Poster Presentation

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Present your research proposal poster. Ground students must complete a poster to present. Online students must complete an 8- to 10-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation. Both modalities must include the following: •Abstract, including the research question •Prior research: literature review •Purpose •Methods •Expected conclusions •References I have attached all of my previous assignments to help with the construction of the presentation.

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Setting Up Your Research PSYCH/665 Version 3 University of Phoenix Material Setting Up Your Research Respond to the following exercises from Chapter One of The Literature Review in 150 to 200 words each. For the Additional Question, record the research and null hypotheses for your project. • Exercise 1.1: Discovering the Subject of Your Interest or Issue of Inquiry What is your personal interest or issue? I am personally interested in the causes and effects of bullying in grade school students. It would be interesting to find out what life events cause someone to bully others, and how bullying effects those on the receiving end of it. What are the component parts of this interest? Some of the components of this topic are: the effects that bullying has on others, to include the bully; the life events that cause someone to become a bully; how this epidemic can be aided in the future; and attempts that have been made in the past to stop bullying in our schools. Why did you become curious about this question? I became interested in this topic because the epidemic of bullying has been around since the beginning of time, and has plagued our schools by victimizing weaker students. The interesting facet of bullying is that no one just becomes a bully without external life events happening to the bully, i.e. issues at home or with parents. It would be interesting to not only find a solution to end bullying, but to find the cause behind bullying. • Exercise 1.2: Understanding the Personal Viewpoint 1.) My previous knowledge about is topic comes from my early years in grade school where I was both the bully and the bullied. I know what caused my to be a bully, and how it felt to be bullied. 2.) My personal experience comes from being a bully, and being bullied when I was much younger. I have been both the victim and the victimizer. 3.) I personally have no biases about this topic, havingbeenon both sides of it, but I do believe that there is a major, underlying cause for the epidemic of bullying – home life, depression, self-esteem, etc. 4.) My conclusions about bullying stem from conducting previous research in my undergraduate study. My research from my undergraduate study was verylimited, which would lead me to continue this study, and uncover more truth behind this matter. 5.) I will eliminate personal biases, opinipons, and previous conclusions by uncovering new research about my topic – it has been 6-years since I completed my undergraduate study. Copyright © 2015, 2014 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. 1 Setting Up Your Research PSYCH/665 Version 3 • Exercise 1.3: Selecting the Focus of Your Study 1.) The focus of this study focuses on a few facets. This study will not only identify what causes bullying, but will also seek to identify how bullying effects those that are victimized, as well as those that victimize. Another facet of this study will identify how bullying can be eradicated in the future. This topic is so interesting because there are many causes for bullying, and the epidemic not only effects the victim, but also effects the bully. 2.) For this study, I will be looking at groups, more-specifically, groups of kids in local, grade schools. I feel like better research can be conducted looking at kids in school settings because young kids are more impressionable; a better sample can be taken from schools, and makes for a better study, rather than just studying a few-individuals. 3.) This study will specifically focus on young kids at the grade school level. Local public and private schools will be used for this study. • Exercise 1.5: Developing Your Interest Statement 1.) The interest of this study is the causes and effects of bullying, and how bullying can be eradicated in the future. Bullying has been a wide-spread epidemic since the eginning of time, and has plagued our local grade schools. Many children are subject to bullying every year. Kids that bully often suffer from issues relating to self-esteem, and external factors that involve home life, abusive parents or peers, poor economic standing, etc. The effects of bullying are harmful, not only to the victim, but to the victimizer as well. This study will take a great interest in finding out how one becomes a bully, the effects of bullying, and how bullying can be stopped. 2.) The interest of this study is the causes and effects of bullying, and how bullying can be eradicated in the future. Bullying has been a wide-spread epidemic since the eginning of time, and has plagued our local grade schools. Many children are subject to bullying every year. Kids that bully often suffer from issues relating to self-esteem, and external factors that involve home life, abusive parents or peers, poor economic standing, etc. The effects of bullying are harmful, not only to the victim, but to the victimizer as well. Copyright © 2015, 2014 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. 2 Setting Up Your Research PSYCH/665 Version 3 3.) Bullying has been an issue for a long time, especially on our youth in grade schools. Everyone is a victim in bullying, not just the person on the receiving end.The interest of this study is how bullying may have an adverse effecto nthose that are bullied, and those that do the bullying. Additional Question: What are your research and null hypotheses? Research hypothesis: Bullying has an adverse effect on both the bully and the victim of bullying. Null hypothesis: Bullying does not have an adverse effect on either the bully or the victim of bullying. Copyright © 2015, 2014 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. 