The Israeli Lobby and Us diplomatic policy in the Middle East under Obama-Trump administations

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The Israeli Lobby and US diplomatic policy in the Middle East under Obama-Trump administrations - this is a topic for my master project. I need to write the first chapter where are 1. Obama and the Middle East and 2. Trump and the Middle East. I don't want to describe what did Obama and Trump for the Middle East, but I need to discuss their policy, similarities and differences, to research their policies towards Israel and this influence on the Middle East. I am looking for a tutor that will provide me for the whole my dissertation, but for now I just need first chapter. This chapter should be about 6000 words.

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Running head: OBAMA, TRUMP AND THE MIDDLE EAST

The Israeli Lobby and Us diplomatic policy in the Middle East under Obama-Trump
Administrations

Name
Institution

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OBAMA, TRUMP AND THE MIDDLE EAST

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Introduction
Prior to being elected as the United States president, Donald Trump asserted that his main
goal was to make America great again. His making “America First” talks were illustrious
throughout his campaign. He vowed to stand his ground once elected into the white house. Upon
his election and swearing in, Trump mainly used Middle East to shown both his support for
certain countries and his extreme disregard of those he considers enemies of the United States.
As such, Middle East stands as the balance and proving ground through which trump used to
make his intentions clear. Even before he was elected, he had vowed to impose rigorous
evaluation of immigrants from Islamic states (Davenport & Rubin, 2017). Upon his election, he
was not hesitant to ban travelling for various countries, although this embargo was lifted later on.
Trump has showed great support towards some countries such as Saudi Arabia and Israel, while
he has despised others including Iraq and Palestine. His policies are targeted to benefit those
countries he considers allies, with an inner aim of bringing them together so that they can fight
common enemies who support and finance terrorist groups (Protess, Davis & Act, 2017).
There has always been a hotly contested debate regarding milestones that politicians have
accomplished from the moment power is handed over to them. It is a norm that citizens compare
what a politician promised and what he or she have been able to deliver. Obama was primarily
elected to the office in January 2009. Notably, all eyes from all over the world were on him. He
declared publicly his stand on issues that were political through public speeches. The Presidents
government put it straight that its main plan was reviving its falling budget and provide health
services to its citizens and also reinforce public education not forgetting to deal with the climate
change (Davenport & Rubin, 2017). Obama though faced with some challenges enacted had the

OBAMA, TRUMP AND THE MIDDLE EAST

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following policies towards Middle East and Israel which had substantial influence on the Middle
Eastern countries.
Trump policies on the Middle East
Taking Oil Wells controlled by Iraq and Islamic State Extremists
Iraq is among the countries Trump despises most. For years, even before Trump
administration came to power, Iraq was considered among key enemies of the United States.
Trump has verbally showed interest in promoting policies that would take oil reserves from the
hands of the Iraq. Trump considers oil to be the main financial resource for the ISIS (Handley &
Limão, 2017). He further states that if the oil had been taken by the United States in the previous
decades, ISIS would not have been founded since there would have been no sufficient resources
to sustain the terrorist group. His interest in taking control of oil is not in Iraq only, but all areas
that are supposedly controlled by the Islamic State extremists. On top of preventing further
financing of the terrorists, trump asserts that the oil would help United States recover the trillions
of dollars utilized during the America’s war with Iran (Handley & Limão, 2017). Trump
acknowledges that taking the oil wells would play a pivotal role in reimbursing the United States
for their military commitments towards fighting terrorism in the Middle East. He argues that the
money used to fight Islamic State extremists and the thousands of lives lost would have been
better spent to engage in massive new infrastructure projects in the United States.
Energy Independent U.S
Trump has been vigilant to evacuate the United States as a business opportunity for the
Middle Eastern oil. The president asserts that the United States is in a position to be energy
independent if the necessary resources were aligned towards achieving this goal. Previously, the
united states have been using billions of dollars in purchasing oil from the Middle Eastern

OBAMA, TRUMP AND THE MIDDLE EAST

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markets (Davenport & Rubin, 2017). The United States imports unrefined petroleum and oil
based commodities from 88 unique nations. However, despite this huge number of diverse
countries, Trump has only expressly targeted the Middle Eastern markets. The US imports most
of its petroleum from Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) which is a 14
member group of countries mainly in the Middle East. Trump has strongly expressed the need to
stop purchasing oil from the OPE group (Chollet, Sullivan, Simes & Long, 2017). To achieve
this, he has incorporated the growth of new oil fields in the US. He states that by being energy
dependent, the United States will be able to stop importing petroleum and other energy related
products from OPEC cartel and any Middle East country that is unfriendly to United States’
advantage (Protess, Davis & Act, 2017). The US is slowly but steadily progressing on creating
its own energy and oil based commodities. It has also increased its unrefined oil generation and
this is expected to continue as more resources are directed towards the initiative.
Making Middle East Allies and using them against Middle East enemies
Trump has different attitudes towards different Middle East countries. According to
Chollet et al., (2017), with the power United States has over Middle East, Trump is utilizing the
opportunity to strength the friendship with his allies, and further convinces them to be against his
enemies. Most notable is Trumps convincement to Saudi Arabia and Israel to be against Iran,
Yemen and Palestine. Trump urged the two countries to battle an intermediary war in Yemen and
was able to convince them to do so (Chollet et al., 2017). Trump has also been able to convince
the two countries to be against Iran which is a major enemy to the United States. Trump despises
Palestine and has shown great detestation since he took office. He campaigned for Saudi Arabia
and Israel to impose sanctions and avoid any monetary aid. However, among all these countries,
Trump has been more aggressive towards Iraq. For instance, Trump had initially declined to re-

