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EXHIBIT Comparis the percei' Product Description . fasten ers of custon:: Benefit Proposition . . . . . Drives screws more quickly and with less effort than by hand needs . . . . . Casual consumer Light-duty professional Key Business Goals Primary Market Secondary Markets Assumptions Stakeholders . . . o . . A handheld, power-assisted device for installing threaded Product introduced in fourth quarter of 2O1O 50% gross margin 10% share of cordless screwdriver market by 2012 Do-it-yourself consumer Handheld Power-assisted Nickel-metal- rechargeable battery technology User Retailer Sales {orce Service center Production Legal department been identified correctly is whether customers like the team's first prototypes. Nevertheless, in our opinion, a structured method for gathering data from customers remains useful and can lower the inherent risk in developing a radically new product. Whether or not custom- ers are able to fully articulate their latent needs, interaction with customers in the target market will help the development team build a personal understanding of the user's environment and point of view. This information is always useful, even if it does not result in the identification ofevery need the new product will address. Step 1: Gather Raw Data from Customers Consistent with our basic philosophy of creating a high-quality information channel directly from the customer, gathering data involves contact with customers and experience with the use environment of the product. Three methods are commonly used: l. Interviews.. One or more development team members discusses needs with a single customer. Interviews are usually conducted in the customer's environment and typically last one to two hours. 2. Focus groups: A moderator facilitates a two-hour discussion with a group of 8 to 12 customers. Focus groups are typically conducted in a special room equipped with a two-way mirror allowing several members of the development team to observe the group. In most cases, the moderator is a professional market researcher, but a member of the development team sometimes moderates. The proceedings are usually video recorded. Participants are usually paid a modest fee ($50 to $100 each) for their attendance. The total cost ofa focus group, including rental ofthe room, participant fees, video recording, and refreshments, is about $5,000. In most U.S. cities, firms that recruit participants, moderate focus groups, and/or rent facilities are listed in directories under "Market Research." th:: revealed : focus gr..and inter., as a func:: the numb:: sessions. ). that a foc-, group las:. hours, ui:. intervier,. .. one hour. Source: Hauser. 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OB l?ql speeu pueq JOTUOISnC JO seEeluec.ted eq1 ;o uosueduro3 ?-s It8!HX3 LL spaaN Druo$n) Suu$t1uap1 7A Chapter 5 EX- Choosing Customers how many customers to interview in Griffin and Hauser also addressed the question of ordertorevealmostofthecustome,n..d,.Inonestudy,theyestimatedthatg0percentof In another study' revealed after 30 interviews' the customer needs for picnic coolers were were needs for a piece of office equipment they estimated that 98 percent of the customer practiin both focus groups and interviews' As a revealed after 25 t orr^ oi iutu collection fewer than 10 interviews is probably inadequate ca1 guideline for most p,oou"t,, conducting However, intetviews can be conducted sequentially and 50 interviews are probably too many. interviews' no new needs are revealed by additional and the process can be tetminated when the development team is. These guidelines apply to cases in which afdlssins a single market then customer n""d, f,o1n multiple distinct segments, Segment. If the team wishes to gather interviews in each segment' concept development the team may need to conduct 1-0 or more simusually collect data fiom plenty of customers teams consistirg or -o.. irran 10 people For example, if a l0-person team is divided ply by involving much of the teamln the process. the team conducts 30 interviews in total' into five pairs and each pair conducts 6 interviews, by interviewitg lead us.ers andlot extreme Needs can be ioentified more efficiently users.AccordingtovonHippel,leadusersarecustomerswhoexperienceneedsmonths from prodor years ahead of the ;;J"tily sidls market and stand to benefit substantially uctinnovations(vonHippel,1988).Thesecustomersareparticularlyusefulsourcesof because able ro articulate their emerging needs, data for two reasons: [iirr& ur" oft", and (2) they may of existing products, they have had to *t.rggi" ,irh ,t " inadequacies