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I need help I need a research paper done, 3 pages, and all of the information is in the folder

Level Number 1 (Title) - Verdana, 14-point, bold, left aligned, capitalize only the first word, with 12-point before and after the paragraph.   Level Number 2 (Main Sections Heading)
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A Study on UAV Operating System Security and Future Research Challenges 2021 IEEE 11th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC) | 978-1-6654-1490-6/21/$31.00 ©2021 IEEE | DOI: 10.1109/CCWC51732.2021.9376151 Shahrear Iqbal Research Officer, National Research Council Canada Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada Abstract—The popularity of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) or more commonly known as Drones is increasing recently. UAVs have tremendous potential in various industries, e.g., military, agriculture, transportation, movie, supply chain, and surveillance. UAVs are also popular among hobbyists for photography, racing, etc. Despite the possibilities, many UAV related security incidents are reported nowadays. UAVs can be targeted by malicious parties and if compromised, life-threatening activities can be performed using them. As a result, governments around the world have started to regulate the use of UAVs. We believe that UAVs need an intelligent and automated defense mechanism to ensure the safety of humans, properties, and the UAVs themselves. A major component where we can incorporate the defense mechanism is the operating system. In this paper, we investigate the security of existing operating systems used in consumer and commercial UAVs. We then survey various security issues of UAV operating systems and possible solutions. Finally, we discuss several research challenges for developing a secure operating system for UAVs. Index Terms—Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Drone Security, Operating System Security, Embedded System Security. I. I NTRODUCTION An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is defined as a space traversing vehicle that flies without a human crew on board and that can be remotely controlled or can fly autonomously [1]. Recently, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones have become an area of intense interest as they can be used for many military and civilian applications including military attacks, state intelligence and surveillance, border security, communications relay, agriculture, and remote sensing. In addition, hobbyists and industries are continuously finding ways to use UAVs effectively [2], [3] revolutionizing many businesses and creating new opportunities. Like all new technologies, UAVs can be used maliciously and they can be targeted by malicious actors. The physical elements onboard a drone employ a flight controller with a network of sensors and actuators that communicate with the ground control system via a communication link. Accordingly, a UAV system is vulnerable to attacks that target either the cyber and/or physical elements, the wireless link, or a combination of multiple components [4]. There are already many reports of UAV related incidents [5]–[7] and it is likely to increase significantly in the recent future due to the 978-0-7381-4394-1/21/$31.00 ©2021 Crown industry growth and the “open sky” policy adopted by some countries [8]. Drones can also be a threat to privacy and human safety [9]. We do not know what to do if a drone equipped with cameras and microphones flies within our private airspace. It is almost impossible to identify the person operating a UAV. In fact, even if there are strict regulations, malicious users will use drones for illegal purposes. As a result, anti-drone technologies are also evolving and use techniques such as tracking, jamming, and hacking to destroy malicious drones. In addition to detect and disable malicious drones, we need technologies to protect drones from malicious external actors. Vulnerabilities exist in every system and drones are no exception. Cyber attacks on drones can pose significant safety risks to physical entities like large aircraft, airports, and human properties. If compromised, drones can cause a larger impact than a regular IT device. As a result, UAVs demand highly reliable software and strict regulatory compliance like the vehicle industry. One of the major components responsible for ensuring UAV security is the operating system. However, most UAVs still use a basic real-time scheduler or OS/firmware specifically tailored to the flight controller of the UAV. Research is being done to make UAVs more efficient, light-weight, and autonomous. As a result, a sophisticated operating system is needed for future UAVs. In this paper, we study existing operating systems used in open source and commercial UAVs. We then survey issues pertaining to the UAV operating system security and identify future research challenges that need immediate attention. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. In Section II, we describe the hardware and software architecture of UAVs to identify vulnerable components. Section III reviews operating systems used in popular UAVs and their security measures. Section IV discusses several UAV security issues with possible countermeasures. We describe future research challenges for UAV operating systems in Section V and conclude in Section VI. II. BACKGROUND Reg Austin [10] defines UAVs as systems comprising a number of subsystems, including the aircraft (often referred to as the UAV or drone), its payloads (the weight a UAV can carry), the Ground Control Station (GCS) (and, often, other remote stations), and communication subsystems. In 0759 Authorized licensed use limited to: Houston Christian University. Downloaded on March 30,2023 at 15:22:47 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. this section, we discuss different types of drones and their hardware, software, and communication architecture. a) VELOS UAV Helicopter b) Heliceo Fox4 Drone c) Parrot Disco FPV Drone Fig. 1. Different types of drones: a) single rotor, b) multirotor and c) fixed wing. A. Types of drones Three major types of drones are: single rotor, multirotor and fixed-wing. Single rotor drones have one large rotor and look similar to a traditional helicopter. They are not very common, however, they are built strong and have a longer flight time with heavy payload capacity. Multirotor drones are cheaper and they can be classified based on their number of rotors. The most common form is the quadcopters (4 rotors). Although multirotor drones are easy to control, they have limited flying time and payload capacity. Fixed-wing drones look like traditional airplanes and use fixed, static wings sometimes in combination with a rotor. They need more space for flying and landing and they are difficult to maneuver. They can fly at a higher altitude and have a longer flight time. However, they can not hover in the air. There are also hybrid systems that have the characteristics of both. Figure 1 shows these three types of drones. 1) Size and weight: UAVs are built in different sizes and they have different capabilities in terms of payload capacity, operating altitude, and range. Table I summarizes this classification [8]. TABLE I S IZE OF UAV S AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS [8] Category Nano Micro Mini Small Tactical Weight
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UAV Operating System Security

