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1 The four dominant ideas of The Enlightenment 2 The historical events in England and France that reinforced the need for Enlightenment thinking 3The reason Orgon’s power over his household in Tartuffe was absolute 4 The characters in Tartuffe who represent the idea of reason 5What happens in Tartuffe to bring the King (his agent) into the play 6 Why Candide is kicked out of the Baron’s family 7 The long line of people through which Pangloss traces his venereal disease in Candide 8 What historical figures Alexander Pope names to make his point in the Essay on Man. 9 The earlier work of literature Pope borrows his thesis from for Essay on Man 10 The creature Pope uses to show humans are blessed by God in not knowing what their futures will hold. 11 Why Enlightenment thinkers believed Reason could lead to happiness 12 What Enlightenment thinkers believed about new or trendy ideas 13 What Enlightenment thinkers believed about the universality of human nature 14 The type of satire in Tartuffe 15 The Deus ex Machina in Tartuffe 16 What religious attacks Moliere is making in Tartuffe 17 Orgon’s greatest weakness in Tartuffe 18 Why Candide said it was good he caught a venereal disease 19 The type of satire in Essay on Man 20 The definition of theodicy 21 The important thematic message in Candide provided by Jacques’ death 22 What Voltaire means by “cultivate your own garden” 23 What Alexander Pope means by “whatever is, is right” 24 There will also be one subjective essay question AND 5 quote identifications where you will be asked to identify the title and author of the work from which a quote is taken.
The Essay on Man Alexander Pope Formal elements of The Essay on Man 1. Poetry, specifically the heroic couplet Pope said poetry was the best form for the essay because the ideas thus written “strike the reader more strongly at first” and “are more easily retained by him afterwards.” Also, poetry’s conciseness makes the arguments more forceful and more graceful. 2. Satire – specifically Horatian satire Named after the classical Roman satirist, Horace The Horatian satirist presents a genial, amused, and witty look at humans and their flaws (unlike Juvenalian satire, which attacks human faults with contempt and anger) Pope’s Purpose (Thesis) in The Essay on Man To “vindicate the ways of God to Man” Pope believed we live in the absolute best of all possible worlds But people have historically questioned or blamed God for the disease, evil, and other disorder we see in the world Prior to Pope, Milton set out in Paradise Lost to “justify the ways of God to Man” In attempting to vindicate God, Pope is engaging in Theodicy Theodicy - The vindication of divine providence in relation to the existence of evil. The major question that prompts this type of argument is, if God is all good and all powerful, how come there is still evil in the world? Two approaches to theodicy One answer is that humans brought evil to the world – evil exists because humans chose for it to exist. The other answer has its roots in the Book of Job – we think something is evil, but that is just our inability to see or know the bigger picture (the entire universe) Pope adopts this second position The Essays “topic sentences” 1. Humans have limted vision of God’s universe and can only judge by what we can see within the system given to us. 2. Humanity is not imperfect, but perfectly suited to the place God has given us in creation. 3. In order to be happy with our lives, it is right that we are ignorant of our futures and are given, instead of full knowledge of our universe and lives, the ability to hope. 4. Misery is a result of the human pride that leads us to judge God 5. It is ridiculous to think we are the center of God’s creation, or the reason for that creation, and to question natural evil 6. It is unreasonable to complain against Providence 7. There are natural gradations of sensual and mental faculties (a hierarchy within humnity) 8. The universal order and these gradations in the entire visible world are important. 9. The desire to upset this order is a result of human pride. 10.Humans must accept their place in the order “Whatever is, is right” If we cannot really know or understand God’s way completely, what can we Know? “Know then thyself, presume not God to scan. The proper study of mankind is man”