data coltheir needs. By focusing a portion of the have already inventeal"olutions to meet explicit although that' needs be able to iientify lection efforts on lead users, the team may forleadusers,arestilllatentforthemajorityofthemarket.Developingproductstomeet products' trends and to leapfrog competitive these latent needs allows a firm to anticipate special have who or ways users are those who use the product in unusual Extreme needs.Forexample,extremeusersofthescrewdrivermightbepeoplewhohavelimited professionally every day. Extreme users can vision or dexterity o,. irror. who use the tool acutely by the mainstream market, but help the team identifyr".a, irr"t may.be feliless areneverthelessimportantopportunitiesforcompetitiveadvantage.Forexample,entre. preneursamFarbercreatedtheoriginalGoodGripsvegetablepeelerinresponsetothe to be a reflection Her extreme needs proved needs of his wife who suffered from arthritis. kitchen tools among mainstream users. of the latent need fbr more ergonomic interview is complicated when several different The choice of which customers to ..the customef.,, For many products, one person (the groups of people can be considered person (the user) actually uses the product' buyer) makes the u"vlrg a""l*iot and another user ofthe product in all situations, and A good approach is io [a-ther data from the.end are clearly important' to gather in cases where other iyp"t "f customers and stakeholders data from these PeoPle as well' Acustomerselectionmatrixisusefulforplanningexplorationofbothmarketandcus,"g-"rit be listed on the left side of the matomer variety. Burchill suggests that market across the top (Burchill et a1'' 1997)' trix while the diff'erent types of customers ur" iirt"d in each cell of intended customer contacts is entered as shown in Exhibit S-S. ine number to indicate the dePth ofcoverage' Forindustrialandcommercialproducts,actuallylocatingcustomersisusuallyafiatIn developing such products within an ter of making telephone calls or sending e-mail. '(t6at '' I€Jeuo8 eluos or€ oroH ue urqlr, -1eur e ,(1 'elurl poltolle eq1 uI epmS eql ololdluoc otr lou 'speeu 'opm8 .&er^relul oq1 o} SurruroJuoc roruolsnc uo BlBp }u€trJodrur Jer{11?3 01 sr IBoS eqJ ^\er^Jelur lnoq€ ,(JJo,/( lou op 'uorpruJoJur Iluesn Surpr^oJd sr roruolsnc eqt JI .dlolJ[ aqt qU$ og . :sJeruolsnc qlr.,K uorlcBJotul e^rlceJle roJ sluq alcnpoJd er{l o} e]€Iu nod plno,r s}uerue^oJdr.ul }€r{A\ 1,lcnpoJd oql SurserlcJnd uerylr. 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Jo qo \ eqJ.JeJnlc€Jnueu relncrped e secuer8elle qlr^! esoql prs.&o1 sJeruolsnc Jo uortrceles oql 8ur$rq lnoq€ fgeJsc eq lsnru eql q8noqqe 'sreruolsnc go seru€u oprloJd uego u€c ocJoJ seles plorJ e 'ruJrJ Surlsrxe o1 IuBetr truereJJrp uo4ceu eql o1 a -e4ue 'e lnq 'trolr u€c sJSsr polrurl Ierceds 'strcnpo.r leelu ot tlctldxa -loc ele ,(eu ,(a esn€coq JO SeCJn -pord ru sqluoul euroJlx0 'lelol u pepl^p -UIIS SJS lueudol ueql 'slu Z t C OL e Z le>lJ€r.u (esn {1np-fneeq) 'sA\0IAr3 leuo!ssarord ,(11e1tuar elenbap (esn luenbel;) uosred Apuep; -pcerd 'lcelord 7 srelu9J a)!rue5 6L spaaN leluo sales sresn Peo'I srasn 0 I ro rel!eleu sselproc eql roJ xrJ]3ru uorlceles JOU/r OsUrOH JeArJp. d.eJcs (esn ;euogserro) Jerrrotrsnc oJ01( lu tprus l JO lusJJ UI 1Y\0I- 9-9Il8tHX:l Dwo$n) SuuStluapl 80 Chapter 5 . (Jse visual stimuli awl props. Bring a collection of existing and competitors' products, or even products that are tangentially related to the product under development. At the end of a session, the interviewers might even show some preliminary product concepts . . . . to get customers'early reactions to various approaches. Suppress preconceived hypotheses ubout the product technology. Frequently customers will make assumptions about the product concept they expect would meet their needs. In these situations, the interviewers should avoid biasing the discussion with assumptions about how the product will eventually be designed or produced. When customers mention specific technologies or product features, the interviewer should probe for the underlying need the customer believes the suggested solution would satisfy. Have the customer demonstrute the product and/or typical tasks reluted to the prodact, If the interview is conducted in the use environment, a demonstration is usually convenient and invariably reveals new information. Be alert for surprises antl the expression of latent needs. lf a customer mentions something surprising, pursue the lead with follow-up questions. Frequently, an unexpected line of questioning will reveal latent needs-important dimensions of the customers'needs that are neither fulfilled nor