Political science assignment

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2;Prompt: Define and explain collection of national security intelligence. What role does collection play in the World Wide Threat Briefing?

Notes: Focus on collection as presented in Silent Warfare Chapter 2. Make sure you define the terms you use.(750 words)

United States Intelligence Agencies Lecture 3 Supplementary Lecture Document • Core models Intelligence Definition • In its simplest form intelligence may be defined as “Limiting risk for decision makers” • Providing processed information (intelligence) that allows bosses to make more informed decision Elements of Intelligence 1. 2. 3. 4. Collection Analysis Covert Action Counter Intelligence Intelligence Cycle • Who is responsible for US intelligence activities? The Intelligence Community The U.S. Intelligence Community • Until September 11, 2001, the US Intelligence Community had remained close to the structure laid out in the National Security Act of 1947 • Under the NSA of 1947, the Director of Central Intelligence had statutory powers over the other civilian intelligence organizations, in addition to his role as director of the CIA • However, the DCI had no budgetary powers over any organization except the CIA • What prompted the change? • Intelligence Failure http://www.9-11commission.gov/report/911Report.pdf Lead up to 9/11 • “U.S. intelligence agencies received a stream of warnings that al Qaeda planned, as one report put it, ‘something very, very, very big.’” • DCI George Tenet: “The system was blinking red.” • August, 2001 - PDB said “Bin Ladin Determined To Strike in US” • Information gathered about suspected terrorists in the U.S. not linked to the high level warnings being given to the President Intelligence Community • DCI Tennant – Memo “We are at war. I want no resources or people spared in this effort, either inside CIA or the Community.” – Memorandum had little overall effect on mobilizing the CIA or the Intelligence Community – The memo was addressed only to CIA officials and Deputy DCI for Community Management, Joan Dempsey – Dempsey faxed the memo to the heads of the major agencies. – Almost all the interviewees had never seen the memo or only learned of it after 9/11 Post-9/11 • In the aftermath of 9/11, the intelligence community received criticism in the final report of the 9/11 Commission • Specifically, the 9/11 Commission recommended a restructuring of the intelligence community process • Following the published 9/11 Commission report, Congress passed the National Intelligence Security Reform Act of 2004 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act • ODNI was created by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA) • National Intelligence Reform Act http://www.intelligence.senate.gov/laws/pl108-458.pdf Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act • Major reform in intelligence legislation • Amends the National Security Act of 1947 to establish a Director of National Intelligence • Director appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate • Requires the Director to have extensive national security expertise National Intelligence Security Reform Act of 2004 • Creation of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) • The DNI replaced the DCI as the senior US intelligence official • The DNI is not connected with any one agency as the DCI was • Under the reform act, the DCI’s title was renamed to DCIA • The DNI is the principal intelligence advisor to the President, the National Security Council, and the Homeland Security Council United States Intelligence Agencies • First DNI - Ambassador John D. Negroponte • Iraq, Mexico, State Department. • DNI sworn in May 18, 2005 • Developed the infrastructure and first years for the ODNI United States Intelligence Agencies • Past DNI: Mike McConnell – Senior Vice President with the consulting firm Booz Allen Hamilton – 1992 to 1996, McConnell served as Director of the National Security Agency (NSA) – Intelligence Officer (J2) - Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Secretary of Defense – Navy intelligence - Vice Admiral in the U.S. Navy United States Intelligence Agencies • Past DNI: Dennis Blair – Admiral Blair served as Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command – Commanded the Kitty Hawk Battle Group – Director of the Joint Staff – First Associate Director of Central Intelligence for Military Support at the CIA – Budget and policy positions on the National Security Council United States Intelligence Agencies • Current DNI: James Clapper – Served as director of intelligence for unified: • U.S. Forces Korea • U.S. Pacific Command • Strategic Air Command – Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency – Director National GeospatialIntelligence Agency Intelligence Cycle National Intelligence Priorities Framework ODNI Summary • Lead the IC • Oversee the coordination of foreign relationships between elements of the IC and intelligence services of foreign governments • Establish requirements and priorities for collection, analysis, production, and dissemination of national intelligence • Coordinate reform of security clearance and acquisition processes; achieve auditable financial statements; support legislative, legal and administrative requirements • Ensure compliance with statutory and Presidentiallymandated responsibilities • Transform the IC into a unified, collaborative and coordinated enterprise. CIA CIA • National Clandestine Service (NCS) – Responsibility for the clandestine collection (primarily human source collection, or HUMINT) of foreign intelligence that is not obtainable through other means. The NCS engages in counterintelligence activities by protecting classified U.S. activities and institutions from penetration by hostile foreign organizations and individuals. NCS also carries out covert action in support of U.S. policy goals when legally and properly directed and authorized by the President. • The Directorate of Intelligence (DI) – Analyzes all-source intelligence and produces reports, briefings, and papers on key foreign intelligence issues. This information comes from a variety of sources and methods, including U.S. personnel overseas, human intelligence reports, satellite photography, open source information, and sophisticated sensors. CIA • The Directorate of Science and Technology (DS&T) – Accesses, collects, and exploits information to facilitate the execution of the CIA’s mission by applying innovative scientific, engineering, and technical solutions to the most critical intelligence problems. • The Directorate of Support (DS) – Delivers a full range of support, including acquisitions, communications, facilities services, financial management, information technology, medical services, logistics, and the security of Agency personnel, information, facilities, and technology. DS services are both domestic and international in focus and are offered 24 hours a day/7 days a week. CIA • General Michael V. Hayden • United States Air Force • 18th Director of the Central Intelligence Agency on 30 May 2006 • Director of the National Security Agency (NSA) from 1999–2005 CIA • Leon E. Panetta – Leon & Sylvia Panetta Institute for Public Policy – Conducted an independent assessment of the war in Iraq – Chief of Staff to President Clinton – Director of the Office of Management and Budget – CA Congressman - Budget Committee chairman CIA • David H. Petraeus – Commander of U.S. Forces in Afghanistan – Director during the Benghazi, Libya attack – Talking points media attention – Extramarital affair • Paula Broadwell – Author of Petraeus autobiography – Resigned as director CIA • John O. Brennan – Deputy National Security Advisor for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism, and Assistant to the President (Obama) – Withdrew from consideration for Director of the CIA in the first Obama administration • Supported use of harsh interrogation methods under George W. Bush – Long time CIA – Director of the National Counterterrorism Center – Saudi Arabia – station chief – Regional analyst DIA • Plan, manage, and execute intelligence operations during peacetime, crisis, and war. • Director: Lieutenant General Michael T. Flynn • DIA Director is an advisor to the Secretary of Defense and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff • 15,000 civilian and military personnel DIA • Joint Staff J2 – operates the intelligence component within the National Military Command Center • Defense Counterintelligence and HUMINT Center (DCHC) – coordination - deconfliction • Directorate for Human Intelligence (DH) • Joint Intelligence Task Force for Combating Terrorism • Underground Facility Analysis Center • Missile and Space Intelligence Center • National Center for Medical Intelligence • National Defense Intelligence College FBI • Both law enforcement and intelligence functions • Priorities: 1. Terrorism 2. Counterintelligence 3. Cyber crime • Foreign intelligence services / infiltrate the U.S. Government • Businesspersons, students and scientists seeking to steal technology • Economic espionage, financial crimes, export control violations, cyber intrusions Robert Meuller NSA • Signals Intelligence Directorate – Collection, analysis and production, and dissemination of Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) • Information Assurance Directorate – Ensures the availability, integrity, authentication, confidentiality, and non-repudiation of national security and telecommunications and information systems • Central Security Service (CSS) – Military cryptologic system – Global Information Grid (GIG) NSA • NSA/CSS Threat Operations Center – Monitors global network threats • National Security Operations Center – 24 hours a day/7 days a week operations center • Research Directorate – research on signals intelligence and on information assurance Global Information Grid NSA • General Keith B. Alexander – Director, National Security Agency – Chief, Central Security Service – West Point – Deputy Chief of Staff (DCS, G-2), Headquarters, Department of the Army – Director of Intelligence, United States Central Command – Will resign in 2014 • Anything else? 2009 National Intelligence Strategy 2009 National Intelligence Strategy • Do they work together? • Summary please… Elements of Intelligence 1. 2. 3. 4. Collection Analysis Covert Action Counter Intelligence Structure of U.S. Intelligence • Several organization are responsible for the creation of collection tools used in order to carry out the direction of the decision makers • The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) designs, builds, and launches recon satellites with the assistance of NASA • DOD has airborne reconnaissance responsibility, including UAVs for battlefield/tactical intelligence • CIA’s Directorate of Science & Technology (DS&T) also has a role in some technical collection programs Structure of U.S. Intelligence • The actual collection of intelligence is carried out by even more organizations: • NSA - SIGNINT • National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) - IMINT • DIA’s Defense HUMINT Service - HUMINT • CIA’s National Clandestine Service- HUMINT • State Department via embassies and Foreign Service Officers - non-tasked intelligence Structure of U.S. Intelligence • The analysis of intelligence and the production of finished intelligence reports falls primarily to three organizations: • CIA’s Directorate of Intelligence • DIA’s Directorate of Intelligence • State Department’s Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR) • These finished reports are then returned to the decision makers Military Intelligence • The Secretary of Defense and the DoD continue to maintain control over agencies that are part of the DoD – – – – NSA DIA National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) Airborne reconnaissance programs • DoD also continues to control the budget process of these organizations, in order to maintain the chain of command Oversight and Accountability • Budget • Oversight