Candide by Voltaire http://ub-dok.uni-trier.de/ausstellung/candide/Candide_Grafik.gif The Cast of Characters Some of the characters are types we can identify from other works of literature, and others embody ideas and philosophers of the time 1. Candide – interprets the world through the books he has read, and is chasing a fantasy of perfection (who does this remind us of?) 2. Pangloss – “the world is the best possible world” and “things will only get better” Pangloss embodies both Alexander Pope and his optimistic philosophy, and Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz. Leibniz was a German mathematician, theologian, and philosopher who applied mathematical formulas to theological issues. Said “good” can be calculated, and the operation arrives at the result that “God is good” 3. Cunegonde – the object of an eternal quest by a devotee (like whom?) 4. Cacambo – the devoted but doubting follower (like whom?) 5. Martin – embodies various religious positions. These included the Socinians, a Polish and Transylvanian sect with sceptical views on reason, and rejected the trinity and the divinity of Jesus. Another religion Martin echoes is Manicheism, which held that evil and good were equally powerful in the universe (a theology of dualism). 6. The Old woman – “A hundred times I wanted to kill myself, but always I loved life more.” What is the importance of this line in the story? 7. Jacques the Anabaptist – Anabaptists are Christians at the radical end of the Protestant Reformation- the word means “re-baptizers” because they did not accept the validity of infant baptism. The Amish, Mennonites, Quakers, current Baptists, are descendents of the Anabaptists. Jacques holds the key to our understanding Voltaire’s main message in the story Black Comedy • Definition - A type of comedy or satire that treats serious topics such as death, sickness, or mass murder humorously or satirically. • Black Comedy arrives at its humor through irony (rather than disgust or revulsion) • Voltaire’s position can be discerned is we look at the targets of his black comedy • The Jesuits (and most other organized religion) Pages 191, 205 How is El Dorado different? P 214 • Optimistic philosophies Pangloss • The History of Rasselas, by Samuel Johnson “To me,” said the princess, “the choice of life is become less important; I hope hereafter to think only on the choice of eternity.” • Candide – “We are destined, in the end, for another universe, said Candide; no doubt that is the one where everything is well. For in this one, it must be admitted, there is some reason to grieve over our physical and moral state.” DO WE READ THESE QUOTES AS SATIRE? IF NOT, WHAT ARE WE SUPPOSED TO THINK ABOUT THEM? Pascal’s Wager If you erroneously believe in God, you lose nothing (assuming that death is the absolute end), whereas if you correctly believe in God, you gain everything (eternal bliss). But if you correctly disbelieve in God, you gain nothing (death ends all), whereas if you erroneously disbelieve in God, you lose everything (eternal damnation). Quoted in http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/theism/ wager.html Why Doesn’t Voltaire bring Jacques back after he has drowned? What do the viewpoints of the dervish and the Turkish farmer at the end of the novel tell us? “We must cultivate our own gardens” Why? Clue- What happens to Candide at the end of Book one? What does he do after this? Is he every successful? The answer has do to with “garden.” Candide’s change in attitude FROM “there is a perfect happiness located somewhere else and life is about searching for it.” TO “we will only be happy when we accept that we live in a limited and imperfect world, and we do our best to “cultivate” the lives we are given.”
Lecture 1 – Introduction to the Enlightenment and Tartuffe The Enlightenment – so named because it describes the philosophic, rational, and scientific spirit of the age Alternative names for The Enlightenment period Neo-Classicism – (New Classics) – because this period attempted the recapture the spirit of ancient classical thinking and literature The Age of Reason – because Reason was the prevailing idea of the period The Augustan period – this name is primarily used when referring to English writers (Pope, Swift, Addison, Steele) who imitated the literature of the time of Roman Emperor Augustus (Virgil, Horace, Ovid) The Four Major Ideas of The Enlightenment • Reason Humans are limited and not capable of understanding all the truths of the universe. To accept this is to be REASONABLE. • Order There is an inherent order in all things, including the physical world and human nature. Hierarchies are part of the natural order. • Stability Nature is permanent and unchanging. Ancient people have the same basic nature as contemporary people. • The General or Universal Individualism or