commonly articulated and understood. Wstch for nonverbal information The process described in the chapter is aimed at developing better physical products. Unfortunately, words are not always the best way to communicate needs related to the physical world. This is particularly true of needs involving the human dimensions of the product, such as comfort, image, or style. The development team must be constantly aware of the nonverbal messages provided by customers. What are their facial expressions? How do they hold competitors'products? Note that many of our suggested questions and guidelines assume that the customer has some familiarity with products similar to the new product under development. This is almost always true. For example, even before the first cordless screwdriver became available, people installed fasteners. Developing an understanding of customer needs as they relate to the general fastening task would still have been beneficial in developing the first cordless tool. Similarly, understanding the needs of customers using other types of cordless appliances, such as electric razors) would also have been useful. We can think of no product so revolutionary that there would be no analogous products or tasks from which the development team could learn. However, in gathering needs relating to truly revolutionary products with which customers have no experience, the interview questions should be focused on the task or situation in which the new product will be applied rather than on the product itself. Documenting Interactions with Customers Four methods are commonly used for documenting interactions with customers: Audio recording: Making an audio recording of the interview is very easy. Unfortunately, transcribing the recording into text is very time consuming, and hiring someone to do it can be expensive. Also, audio recording has the disadvantage of being intimidat- l. ing to some customers. 2. Notes: Handwritten notes are the most common method of documenting an interview. Designating one person as the primary notetaker allows the other person to concentrate on effective questioning. 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Jreql l -luolsrl sldacu eql lY 's1cnPl Dao$n) 8ut{luuapl 82 Chapter 5 Customer: Address: Bill Esposito 100 Memorial Drive Cambridge, MA 02'1 39 Telephone: Willing to do follow-up? 617 -864-127 4 lnterviewer(s): Date: Jonathan and Lisa 19 December 2010 uses: Type of user: Craftsman Model 43 Building maintenance Currently Yes lnterpreted Need Customer Statement Ouestion/Prompt I need Typical uses Likes-current tool sometimes do duct work; use sheet metal screws. The SD drives sheet metal screws into metal duct work. A lot of electrical; switch covers, outlets, fans, kitchen appliances. The SD can be used for screws on electrical devices. I like the pistol grip; it feels the best. The SD is comfoftable to griP. The SD tip retains the screw before it is driven. the magnetized tip. don't like it when the tip slips off The user can apply torque manually to the SD to drive a screw. (l) Can't drive screws into hard wood. The SD can drive screws into hard wood. would like to be able to lock it so I can Sometimes I Positive An alcr: Avoid EXHIBI The SD does not strip screw heads strip tough screws. An attachment to allow me to reach down skinny holes. The SD can access screws at the end of deep, narrow holes. A point so I can scrape paint off of screws. The SD allows the user to work with screws that have been Painted over Would be nice lf it could punch The SD can be used to create a Pilot pilot hole. Specific The SD tip remains aligned with the screw head without slipping. use it with a dead battery. I "What' Lnan I I ggested improvements he 5D drves screws laster by hand. the screw. Su l by hand. I like Dislikes-current tool to drive screws fast, faster than Guidel a hole. (!) 5-6 Customer data template filled in with sample customer statements and interpreted needs. SD is for screwdriver. (Note that this template represents apartlal list fi'om a single interview. A typical interview session may elicit more than 50 custotner statements and interpreted needs.) EXHIBIT an abbreviation Express the need in terms of what the product has to do, not iru terms of how it might do it. Customers often express their preferences by describing a solution concept or an implementation approach; however, the need statement should be expressed in terms independent of a particular technological solution. Express the need as speciJically as the raw daf4. Needs can be expressed at many different levels of detail. To avoid loss of information, express the need at the same level ofdetail as the raw data. (lse positive, not negstive, phrasing. Subsequent translation of a need into a product specification is easier if the need is expressed as a positive statement. This is not a rigid guideline, because sometimes positive phrasing is difficult and awkward' For example, one of the need statements in Exhibit 5-6 is "the screwdriver does not strip screw heads." This need is more naturally expressed in a negative form. 