OBAMA, TRUMP AND THE MIDDLE EAST

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ensure the milestone bargain against Iran. The campaign was introduced to put a top to Iran’s
development of ballistic rocket programs and enriching uranium that could reach levels high
enough to make a nuclear bomb. Saudi Arabia and Israel immediately supported Trump’s
decision not to re-ensure the milestone. However, Trump re-ensured the milestone but promised
to keep a close watch on Iraq (Freedman, 2017).
Saudi Arabia Support
Donald trump has showed more supports towards Saudi Arabia compared to the other
surrounding Middle Eastern countries. On May 2017, Trump marked a US$350 billion arms deal
with Saudi Arabia making it the biggest arms bargain in American history. The arms exchange
included tanks, battle ships, rocket resistance frameworks, and in addition radar,
correspondences and cybersecurity innovation. The exchange was broadly observed as a balance
against the impact of Iran in the Middle Eastern (Freedman, 2017). Trump considered the move
as a noteworthy extension of the relationship between the two countries to foster security
relationships. The United States Secretary of State depicted the arrangement as memorable and
said that it would counter Iran. Trump further asked Saudi Arabia to end support of Islamic
States by fostering unity in the Middle East (Chollet et al., 2017). Iran’s supreme leader and
Yemen challenged this arms deals arrangement. Houthis additionally discharged a ballistic
rocket toward the Saudi Arabia capital Riyadh. However, the 350 billion dollars deal was later
accounted for that is comprised of "a group of letters of intrigue or plan, however not contracts."
However, although this deal is yet to be achieved, the United States has already done a deal
worth 500 million dollars of American weapons with the Saudi Arabia.

OBAMA, TRUMP AND THE MIDDLE EAST

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Support to Sunni Governments
Trump has aligned himself and supported the Sunni governments. However, it has been
noted that many Sunni governments are undemocratic and profoundly disagreeable with their
own citizens. This has indiscreetly offended Arabs and Muslims and mixed up another
showdown with Iran. In Syria, Trump clearly contradicted the Shiite-overwhelmed
administration of President Bashar Assad (Chollet et al., 2017). When speaking in Saudi Arabia,
Trump disclosed his support and despise for various countries. He openly specified Iran as an
enemy and a supporter of terrorists. He stated that Iran has energized the flames of partisan clash
and fear in the Middle East (Freedman, 2017). He further considered it a legislature that talks
transparently of mass murder, vowing the annihilation of Israel, demise to America, and destroy
for Middle East countries. He considered Iran to be a safe harbor of terrorists and called upon all
countries to cooperate and seclude Iran, deny it support and together find ways of stopping it
from financing terrorist groups (Handley & Limão, 2017). He called upon all the Sunni
governments to join hands and fight together against their enemies.
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)
Trump has been a supporter and member of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). This
immense support commenced following his visit to Saudi Arabia in May 2017. In June 2017,
Qatar was revoked its membership of GCC on basis of undermining regional security. Many
membership countries of GCC cut their diplomatic relationship with Qatar following the
membership revocation (Chollet et al., 2017). The first countries to cut their diplomatic ties
included United Arab Emirates, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. Due to Trumps support of the
GCC, and especially due to his growing relation with Saudi Arabia where he had visited 2
months before the revocation, he publicly supported the move. On a Tweet, Trump asserted that

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the pressure and sanctions put on Qatar were necessary to aid in fighting terrorism and foster
regional security. However, the United States Secretary of State was against Trump’s position on
the matter. The Trump’s position was further inconsistent with that of two of his senior
ambassadors and military officers (Ulrichsen, 2017). The US Secretary of State approached
Saudi Arabia and the other GCC members and volunteered to facilitate the issue. Further, the US
military expressed that it had no plans to change its stance on Qatar since it is a key security
partner with 10, 000 US troops stationed in Al-Udeid airbase, Qatar. Later, Trump reverted his
previous assertion and stated that Qatar should join hand with GCC members to foster security.
Relations with Palestine
Trump has shown an open disregard towards Palestine. This has been further shown by
his utterances and actions. In turn, trump has created a close bond with Israel, which is the main
enemy of Palestine. Trumps negative policy towards Palestine has been depicted in many ways.
For instance, Trump acknowledged that he regarded Jerusalem as the capital of Israel
irrespective of the ongoing Israeli-Pakistani and clashes on the land. Additionally, Trump does
not regard Palestine as a state (Freedman, 2017). Therefore, there is no United States ambassador
in Palestine. Only one ambassador has been designated in the regions, and is in Israel which he
considers to encompass Palestine as well. Rather than act as an intercessor between Israel and
Palestine, Trump has created a bond with Israel and disregarded Palestine.
Similarities between Obama’s and Trump’s Policies
While the Saudis may have respected Trump's rising to the administration, for Iranians,
his administration speaks to a continuation of Obama-time arrangement. Both Trump’s and
Obama’s administration have been against Iraq (Ulrichsen, 2017). Iran and world forces,