uniqueness are not valued in people. Standards of correct reason and taste are the same for all people. John Locke NOT this John Locke www.redzeppelin .org THIS John Locke gustavus.edu From An Essay Concerning Human Understanding • If by this inquiry into the nature of the understanding, I can discover the powers thereof; how far they reach; to what things they are in any degree proportionate; and where they fail us, I suppose it may be of use to prevail with the busy mind of man to be more cautious in meddling with things exceeding its comprehension; to stop when it is at the utmost extent of its tether; and to sit down in a quiet ignorance of those things which, upon examination, are found to be beyond the reach of our capacities. • Our business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our conduct. If we can find out those measures, whereby a rational creature, put in that state in which man is in this world, may and ought to govern his opinions, and actions depending thereon, we need not to be troubled that some other things escape our knowledge. Why the obsession with Reason and Order??? • Lots of War in Europe France – The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) Complicated, but the nutshell version is, German protestant princes from France, Sweden, England, Denmark, and other places were fighting against the Holy Roman Empire and the German Catholic nobility. England – Civil War and the Commonwealth Period (1642-1660) Charles I beheaded, a Commonwealth government takes over, and England is without a monarch www.pegc.us • So, both England and France experienced long periods of chaos • When the war in France and the Commonwealth Period in England came to an end, people were ready for order, and this need for order – based on REASON – is translated into the ideas of Enlightenment literature Politics and Culture during the Enlightenment faculty.ucc.edu France • Louis XIV – The Sun King – While there was a lot of disorder in his own court in the form of debauchery, Louix XIV was responsible for much of the neo-classical thinking and art of the Enlightenment – The French Academy of Sciences established – There is a shift in religious thinking from a spiritual or theological basis to a rational basis – John Locke – rights of natural man based on natural laws – Education became more attainable http://www.sil.si.edu/imagegalaxy/imageGalaxy_ enlarge.cfm?id_image=5355 England (including the full history that will set us up for Romanticism) www.britannica.com • The Restoration period (1660-1700) – Restoration of the monarchy. With the puritans no longer in control, the “reign of the flesh” set in. • Charles II returns from exile in France and takes the throne • Charles II was a Catholic King who concealed his religious sympathies for the sake of his protestant subject. The English were glad for his homecoming because a king meant they could have order, peace, and freedom again (stability). Charles had French companions and tastes, and his court was much like that of Louis XIV. He also insisted on the rules of French NeoClassical literature. England, cont. • The Royal Society is founded in 1662, with much the same purpose as the French Academy • The National Observatory is founded in Greenwhich www.ast.cam.ac.uk England, cont. • 1685 – James II (brother of Charles II) becomes king. He promoted Catholicism and the English began to worry about a future controlled by a succession of Catholic monarchs. James II was deposed during the Glorious Revolution in 1688 (glorious because it was swift and relatively non-violent), and he fled to France. • 1689 – William of Orange becomes king. He was married to Mary, the daughter of James II (the second college in America was named after this couple). William is a protestant, so the people relax a little. More England • 1702 – Queen Anne takes the throne. She is James II’s youngest daughter, and she will be the last Catholic monarch in Britain. The Act of Settlement in 1701 settled succession of the British crown on protestant descendents of the family – the House of Honover, a German protestant royal family. • From which we got: George I – 1714 George II – 1727 And George III – 1760-1820 (sometimes referred to in American history books as Crazy King George) • The American Revolution (and the French Revolution) occur during the reign of George III. The Enlightenment Period will begin to close with these revolutions. What Enlightenment ideas are in conflict with the ideas of these revolutions? Qualities of Enlightenment Literature • Emphasized powers of the mind • Looked to Roman classical authors