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It"t cases ofvery complex products, the secondary needs may be broken down into tertiary needs as well. The primary needs are the most general needs, while the secondary and tertiary needs express needs in more detail. Exhibit 5-8 shows the resulting hierarchical list of needs for the screwdriver example. For the screwdriver, there are 15 primary needs and 49 secondary needs. Note that two ofthe primary needs have no associated secondary needs. The procedure for organizhg lhe needs into a hierarchical list is intuitive, and many teams can successfully complete the task without detailed instructions. For completeness, we provide a step-by-step procedure here. This activity is best performed on a wall or a large table by a small group of team members. l. Print or write eqch need stqtement on a separate card or self-stick note, A priri macro can be easily written to print the need statements directly from the data template. A nice feature ofthis approach is that the need can be printed in a large font in the center of the card and then the original customer statement and other relevant information can be printed in a small font at the bottom ofthe card for easy reference. Four cards can be cut from a standard printed sheet. 2. Eliminate redundunt statements. Those cards expressing redundant need state- TT sc *Thnt *! Th ** ** needs they express. ** Ttrr fi The *** *** * ! * ** * * The The The the team can write a new need statement. **l 6. Review and edit the orgunized needs statements. There is no single correct arrangement of needs in a hierarchy. At this point, the team may wish to consider alternative groupings or labels and may engage another group to suggest alternative arrangements. The The The The The The The The The The The The The tu The *** *** there are fewer than 20 groups, then a two-level hierarchy is probably sufficient to organize the data. In this case, the group labels are primary needs and the group members are secondary needs. However, if there are more that 20 groups, the team may consider creating supergroups, and therefore a third level in the hierarchy. The process ofcreating supergroups is identical to the process of creating groups. As with the previous step, cluster groups according to similarity ofthe need they express and then create or select a supergroup label. These supergroup labels become the primary needs, the group labels become the secondary needs, and the members of the groups become tertiary needs. Thr The The 4. For euch group, choose a label. The label is itselfa statement ofneed that generalizes all ofthe needs in the group. It can be selected from one ofthe needs in the group, or 5. Consider creating supergroaps consisting of two to jlve groups. If t Thr n At this point, the team should attempt to create groups of roughly three to seven cards that express similar needs. The logic by which groups are created deserves special attention. Novice development teams often create groups according to a technological perspective, clustering needs relating to, for example, materials, packaging, or power. Or they create groups according to assumed physical components such as enclosure, bits, switch, and battery. Both of these approaches are dangerous. Recall that the goal ofthe process is to create a description ofthe needs of the customer. For this reason, the groupings should be consistent with the way customers think about their needs and not with the way the development team thinks about the product. The groups should correspond to needs customers would view as similar. In fact, some practitioners use a process in which customers actually organize the need statements. Thr Th ments can be stapled together and treated as a single card. Be careful to consolidate only those statements that are identical in meaning. 3. 