Running head: MONONUCLEOSIS
Mononucleosis is an infectious disease that affects children and young adults. It was first
described in 1920 in Johns Hopkins Hospital with a major effect of severe fever (Dunmore,
Hogquist, & Balfour, 2015). Several developments have occurred in the research of its causes and
effects ever since then developing an extensive epidemiology paper.
Causes, Symptoms, Transmission, Complications and Treatment
Infectious Mononucleosis is caused by Epstein - Barr virus which is transmitted through
saliva by kissing, coughing and sneezing in adolescent and young adults. The main symptoms
include fatigue, sore throat, fever, swollen lymph nodes, swollen tonsils, headache, skin rash and
a swollen spleen. The diseases cause various complications that may adverse in extreme cases such
as enlargement of the spleen which in extreme cases may rupture causing sharp sudden pain.
According to Dunmore et al. (2015), Mononucleosis may also cause liver issues such as liver
inflammation (hepatitis) and yellowing of the skin and the eyes turns white (jaundice). In some
cases, though they are less common the disease may cause Anemia, heart problems. There are no
specific medications for this illness however secondary infections.
Morbidity, Prevalence, Incidences, and Reporting
Infectious mononucleosis is very common worldwide with 90% developing antibodies at the
age of 30.75% young adults (18-22) develop typical infectious mononucleosis while 15% have
atypical symptoms and 10%are completely asymptomatic. Prevalence of EBV is lower for preadolescent (20-80) % depending on age and geographic location (Dunmore et al., 2015). The early
acquisition may be influenced by race, ethnicity, and economic status. For instance, in America,
Hispanic blacks and Mexicans are more vulnerable than non-Hispanic whites as reported by
research between 2003 and 2010. Infectious ...
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