticisms of the rights portrayed in the Declaration of rights of man and citizen were
depicted in his book, On the Jewish Question. Marx beliefs about three rights, in particular,
the right to property, liberty and personal security were profoundly negative since he felt that
the rights only gave rise to egoistic desires, which would be used by individuals who were
greedy (Marx, 1-14).
His views on the French declaration focused on a person in the civil society will be one
who will focus on capitalism, acquiring profit from other individuals in the market as they
continue with business. Hence, the rights, which had been listed in the document, would be
compatible, but the compatibility would only last for a given period and would rely on the
economic system and the social organization (Marx, 1-14...

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