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There are at least two approaches that can be taken to address this challenge. First, the team can label each need with the segment (and pos- . sibly the name) of the customer from whom the need was elicited. This way, differences in needs across segments can be observed directly. One practical visual technique for this labeling is to use different colors ofpaper for the cards on which the needs statements are written, with each color corresponding to a different market segment. The other approach to multiple market segments is to perform the clustering process separately fot each market segment. Using this approach, the team can observe differences both in the needs themselves and in the ways in which these needs are best organized. We recommend that the team adopt this parallel, independent approach when the segments are very different in their needs and when there is some doubt about the ability of the team to address the different segments with the same product. Cordl For ea is to yc Also iImpo-: on sca Step 4: Establish the Relative lmportance of the Needs The hierarchical list alone does not provide any information on the relative importance that customers place on different needs. Yet the development team will have to make trade-offs and allocate resources in designing the product. A sense of the relative importance of the various needs is essential to making these trade-offs correctly. Step 4 in the needs process establishes the relative importance of the customer needs identified in steps 1 through 3. The outcome of this step is a numerical importance weighting for a subset of the needs. There are two basic approaches to the task: (1) relying on the consensus of the team members based on their experience with customers, or (2) basing the importance assessment on further customer surveys. The obvious trade-off between the two approaches is cost and speed versus accuracy: the team can make an educated assessment of the relative importance of the needs in one meeting, while a customer suryey generally takes a minimum of two weeks. In most cases we believe the customer survey is important and worth the time required to complete it. Other development tasks, such as concept generation and analysis of competitive products, can begin before the relative importance surveys are complete. The team should at this point have developed a rapport with a group of customers. These same customers can be surveyed to rate the relative importance of the needs that have been identified. The survey can be done in person, by telephone, via the Internet, or by mail. Few customers will respond to a survey asking them to evaluate the importance of 100 needs, so fypically the team will work with only a subset of the needs. A practical limit on how many needs can be addressed in a customer survey is about 50. This limit is not too severe, however, because many of the needs are either obviously important (e.g., the screwdriver fits in a toolbox easily) or are easy to implement (e.g., the screwdriver prevents inadvertent switching off). The team can therefore limit the scope of the sulvey by querying customers only about needs that are likely to give rise to difficult technical trade-offs or costly features in the product design. Such needs would include the need to vary spee( the need to drive screws into hardwood, and the need to have the screwdriver emit a pleasant sound. Alternatively the team could develop a set of surveys to ask a vaiety of customers each about different subsets ofthe needs list. There are many survey designs for establishing the relative impofiance of customer needs. One good design is illustrated by the portion of the cordless screwdriver survey shown in Exhibit 5-9. In addition to asking for importance ratings, this EXHIBI Step esuoJJe tuoudo -lo^ep Suro8uo Jno ur slu€drcrtrJ€d pooS eq plno,& 01 o{ods e \ s.reruolsnc eql Jo qcrrll.\ es.(e^Jns Jo s^rer^Jolur dn-molog ur ens;nd pFoqs ezr u(rmbur go seers eJeql orv asJoruolsno 1e8re1 ;no go spoeu tuelel oql e;n1dec 01 repJo ur slcnpo.ld Surlsrxe o1 (po pelBIoJ speeu puo,(eq oes o1 elq€ o.& oJv elerJ€ru 1e3re1 mo ur sroruolsncJo sed,Q luepodurr oqlJo IIe qlr^r polcerelur e,r e.{€H :epnlcur 1se o1 suo4senb oruos 'sroruolsnc qlr.AA uorlcerolur s;noq ,{ueru qSnorql pedole,r.ep s€q IUeo} eq} uorllnlul Jo pue e8pel,rou,l eq1 qlr^\ tuetrsrsuoc ere ,(eql luq1 {3ue,L 01 s}lnser s1r e8ueyleqc trsruu lu€ol er{J 'ecuercs }cexe u€ lou sr 1l pe;n1cru1s ,(IpJesn oq uec speou Jeruo}snc Surr(3r1uepr 3o sseco.ld ogl olq1yssecord eqt pue sllnsoJ eql uo trcogoJ 01 sr porlleur .ql u1 Oelsleug eql sserord eql pue sllnseu eql uo paEau :g dols srql 'sSutlt ssolproc a e^lleloJ e -Jrp trnoqB -€ttlellv'l e^lrp o1 p i semlee3 sJeluolsn lue}Jo^pet JeAUp1\\eJ 'eJe^os oc ,^eoq uo l 'speeu 6 [\ec'lleul uooQ eAEl 'letu eq o1 1r lcedxe ppozvr .(eq1 i1r .,(q pelrcxe pesrrd.ms ro eq 10u plno,&\ sreruotsnc '.lBcrlrJc eJo./Y\ poou eJr esn€ceq sl slqJ'speou osle oft spoou tuel?l I€crlrrc ou l€ql eloN.i ,(g pel0uep speeu luelBl oql pue ]usruotrBls poou qc€o otr lxou s.