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Drones are used in the military, public safety, and healthcare. Their growing use has
raised security concerns. This study claims that UAVs need cyber security, physical security, and
an intelligent operating system with automatic defense measures. The report emphasizes that
UAVs are vulnerable to assaults owing to their tiny size and compact technology. To avoid
breaches, they need a strong security system. Drones are controlled by computer systems,
making cybersecurity a major UAV security issue. Cyberattacks can compromise drone data and
control and even shut down the machine. To counter such assaults, UAVs require good
UAV security includes physical and cybersecurity. Drones can be hijacked, stolen, or
damaged, the authors note. UAVs can lose costly equipment if their physical security is
compromised. Drones may also be weaponized, endangering public safety. To avoid such
attacks, physical security is essential.UAVs require a third layer of protection—an sophisticated
operating system with automatic defense. An intelligent operating system can identify and
respond to security risks, lowering attack risk. The operating system should automatically
respond to security risks. This may involve shutting down the system or taking precautions
against threats. The article examines physical and cyber UAV security and the necessity for
enhanced security. Given UAV utilization and changing security risks, the authors suggest that
present security solutions are insufficient. Thus, UAV-specific protection is needed.
Military, public safety, and healthcare sectors are progressively using UAVs. The report
defines UAVs as autonomous aerial vehicles. The study emphasizes the relevance of UAV
system sensors, cameras, and electronics.UAVs increase efficiency, security, and opportunity
across sectors. They have been employed in military operations for observation and
reconnaissance, public safety for search and rescue, and healthcare for medical supply transfer
and distant region monitoring (Iqbal, 2021). Malicious assaults against UAVs may be
devastating. Attacks on UAVs can destroy vital components and create mishaps injuring people
and property. Cyberattacks can compromise the UAV's operating system, letting attackers seize
control or steal data. Thus, UAVs must be secured against physical and cyber-attacks.
According to the research, UAVs need cyber security, physical security, and an intelligent
operating system with automatic defense measures. Firewalls, encryption, and IDSs should
protect cyberspace. Anti-tamper, anti-jamming, and critical component hardening are physical
security procedures. Intelligent operating systems should feature real-time protection
measures.UAV security is complicated by its small si...

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