3 Assessment Worksheet PSYCH/665 Version 3 University of Phoenix Material Assessment Worksheet Using the Mental Measurements Yearbook, identify three measures of the constructs you are studying for your research question 1. What is your research question? Are there long-term physical and psychological effects of bullying on grade school students? 2. Write a testable hypothesis for your research question. There are long-term physical and psychological effects of bullying on grade school students. 3. What constructs is your research question investigating? 1.) The long-term effects of bullying on grade school students (victim). So, you’re fishing for all of them or will your research look at specific effects? 2.) The long-term effects of bullying on the perpetrator. Define the psychological and physical effects you believe will exist. These are your constructs (variables being measured). 3.) What causes the perpetrator to bully in the first place? This is not addressed in your research; it is beyond the scope of your research. 4. Using the Mental Measurements Yearbook, provide the following information for three measures of the constructs: a. What is the test? Include the name and authors. Youth Risk and Resiliance Inventory created by Robert P. Brady this is one measure. You need 3. b. How is the test used? Include the target population, how the test is administered, and what information it provides. “The Youth Risk and Resilience Inventory (YRRI) is a 54-item, self-report screening measure designed for use with school-aged children 10 to 17 years of age. The YRRI is intended to help identify the presence of a variety of risk (e.g., bullying, violence, and victimization) and emotional stress factors across different situations including home, school, and community. In addition, resilience or protective factors are assessed by the YRRI, including such things as goal setting and supportive relationships” (Brady, year, p. #). Copyright © 2015, 2014 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. 1 Assessment Worksheet PSYCH/665 Version 3 Quotes of this length require a hanging indent and specific page or paragraph number of original location. c. What is known about the test’s psychometric properties, such as reliability and validity? Scales of internal consistency were used to measure the reliability and validity of the tool, along with standard errors of measurement. It was reported that the reliability and validity of the tool fell within the acceptable range. d. Why would the test be useful for your study? This test would be acceptable for this study because the self-reported information is being received from school aged children in local, public, and private schools. The information from the self-reports examine psychological stress, and resilience of students of all ages, cultures, backgrounds, and ethnicities, and how they handle being bullied. Brady, R. P. (2006). Youth Risk and Resilience Inventory. Copyright © 2015, 2014 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. 2 Annotated Bibliography Annotated Bibliography Teasley, M. L., & Nevarez, L. (2016). Awareness, Prevention, and Intervention for Elementary School Bullying: The Need for Social Responsibility. Children & Schools, 38(2), 67-69. doi:10.1093/cs/cdw011 The author of this work reflects not only on the causes of bullying, attributing that bullying may stem from certain cognitive malfunction, but also examines the Annotated Bibliography possible affects of bullying from childhood to adulthood, citing that future stress, social maladjustment, and abusive relationships could stem from past abuse. Wang, C., Wang, W., Zheng, L., & Atwal, K. (2016). Bullying Prevention as a Social Justice Issue: Implications with Asian American Elementary School Students. School Psychology Forum, 10(3), 251-264. In this article, a local elementary school population in Southern California is studied for the potential causes for bullying. In specific, the Asian population of the highly-diverse population was studied, and it was found that this population was not bullied any more than any other diverse group, but the causes for the bullying against this population was due to discriminatory factors such as the groups lack of desire to participate in sporting events, or how the group stood out in academics. Gant Bradley, H. (2014, May 1). Teachers Creating Safe School Environments: Prevention of Elementary Student-to-Student Bullying. Online Submission, This article discusses the awareness of bullying in local public schools, and how in previous times, teachers were either too afraid, or did not know how to effectively address the issue of bullying in their classrooms. This article also examines several strategies on how to combat the epidemic of bullying. Annotated Bibliography Midgett, A., & Doumas, D. M. (2016). Training Elementary School Students to Intervene as Peer-Advocates to Stop Bullying at School: A Pilot Study. Journal Of Creativity In Mental Health, 11(3-4), 353-365. doi:10.1080/15401383.2016.1164645 This study introduced a pilot program, in which students from a public elementary school are trained in bully awareness. In the awareness training, students observe a 75-minute video on what bullying is and looks like, and then serve as student peers and advocates for those who are being victimized. 