write an apa paper surrounding narrative design for doctoral persistance

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Question description

  • Provide a description of the narrative design and when it is appropriate to use this design.
  • Describe 2 problems or challenges you might encounter when using this design.
  • Provide a problem statement pertaining to doctoral persistence of business students.
  • Craft 2 qualitative research questions that appropriate for narrative design.
  • Compose a purpose statement to address one of these research questions that aligns with a narrative design.

RUNNING HEAD: DOCTORAL PERSISTENCE Doctoral Persistence of Students in Business Programs Frances Hall Liberty University 1 DOCTORAL PERSISTENCE 2 Abstract The paper seeks to clarify the observatory phenomena of doctoral students not being able to sustain a completion of their education due to a range of factors most which are discussed herein. The appropriateness put forward is the arguments intended to look at case examples or the abstract reasons that the research findings in the discussions can deem satisfactory. An indepth would be to look at more than but not limited to psychological factors. A myriad of factors are discussed and in brief psychological factors e.g. social pressures can also help aid in the understanding of the reasons why these doctoral students dropout. It should be understood that around this time, most of these students are in a period of social pressure and demand. That is society leverages on them expectations far higher than that which their time and engagements can allow meet and accomplish. Thus doctoral students lack strike balances that can earn them rewarding environments to allow them to persist in their doctoral pursuits. DOCTORAL PERSISTENCE 3 Doctoral Persistence of Students in Business Programs Such a time society expects a lady student to be engaged and more concerned with settlement in marriage and being able to sire and bring up a family. By the time such an individual gets to settle after having a first or even second baby, her interest and willingness in education matters have dwindled, this can be a reason most female student don’t end up in higher pursuits. Another reason could be the mere lack of time e.g. at this time a student is engaged in summer internships and or other socio-economic business engagements. This can eat up most of the time and practically render them unable to go further. Since nowadays most employers are time conscious and non-compromising and being in a competitive economic environment and market one can’t afford the risk of letting go an opportunity for the sake of pursuit of higher education that is likely uncertain of job security (Garreth, 2016). Frankly approaching it, other psychological factors could be as simple as paper rejection. Most scholars pursuing their higher education at such times find that most of the papers they do submit for assessment by their tutors get rejected. It’s not an easy thing getting rejections on scholarly work that has been spent well over a great deal of time and resources compiling and researching only to be rendered void by tutors. The tutors could be justified to reject such scholarly work maybe on the basis that the papers they receive don’t meet the threshold but one could look at an angle and argue that the reasons for the low-level performance or quality of work submitted by doctoral students are due to the unsettled minds or lack of mental focus by the students due to the above-mentioned factors. Sometimes personal situations dictate whether a doctoral student will continue with the persistence. It should be understood that at this time lifestyle changes and there exists a paradigm shift in priorities e.g. life situations. That could totally change the interest e.g. most experience DOCTORAL PERSISTENCE 4 losses of family and or friends. This grief moments could account for a lifestyle change e.g. loss of parents could render one a breadwinner for her younger siblings thus affecting her focus and mental stability. This could account for the discontinuation. Loneliness could also mean the reason why most dropout. This could be due to lack of motivation from such pursuits. E.g. most students tend to quit at bachelor levels, the fact that from a class of 1000 graduates only 20 would want to pursue further education could really discourage one from going any further (school, 2016). A research from Coventry international University school, department of social psychology in the works of discontinuation in higher studies 2016 explains that a lack of morale due to disinterest is highly a likely factor that most global doctoral students find it difficult to continue. Sometimes uncertainty also causes these doctoral students to end up frustrated and unable to continue. E.g. one could observe that most of those who have even gone up to the Ph.D. levels always end up in traditional jobs similar to those who perhaps never even advanced their studies and even the uncertainty of the job security is also a reason. One could not pursue a doctoral course that is unsure of being able to guarantee a job worth the time and energy spent. Literature Review Regardless of the fact that a doctorate is among the most important wishes of students in higher education, a significant number of the students fail to pursue their