* Jo .requnu eql ,(q pel0uep s8urler ecuegodrur ogtr qrrd\ 'u1ep ,(e,r,rns oql ol Burprocc€ peler oJE g-g llqFlxg ur spoou .slueluelBls oqJ'elep ecuelrodurr erl] ezr.rsluluns ol posn oq u?c g 01 elecs eurBs er{J I Jo poeu eq1 o1 Surlq8re,u ecuepodrur uu u8rsse 01 pesn oq ueql uuc sesuodser eq1 ,(ro8elec rlcee ur sesuodser Joqrunu eqt .{q lo prepuels 'uorlera.ep eql ,tq ,u€eLU eqtr ,{q :s.,fu,1r Jo peeu qceo 3o ,(1errea. e ur pozrJetrourerlc oq uec JoJ sesuodser ,(e,trns eql trueluolBls 'spoou ,!+puept luuol eql dleq o1 pesn oq uec uorl€ruJoJul SFIJ luel€l o1 luepuodse; oqr s{sr (e,trns 'pelcedxeun;o enbrun or? leql spoou eql &lluepr .(prcrldxe eserlJ'sl; '0131( srs,(1euu orurl oql JO IUnUI -rodtut o puB lsor uo luelu -rueul IUl 'spoeu 0 'g q8nor ssecord eql Jo o '(1earcd),(e.r.:ns ecuel.rodrur eldruexg 6-9 IlglHXf sJo-epel ]eql ecu 'quol os puv tr tr tr tr 'asn ur uoLlM punos lueseeld e seq 'Merf,s e 6ururnl elrqnn rasn eq] i{q pellotluot eq uec peeds 'pooMpJBLl olut sMat)s e^up uetr 'esn Ineaq 1o s.rnoq lerones Joj remod surelureur ra^r.lpMarrs I l"fi sr ernleej aql ]eLl] g aqf uo no{ 1 rq6u eql o} xoq eLl} 6urpeq: {q elerrpur osly ;,il ll ; :i :l : [ : spaaN : purLr.r e eql sseJl luereJIl lsql pu3 speeu a qc€o : .t; 'rlessarau st ]nq,aneq o] oolu eq plnoM elnleal ]ou ]ou plnoM llnq ,luepodr-ur lou sr arnleaj reprsuof lou plnoM | .elqeJrsopun sr elnleal 6urneq pnpord o] L ]o elef,s elnleo] jo aoueyodr,u; 1ee1 :#lii;:,,fJil&:t*'ii# i ifi :;;i;*t I ol L jo elets oqI ra^upMelrs oqI .ta^t_tpMoJts oq_L JoAupMaJts 'pe1:edxaun roTpue,6urloxe 'enbrun sr arnlee, jr xoq )troLll 'pelladxaun roTpue '6ur1rcxa 'enbtun ;i 'trr 'ornleorr srr.l] LllrM ornleo] all] lueuodr-ut Mo9 Jo qceordd eJ€ slu .Z srql JoJ .L :e1ets 6urlrlro11o1 aq] esn oseold .noX o1 sr e uo elerrpur eseeld 'sernleej re^r-rpmerrs ssa;pror-6ura,ro11o1 jL Lltree rol "r.ll {en.rn5 ra^Up/nor)S sselpro) Lg s0cueJa -sod pu ue>lBl e oml Jo nlaoonS 8ut,fituap1 88 Chaptel 5 What do we know now that we didn't know when we started? Are we surprised by any ofthe needs? Did we involve everyone within our own organization who needs to deeply understand customer needs? How might we improve the process in future efforts? Summary Identifying customer needs is an integral part of the concept development phase of the product development process. The resulting customer needs are used to guide the team in establishing product specifications, generating product concepts, and selecting a product concept for further development. . The process of identifying customer needs includes five steps: 1. Gather raw data from customers, 2. Interpret the raw data in terms of customer needs' 3. Organize the needs into a hierarchy. 4. Establish the relative importance of the needs. 5. Reflect on the results and the process. . . , . Creating a high-quality information channel from customers to the product developers ensures that those who directly control the details of the product, including the product designers, fully understand the needs of the customer. Lead users are a good source of customer needs because they experience new needs months or years ahead of most customers and because they stand to benefit substantially from new product innovations. Furthermore, they are frequently able to articulate their needs more clearly than typical customers. Extreme users have special needs which may reflect latent needs among mainstream users. Latentneeds may be even more important than explicit needs in determining customer satisfaction. Latent needs are those that many customers recognize as important in a final product but do not or cannot articulate in advance. Customer needs should be expressed in terms of what the product has to do, not in terms of how the product might be implemented. Adherence to this principle leaves the development team with maximum flexibility to generate and select product concepts. . The key benefits of the method are: ensuring that the product is focused on customer needs and that no critical customer need is forgotten; developing a clear understanding among members of the development team of the needs of the customers in the target market; developing a fact base to be used in generating concepts, selecting a product concept, and establishing product specifications; and creatingar.archival record ofthe needs phase ofthe development process. References and Bibliography Many current resources are available on the Internet via u I rich-e p pi n g e r. n et www. Exercir
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Explanation & Answer