1 Figure 1 My Personal Research Questiong Are you looking for Differences Between groups? No, the research I am conducting revolves around whether bullying in grade school students has long-term effects on both the bully, and the victim of the bullying. Are you studying events that occurred in the Past? Are you studying events that primarily occurred in the present? Are the participants preassigned to the groups? Are you studying the relationship between variables (but not the effectsof one or the other)? Yes! I am looking at the relationship between bullying, and the long-term effects it has on both the bully, and the victim of bullying. Quasi-experimental Historical Research Descriptive Research Correlational Research Time to go back and reconcider the question being asked. My Research question is considered a Correlational Research Question. It is looking for relationships between variables: bullying vs. the long-terms effects of bullying. True Experimental 2 References Salkind, N. J. (2012). Exploring research (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Running Head: LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF BULLYING Introduction The act of bullying is a social ill that has been linked to numerous negative outcomes which include, but not limited to substance abuse, psychopathology, and in some in some extreme cases, suicide. It involves the unwanted, and aggressive behaviour mainly among 1 LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF BULLYING 2 students in schools, and other social confines which mainly involve a power imbalance in which some consider themselves powerful and superior to others. For a behaviour to be considered bullying, there has to exist an imbalance of power and repetition. Bullies often use their power such as information on the victim, physical prowess, and fame to harm the victims. Secondly, the act of bullying is repetitive in nature, and it mostly involves the same persons in different encounters, with the bully maintaining their power over the victim in whatever means they find necessary. Background of study The origin of bullying is closely attached to survival instincts. Human beings have a natural desire to survive caused by intense competition for limited resources on Earth, and as a result, people desire to outdo others, and exert their power over resources. This drive is carried over into educational and social facets. The unfortunate belief driven by the U.S. Government that success, and wealth go hand-in-hand has bred a society in which bullying is perceived as a survival mechanism at a very early age (Donegan, 2012). Students in the American educational system adopt quite unacceptable ways to get ahead, and gain a competitive advantage in a complicated social and academic environment that classify grades in schools. Tactics like pressuring other students for solutions to assignments with a view to attaining a good grade, amount to bullying. The danger in such tactics is that once the bully discovers their effectiveness they easily become a habit and a way of life. The advancement of human civilization has led to progress in technological innovation, with the Internet at the center of it all. Human socialization, and engagement have changed completely. Despite the great steps that technology has enabled people to make, it has also paved LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF BULLYING 3 way for other ill-fated forms of behaviours that have become rampant. Among these social transgressions is the evolution of the traditional face-to-face form of bullying to cyber-bullying, which though similar to the former, there are significant differences; the latter allows the bully to maintain anonymity behind a computer screen (Hay, Meldrum, & Mann, 2010). Problem Statement The question in this study is as to whether there are long-term effects of bullying? and if there is, what happens to the victims later in life? I have developed the hypothesis: bullying has long-term effects on the bully and the victim of bullying. The alternative hypothesis of my research is: bullying does not have long-term effects on the bully nor the victim. Purpose of the study The research question in mind is: does the act of bullying convey long-term effects on both the bully and the victims of bullying? Victims most likely drop out of school due to mental, and drug problems, depression and anxiety, increased feelings of grief while bullies most likely suffer from the development of violent behavior, alcohol abuse, early sexual activities, crime and domestic violence. Importance and scope of study This is probably the first study trying to establish the long-term effects of childhood bullying with reference to the American society. However, I have not found any research that has carried out a qualitative research on the long-term effects of individuals who were bullied, or LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF BULLYING 4 used to be bullied during their childhood years. The scope of this study will be based on cases recorded in America, either from bullying-related articles, websites, and face-to-face engagements with willing respondents. Ethical Considerations (limitations) My responsibility will be to ensure that the respondent clearly understands the potential risks involved in the process and the methods to be used. Direct consent is most reliable as there is contact between the primary source of information and myself. The requirements by the APA ethical standards guideline emphasize on the need for capacity, voluntariness, and information for the research to take place (Ponterotto, 2017). Unfortunately, this may not be the case with all of my respondents because consent is rarely a permanent thing in research, and thus a respondent may withdraw from the process along with understanding and information; this may lead to erroneous information. Exposure of the information that I gather from victims of bullying has potential ethical issues attached, especially in the event that the source has not given the appropriate consent (American Psychological Association, 2016). The code of ethics requires all professionals to maintain the highest standards in obtaining, and storing any information obtained from the respondent through whatever media. The extent of confidentiality may be legally regulated and in my capacity as a professional. Literature Review This study focuses on literature by different scholars that focus on the long-term effects that bullying has on the bully and the victim. The researcher conducted an empirical review of existing research by other scholars, focusing on those that focused on the causes of bullying and LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF BULLYING 5 the signals of those effects in adulthood. Previous research on the topic has found that both parties carry the consequences of bullying, that is, the bully and the victim. Studies also prove an existence of high risks of mental pathology, and other problems during this age and into adulthood. A report by the American Psychological Association (2016) in their annual conference in 2010, poised that both the victim, and the bully stood a higher risk of anxiety, depression, drug abuse and hostility. Teasley & Nevarez (2016) say that prevalence of bullying in elementary school is twice that in secondary schools. In addition, they point out the increase in global awareness, and research regarding bullying in elementary school. In relation to the objectives of this research, their study talks of the pervasiveness of bullying in elementary schools, and the effects it has on the school environment. The book also points out the efforts made by many states, and local schools to enact regulations that make it mandatory for the school administrators, teachers, and other staff to undergo formal training on how to respond to safety threats in these schools. The government, via the Department of Education, perceives bullying in schools as a form of harassment and a violation of the 1964 Civil Rights Act (Teasley & Nevarez, 2016). According to Wang et.al (2016), students of Asian descent in a Southern California elementary school after being researched for bullying cases, were found not to be bullied any more than the other minority groups. However, they found out that this group of the population was mainly bullied because of discriminatory factors such as their outstanding positions in academics, and their general lack of interest in sporting activities. Gant (2014) in his research, discusses the awareness of bullying in local public schools, and how in previous times, teachers were either too afraid, or did not know how to effectively address the issue of bullying in their classrooms. This article also examines several strategies on how to combat the epidemic of LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF BULLYING 6 bullying. Midget & Doumas (2016,) in their study, conduct a training in which elementary school students watch a clip on bullying, and then record the reaction from the kids. This review of literature proves that the existing body of literature does not cover the long-term effects of bullying on the bully and the respondent. Research Methodology: sample, procedure and design The methodology used in this study is of qualitative psychology, which is often perceived to be naturalistic. The main objective of this type of study is to determine behaviour from the participant’s perspective. This study used primary data collected from interviews with participants both previous bullies and victims. The sampling was randomized, and the procedure included conducting oral interviews, use of questionnaires, ethnography, and observing the respondent. The size of the sample was initially planned to be 100 individuals, but the number would be adjusted upwards based on the results gathered. The researcher used conversation, historical, and discourse analysis to determine the relationship between the effects of bullying on the subjects during childhood and signs of the same behaviors in their adulthood. Expected results Based on my hypothesis, this study’s primary objective is to establish whether there are long-term effects of bullying on the bully and the victim. The secondary objective of my exploration will be to resolve the long-term effects of bullying and outline them. The researcher expects that the analysis conducted will indicate the presence of the effects of bullying on the respondents and thus accept the null hypothesis. Conclusion LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF BULLYING 7 The act has been a part of the American society since the country was founded. As a product of the capitalist system of economy, it has been a relevant phenomenon in the society. The problem has since expanded, and gone off control limits with the birth of technological revolution, which has effectively bred cyber-bullying. Despite school playing an important role in America, experiences such as bullying have a negative bearing on victims’ lives, and they may have to live with the consequences their entire lives (Donegan, 2012). This study concluded that the effects of bullying are long-term, and they affect both the bully and the victim, therefore, I accepted the null hypothesis, and rejected the alternative hypothesis. References American Psychological Association. (2016). Revision of Ethical Standard 3.04 of the" Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct"(2002, as amended 2010). The American Psychologist, 71(9), 900. Donegan, R. (2012). Bullying and cyberbullying: History, statistics, law, prevention and analysis. The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications, 3(1), 33-42. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF BULLYING 8 Hay, C., Meldrum, R., & Mann, K. (2010). Traditional bullying, cyberbullying, and deviance: A general strain theory approach. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 26(2), 130147. Midgett, A., &Doumas, D. M. (2016). Training Elementary School Students to Intervene as Peer-Advocates to Stop Bullying at School: A Pilot Study. Journal Of Creativity In Mental Health, 11(3-4), 353-365. doi:10.1080/15401383.2016.1164645. Ponterotto, J. G. (2017). Ethical and legal considerations in psychobiography. American Psychologist, 72(5), 446. Teasley, M. L., & Nevarez, L. (2016). Awareness, Prevention, and Intervention for Elementary School Bullying: The Need for Social Responsibility. Children & Schools, 38(2), 67-69. Wang, C., Wang, W., Zheng, L., & Atwal, K. (2016). Bullying Prevention as a Social Justice Issue: Implications for Asian American Elementary School Students. School Psychology Forum, 10(3), 251-264.
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Attached.