doctoral courses to completion. Among the reasons for the increasing dropout rate from postgraduate studies in business is a range going from lack of family socioeconomic support to alterations in personal interests in life. The motivation to move on with a doctorate to graduation is an elusive concept that requires constant research work to unearth the critical issues that prevent doctoral students from persisting in their studies to the very end. The paper aims to execute a review of literature DOCTORAL PERSISTENCE 5 into the research materials on the issues surrounding the persistence of doctoral students in business career courses. Discussion The persistence of students in doctoral business courses has a close relationship with the endurance in other fields of study in academia. That orchestrates this literature review to include research material in both business and non-business fields. The fact that a great deal of the content in doctoral business programs and other programs makes it feasible to teach research ideas from other diverse plans, Donna et al. (2015) authored a research paper on the concrete theory of Persistence Residency Program at the doctoral level and with the limited stay. The study seeks to dissect the scenario where over half of the doctoral students fail to complete their courses in their fields (Kennedy, Terrell& Lohle, 2015). The researchers assert that the pattern does not indicate any signs of subsiding shortly and immediate solutions need to be in place to save the situation. In their research paper on doctoral student attrition and persistence, Carolyn and Jennifer (2008) discuss the rate of doctoral level student dropout from their programs with a forty-percentage nonpersistence rate in the total populations of students who join postgraduate programs in the United States of America. The research paper by Carolyn and Jennifer (2004) makes a clear allusion to the fact that the situation is existent regardless of the prestige associated with doctoral qualifications in the United States (Bair & Haworth, 2004). The research work also delves into the reasons why there is insufficient statistics on the attrition and incompletion rate of doctorate students in their programs. One of the critical reasons for the researchers is that databases on attrition cases do not benefit from stringent guarding as compared to the data available on the completion cases. DOCTORAL PERSISTENCE 6 The negligence on archiving such crucial data makes a significant research gap in doctoral attrition. The study expedition also unearths considerable information concerning the discrepancy between the focus given to undergraduate and doctoral attrition (Bair & Haworth, 2004). The findings indicate that research studies on undergraduate erosion do not have constraints of comprehensive methodology, as is the case with research on attrition at the doctoral level. Researchers, therefore, take longer and spend more resources in studying the dynamics of doctoral dropout cases, a feat that proves discouraging and inhibitory. Melanie Greene delves into the aspect of support concerning the phenomenon of attrition among doctoral students in a 2015 research paper on student perceptions and support services and persistence. The article asserts vital issues affecting the persistence of postgraduate students as being the unclear support systems from the institution, nature of support from other members of the faculty, family or general society (Greene, 2015). The students join the doctoral programs with intentions to develop aspects of life in other people including family and friends. When they sense a lack of support from their loved ones and concerned individuals, the frustration is enough for them to leave their doctoral studies mid-way. Other issues cited include personal characteristics such as temperance and the structural alignments of academia as well as the prevailing culture. The author also notes that the rates of completion are far below the percentages of attrition as less than half of the admitted students fail to persist in their programs to fulfillment. According to Melanie, the integration of doctoral students into the academic society and the social support that they obtain play a significant role in the attrition or completion rates. It is worth noting, from the author’s findings, that the responsibility of reducing attrition and enhancing higher rates of completion rests on both the external society and intra-institution environment. The length of doctorate programs in various institutions of higher learning also plays a role in the DOCTORAL PERSISTENCE 7 attrition rates as more extended completion periods discourage faint-hearted students (Greene, 2015). Students struggle to complete their doctoral studies and get out to the professional environment in search of career development opportunities. Anything that seems to cause unwarranted delays is utterly unwelcome and could lead to cases of academic dropouts, the length of programs also affects the financial expenditure, which also hinders the smooth completion of students from financially challenged backgrounds. The research paper by Karen Hunter and Kay Devine in 2016 is an exposition on doctoral students' emotional exhaustion and intentions to leave academia. The researchers seek to find a better understanding of the psychological aspects in connection