as models of form and simplicity of style • Believed the purposes of literature were to delight and instruct • Contained attacks on metaphysics, abstraction, and the theoretical sciences • Rejected the whims of fashion What, for an Enlightenment thinker, do order and reason have to do with happiness? Tartuffe The neo-classical elements of form in Tartuffe - use of the Heroic Couplet - strict observance of the classical unities - Satire The Heroic Couplet Iambic pentameter in pairs of rhyming lines, continuous throughout a poem (Iamb = two syllable foot with unstressed syllable followed by stressed syllable. Five iambic feet make iambic pentameter) U/U/U/U/U/ The Three Classical Unities Unity of time The action presented in the play should span the time it takes to perform the play. Unity of place All of the action occurs in the same place or within close proximity. Unity of action The play contains one, single plot. Satire • Definition: The use of humor to censor or expose human frailty (vice, pretentiousness, etc.) • Moliere on the satire in Tartuffe: “As the duty of comedy is to correct men by amusing them, I believed that in my occupation I could do nothing better than attack the vices of my age by making them ridiculous…” • The purpose of satire is not to make you laugh at your neighbor when you see his or her vices depicted on stage (or in reading a piece of satire), but to make you identify your own vices and change them. The Enlightenment reflected in the themes of Tartuffe • Emphasis on reason Presented through subject of religion Religious fanaticism is unreasonable, as is aetheism. Both represent, for Moliere, extreme positions. Cleante and Dorine serve as voices of reason in the play I.5.81-87, I.1.103-116, V.1.35-48 • Attack on institutional religion Why do Orgon and his mother trust Tartuffe so completely? (because he dresses like a priest [a representative of the institutional church] and looks to be praying, so he must be pious? Religious rhetoric can present an incontestable answer to every question, denying any contradiction – Moliere is concerned with the corruptive potential in this. IV.5.98-110, I.5.68-75 DISCERNMENT prevents abuse of religion • Emphasis on what can be empirically proven Orgon and his mother are foolish because they ignore clear evidence of Tartuffe’s hypocrisy Discernment is necessary is judging what is seen (Orgon sees prayer and believes it proves Tartuffe’s piety) • Faith in the monarchy (Enlightenment emphasis on order) King derives supreme authority from divine appointment In his realm, the king is acting for God Therefore, to disobey the king is to disobey God As God’s representative, the king is not authorized to rule unjustly Therefore, like Orgon, the king must exercise discernment to run his kingdom well • God = • Humans = King = Father Subjects = spouse and children The Universal Order (chain of being) God Angels Hierarchy of Angels Humans Hierarchies of Humans Animals Insects Single celled organisms What is our proof in the play that the king exercises good descernment? • Deus ex machina (L. God from the machine) The introduction of a god or other personage in a play, usually by a mechanical contrivance, in order to untangle the plot.

Tutor Answer

School: UC Berkeley

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1. The four dominant ideas of The Enlightenment
• Moderate enlightenment (late 17th -late 18th centuries) (ideas of
Newton and Locke). Stressed tolerance and compromise. Inspired the
American Founding fathers (George Washington).
• Skepticism.
Present mainly in France (Voltaire, Hume, Diderot, Holbach). Protest against
the decadent aristocracy and clergy, using satire. Hume developed
epistemological skepticism, and Holbach – radical materialism.
• Revolutionary Enlightenment
Era of the American and French revolutions. These thinkers started with
Rousseau, continuing to Thomas Paine, Joseph Priestley, Richard Price, and William Godwin.
Championed a destruction of the old world, with a goal of liberating humanity from burdening
and restrictive customs, ignorance, and oppression. Inspired the Jacobins.

• Didacticicsm. Started in Scotland, in the mid-1700's. Aimed to integrate faith and the
idea of a divinely ruled universe with an outlook of rational progress. Championed by
several clergymen.

2. The historical events in England and France that reinforced the need for
Enlightenment thinking

In England, the start of the Enlightenment was traced to the Glorious
Revolution of 1688, which limited absolutism. In France, the En...

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