Attached.

Identifying Customer Needs
For Product Development
Institution Affiliation

Presented by:
Date:

Introduction
 The chapter offers a method for identifying customer needs whose
goals include
➢ Ensuring product focuses on customer needs
➢ Identifying hidden and explicit needs
➢ Providing a fact base to justify product specifications
➢ Create archival record of development process needs
➢ Ensure all customer needs are addressed

➢ Making the development team have a common customer needs
understanding

 Identifying customer needs is an integral part of a larger product development
project and is mostly related to:
➢ Concept generation
➢ Concept selection
➢ Competitive benchmarking
➢ Establishment of product specifications
 Customer needs activity is shown below in relation to these other development
activities

 To identify the customer needs a five-step method is used, which
includes:
I.

Gathering raw data from customers

II.

Interpreting raw data in terms of customer needs

III.

Organizing the needs into a hierarchy (primary, secondary and
tertiary)

IV. Establish relative importance of the needs
V.

Reflecting on the results of the process

 Development process prerequisites include:
❖ Specifying market opportunity

❖ Developing mission statement: Laying out project constraints and
objectives
 For the case of cordless screw driver, the mission statement is illustrated
below

Step 1. Gathering Raw Data From
Customers
 This involves contact with customers and experience with the environment in
which the product is used.
 The 3 methods used to gather data include:
a. Interviews: Dev...


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