with their plans to abandon their academic engagements (Hunter & Devine, 2016). The authors used a mixed research methodology to obtain significant findings pointing towards the influence of faculty and the support of the department in the persistence of doctoral students. The conclusions of the research paper include the fact that students who received adequate departmental and supervisory support had better emotional stability as compared to those that did not. That went ahead to make a remarkable contribution to their eventual success in academia and therefore promote persistence to completion (Hunter & Devine, 2016). The researchers noted that a significant number of students in doctoral programs do not have a clear understanding of what the courses involved and thus require consistent support and guidance from the departments and faculty heralds. In their research paper on developmental networks and learning, Baker and Lattuca (2010) dissect the theories of sociocultural points of view and networks that foster academic development. The primary concern of the authors is the aspect of interdisciplinary engagements and its influence on academic development formations among doctoral students. The content that doctoral students acquire is, according to the authors, connected to their sense of professional identity development DOCTORAL PERSISTENCE 8 (Baker & Lattuca, 2010). The doctoral students become better by the day as they get engaged in deep learning in the dynamics of the academic content as well as the internal operations of the faculty. Sociocultural tenets coalesce with other institutional support formulations to establish a team of well-backed doctorate graduates. The implications of the ideas discussed by the authors in the research paper also point to a sense of personal growth that would culminate to the successful transition from the institutions of learning to the desired professional fields. The authors also delve into a guidance-giving expose in a bid to give appropriate preparation information for the doctoral students as they seek to enter into career life. The 2012 research paper by Carolyn Hart details the student persistence in online programs and the factors that play a part in the attrition or persistence phenomenon. The main concerns of the researcher lie in the occurrence of attrition or completion and the corresponding consequences for students in the United States of America (Hart, 2012). The interchangeable use of the terms success and completion also features widely in the dissertation and clarifications on the ambiguity of utilizing the two terms follows suit to clear the air in the analytical atmosphere. The findings of the study expedition indicate that the persistence in online academic programs in higher education institutions gets influenced by factors such as family support, peer influence, motivation and a sense of familiarity in the academic environment. According to the research paper, the skills in time management and increased communication with the supervisors and academic tutors also had the great impact on the rate of attrition or academic completion among students in a higher learning institution. Student withdrawal increased with a reduction in the support systems either internally or from without the learning institutions. Hart also gives an explication of the increasing cases of online higher education programs have expanded student population in university (Hart, 2012). The problem of DOCTORAL PERSISTENCE 9 attrition is still one of the remarkable facts in the research paper, and the author attributes the issue to factors outside the realms of knowledge and intellectual capability. Students decide to drop out of academic programs because of challenges in the external environment that make persistence a near impossible feat. In that case the extreme lack of academic persistence, students find it impossible to complete their studies and the attrition prospects start becoming a reality for them. In the research paper on the success of graduate students, Vicki Sweitzer (2015) asserts that relationships are crucial to the overall prospect of completion in academic programs at the graduate level or higher. The research paper also delves into the intricacies of peer influence, academic support and advisors to the experience of doctoral students and plays a very pivotal role in the completion impetus. Relationships at the faculty and departmental level in the institutions of higher learning are also central to the reduction or deterioration of the attrition characteristics of doctoral students. Outside relationship that would touch on social engagements with family and friends also feature prominently in the paper with categorical claims on the positive impact of functional relationship in the extra-academic environment. Vicki also claims the unavailability of sufficient research work in the line of relational influence on doctoral persistence and calls for future studies on the topic for more enlightenment on the challenges of doctoral attrition. Conclusion The analysis of the research works above reveals that the persistence of doctoral students is a multi-faceted function. The stability of the postgraduate students both emotionally and financially features widely in the list of issues affecting persistence in their doctoral programs. The support systems both at the