Long-term effects of bullying
I.
II.

Abstract
Research question

III.

Objectives

IV.

Literature review

V.

Purpose of study

VI.

Methods of study

VII.

Expected results


LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF BULLYING
Abstract

Purpose of the study

Bullying is a social act that is associated with

Bullying victims suffer numerous negative effects such as dropping out

immense negative outcomes, such as suicidal
thoughts, drug abuse, and both emotional and
psychological torture. Too often, bullying
encompasses aggressive and unwanted
behaviors among students as well as in societal
imbalance between the superior and inferior.
Bullies often utilize power over their victims,
and thus, such an imbalance of power is
referred as bullying. While other long-effects of
victims of bullying include but not limited to
anxiety, depression, solitude, and mental
problems, bullies suffer from substance abuse,
sexual activities, and dropping out of school.
The study aims at investigating the long-term
effects of bullying on both victims and bullies.
This will help in answering the research
question, does the act of bullying convey longterm effects on both the bully and the victims of
bullying?

Research Question
The research question is: does the act of
bullying convey long-term effects on both the
bully and the victims of bullying?
The testable hypothesis in this research will be:
There are long-term physical and
psychological effects of bullying on grade
school students.

Research Objectives
 To investigate the long-term effects of bullying on
grade school bullying victims
 To investigate the long-term effects of bullying on
perpetrators

Literature Review
The past research on the long term effects of
bullying has revealed that bullying has a negative
impact on both the victims and the perpetrators.
Besides, evidence support that there exist a high
risk of mental problems at the development stage as
well as in adulthood. In a report released by the
American Psychological Association (2016), both
the bully and the victim are susceptible to a higher
degree of depression, anxiety, aggressiveness, and
substance abuse. Scholars such as Teasley and...


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