OBAMA, TRUMP AND THE MIDDLE EAST

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including the US, marked the JCPOA in 2015 following quite a while of strategic wrangling
amongst western and Iranian negotiators. The possible understanding saw Iran lessen the
quantity of discharges that were equipped for advancing Uranium to the levels required to create
an atomic weapon. In return, some US sanctions were lifted and solidified Iranian assets were
discharged (Freedman, 2017). The arrangement was generally observed as one of Obama's most
huge conciliatory accomplishments (Ulrichsen, 2017). In October, Trump declined to recertify
that Iran was in consistence with the understanding. However, later on, Trump agreed to recertify
that Iran was in agreement with the set milestone. This created a similarity between Obama’s and
Trump’s administration to use agreements to restrict the enrichment of uranium in Iran rather
than engage in sanctions and war.
During Obama’s administration, he was inclined towards doing arms deal with Saudi
Arabia. During his tenure in office, he sent the Secretary of State to Oman, where authorities
marked a Memorandum of Intent to offer the Omanis a $2.1 billion arms bargain, including the
conveyance of a THAAD rocket resistance system. During trump’s administration, arms deal
with the Saudi Arabia has resurfaced (Ulrichsen, 2017). The 350 billion dollars arms deal is the
biggest in American history and is expected to create millions of job opportunities in the United
States. The Trump arms deal involves military gadgets, guns, tanks and other weapons. This
clearly shows that both administrations has a liking towards Saudi Arabia especially in respect to
arms deals. During the Obama’s administration, the United Stated entered a deal with the Saudi
Arabia for a variant of the U.S. Naval force's Littoral Combat Ship. However, Trump’s
administration at first collapsed the deal. Later, trump administration embraced the deal and
announced it would offer Saudi Arabia those four boats for $6 billion. This shows the similarity
of both administrations’ policies towards arms dealing with Saudi Arabia (Ulrichsen, 2017).

OBAMA, TRUMP AND THE MIDDLE EAST

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Both Trump’s and Obama’s administration have been concerned importation of raw
petroleum from Middle East. Most of the petroleum is imported from Saudi Arabia. Both
administrations have been devising ways on how to utilize the energy sources in their countries
or from their neighbors. During Obama’s administration, he issues the initiative to increase the
importation of raw petroleum from Canada. This was to be achieved through the construction of
1, 179 mile Keystone XL pipeline (Ulrichsen, 2017). The pipeline would facilitate the supply of
raw petroleum supply to United States oil refineries from Canadian oilfields. The Trump’s
administration has also been in terms with the initiative. Trump flagged his want to assemble the
Keystone XL pipeline. This would enable him to achieve his policy of reducing oil imports from
OPEC. Additionally, due to the proximity of Canada to the United States, the cost of petroleum
products would reduce and the United States would drive closer to achieving the energy
independent status.
Obama and Trump said the same things on foreign policy. They both hold the view that
America should not be out there and the Europeans were termed as free riders by both (Indyk,
Lieberthal & O'Hanlon, 2012). Obama and Trump both showed that they could manage the
Russians and United States allies (Yarhi-Milo, 2018). Obama and Trump support the marriages
of the same gender. They support gays and argue that equal rights should be extended to them
and be treated like any other person. The two presidents are the first in the American history to
support and push for recognition of the same-sex couples. Both were of the idea that there should
be a freedom of expression on one’s sexual orientation even in the military.

OBAMA, TRUMP AND THE MIDDLE EAST

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Differences between Obama’s and Trump’s policies on Middle East

The Trump organization has taken an alternate position from the past Obama
organization on the issue of the Syrian Civil War. Obama’s administration was focused on
removing the Syrian president from power and lead to a formation of a democratic government.
However, under trump’s administration, UN Ambassador Nikki Haley and Secretary of State
Rex Tillerson have expressed that Trumps’ administration would not organize the expulsion of
Syrian President Bashar al-Assad from office. This is in accordance with Trumps position during
his presidential campaign on which he had similarly asserted that he would not directly involve
with the Syrian war. Trump had stated in an interview that his state of mind towards Syria and
Assad has changed in particular especially due to the assault made to the country during the war.
He changed the Obama administration choice by not finishing the proposed 2013 military
intercession against the Assad administration in Syria (Ulrichsen, 2017).

With regards to the Middle East, the Islamic Republic of Iran is the epicenter of a huge
number and clashes over the area. This is mainly due to the fact that Iran commands four Arab
capitals. Countering Iran's military would prompt ...


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