faculty, departmental and supervisory levels also go a long way in setting the stage for a reduced state of student academic attrition across the world. The researchers DOCTORAL PERSISTENCE 10 also share a common idea regarding the necessary improvements needed for the doctoral students to establish higher education completion rates. The concept of emotional and financial stability, for instance, is a common idea among the research papers in this literature review. The two theories prove central to the attrition reduction efforts to promote higher completion rates for the doctoral students in business programs. DOCTORAL PERSISTENCE 11 References Bair, C. R., & Haworth, J. G. (2004). Doctoral student attrition and persistence: A meta-synthesis of research. In Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (pp. 481-534). Springer, Dordrecht. Gardner, S. K. (2009). Student and faculty attributions of attrition in high and low-completing doctoral programs in the United States. Higher Education, 58(1), 97-112. Greene, M. (2015). Come hell or high water: Doctoral students’ perceptions on support services and persistence. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 10(unknown), 501-518. Hunter, K. H., & Devine, K. (2016). Doctoral students’ emotional exhaustion and intentions to leave academia. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 11(2), 35-61. Kennedy, D. H., Terrell, S. R., & Lohle, M. (2015). A grounded theory of persistence in a limitedresidency doctoral program. The Qualitative Report, 20(3), 215. Hart, C. (2012). Factors associated with student persistence in an online program of study: A review of the literature. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 11(1). Baker, V. L., & Lattuca, L. R. (2010). Developmental networks and learning: Toward an interdisciplinary perspective on identity development during doctoral study. Studies in Higher Education, 35(7), 807-827.Hart, C. (2012). Factors associated with student persistence in an online program of study: A review of the literature. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 11(1). Sweitzer, V. (2009). Towards a theory of doctoral student professional identity development: A developmental networks approach. The Journal of Higher Education, 80(1), 1-33. andes, m. (n.d.). education passion and lack of it. Retrieved from www.maryandersblog.com. authors, q. (n.d.). reasons for dropout in doctoral students. Retrieved from www.quora.com. DOCTORAL PERSISTENCE garreth, j. (2016). Psychology of persistence. Retrieved from psychology today.com. school, c. (2016). coventry univesity. Retrieved from psychology of modern day graduates. 12
BUSI 715 LITERATURE REVIEW INSTRUCTIONS The purpose of this Literature Review is for you to create a scholarly piece of doctoral-level research and writing, which conforms to current APA format. Competency in APA format is required of all Business students of Liberty University, as set forth by policy of both the Doctoral Faculty and the administration. You will research and write a literature review on the topic of doctoral persistence of students in business programs. Your Literature Review will be a comprehensive thematic review of the scholarly literature related to the topic and will lay the foundation for the qualitative research design, interviews, and data analysis assignments. What is a Literature Review? “A literature review discusses published information in a particular subject area, and sometimes information in a particular subject area within a certain time period. A literature review can be just a simple summary of the sources, but it usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis. A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information. It might give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations. Or it might trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates. And depending on the situation, the literature review may evaluate the sources and advise the reader on the most pertinent or relevant” (The Writing Center, para. 2). How is a literature review different from an academic research paper? “While the main focus of an academic research paper is to support your own argument, the focus of a literature review is to summarize and synthesize the arguments and ideas of others” (The Writing Center, para. 3). The academic research paper also covers a range of sources, but it is usually a select number of sources, because the emphasis is on the argument. Likewise, a literature review can also have an “argument,” but it is not as important as covering a number of sources. In short, an academic research paper and a literature review contain some of the same elements. In fact, many academic research papers will contain a literature review section. However, it is the aspect of the study (the argument or the sources) emphasized that determines what type of document it is. How is a literature review different from an annotated bibliography? A literature review is composed and structured similar to that of an expository essay (see below details regarding formatting), while an annotated bibliography is an alphabetized list of sources, individually addressed by the description and comments following each reference. Additionally, “while a single source appears just once in an annotated bibliography, it may be referred to numerous times in a literature