Tutor Answer

School: University of Virginia


Surname 1
Political Science
Definition and the Collection of National Security Intelligence
The collection of the national security intelligence is the process of acquiring both the
information and also trying to provide the information so that it can much the processing and
also the production elements. The collection process of the national security intelligence
encompasses some guidelines which include the management of the intelligence resources.
Intelligence collection is developed with the idea of meeting the needs of the national security. In
the United States, the overall process of collecting the national security intelligence is conducted
by the CIA. After the information has been collected, then it is passed to state department’s
bureau of intelligence and research. It is from this department that the final report can be
accessed and released for the general overview.
The actual collection of the intelligence in the United States is a multi-operation. Looking
at the overall process, one can note that more organization are used in the process of collecting
the intelligence. In most cases, the organizations which are used in the process include
SIGNINT, national geospatial intelligence agency, IMINT. Others that are included in the
process include the HUMINT service, state department via the embassies and the Foreign
Service officers among others. Al these information end up in the hands of CIA which is tasked

Surname 2
with looking at the intelligence and making the necessary advisory steps. Given the role of
designing, building and also launching the recon satellites with the assistance from NASA. DOD
is given the airborne reconnaissance responsibility. In this case, it is involved in the process of
developing the UAVs which are used in the tactical intelligence and also on the battlefield. The
CIA’s DS&T role is technical collection organization.
With this one can note that the collection of national security intelligence is a

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