review, depending upon its importance in the field or relationship to other sources” (Northwestern, n.d., para. 1). A literature review contains summary and synthesis of the sources included and cited in-text or parenthetically. Consider if you were to invite the authors of the collected sources to a dinner party at your home; they may agree on some topics while disagreeing on others. Aim to compare and contrast perspectives, identify Page 1 of 4 BUSI 715 relationships where concepts build upon or contribute to one another, and maintain the theme of the topic. Why write literature reviews? “Literature reviews provide you with a handy guide to a particular topic. If you have limited time to conduct research, literature reviews can give you an overview or act as a stepping-stone. For professionals, they are useful reports that keep them up to date with what is current in the field. For scholars, the depth and breadth of the literature review emphasizes the credibility of the writer in his or her field. Literature reviews also provide a solid background for a research paper's investigation. Comprehensive knowledge of the literature of the field is essential to most research papers” (The Writing Center, para. 4). What is the format for literature reviews? “Just like most academic papers, literature reviews also must contain at least three basic elements: an introduction or background information section; the body of the review containing the discussion of sources; and, finally, a conclusion and/or recommendations section to end the paper. • • • Introduction: Gives a quick idea of the topic of the literature review, such as the central theme or organizational pattern. Body: Contains your discussion of sources and is organized thematically (see below for more information on each). Conclusions/Recommendations: Discuss what you have drawn from reviewing literature so far. Where might the discussion proceed?” (The Writing Center, para. 12). What is a thematic literature review? “A thematic review would have subtopics based upon factors that relate to the theme or issue. Sometimes, though, you might need to add additional sections that are necessary for your study, but do not fit in the organizational strategy of the body. What other sections you include in the body is up to you. Put in only what is necessary. Here are a few other sections you might want to consider: • • • • Current Situation: Information necessary to understand the topic or focus of the literature review. History: The chronological progression of the field, the literature, or an idea that is necessary to understand the literature review, if the body of the literature review is not already a chronology. Methods and/or Standards: The criteria you used to select the sources in your literature review or the way in which you present your information. For instance, you might explain that your review includes only peer-reviewed articles and journals. Questions for Further Research: What questions about the field has the review sparked? How will you further your research as a result of the review?” (The Writing Center, para. 14). Page 2 of 4 BUSI 715 Important Points to Consider The paper is to be written in strict conformance to current APA standards, contain 8–10 pages of content (excluding the title page, abstract, and reference page), and use at least 12 peer-reviewed references. **It is highly recommended that each student download and read the instructions to avoid any stress created by issues that are the result of waiting until the last minute. • A SafeAssign draft submission link will be provided for you to use to improve your Originality Score, prior to your final submission. Three current APA headings should be used throughout the paper, as this is a doctoral-level Literature Review. Some students do not fully understand the difference between plagiarism and paraphrasing. Paraphrasing is when you take a source or someone else's idea and say it in your own words. When you paraphrase you must still give the author's name, date, title of the source, the scholarly journal where it came from, and the exact website address or book. However, when you directly quote a source, it must have quotation marks around the quote, or (if 40 words or more) it must be set in block quotation format. Give detailed information of where you acquired the quote. For the purpose of this academic paper, please adhere to the follow rules when quoting or using a source: • Do not directly quote more than 40 words from any 1 source. • Do not use the same source more than a total of 3 times within the whole document, for quoting or paraphrasing. • Quotes must contain the section (if provided) and paragraph or page numbers of the quote and this information must be placed in the references section. • In all instances, be sure to use the APA guidelines for citations and references. The paper must not be a series of quotations. At the doctoral level, you should be able to paraphrase and cite the ideas contained in the sources. Please email your instructor with any questions regarding the Literature Review. Submit this assignment by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of Module/Week 2. Page 3 of 4 BUSI 715 Reference Northwestern. (n.d.). How is a literature review different from an annotated bibliography. Retrieved from https://nuwrite.northwestern.edu The Writing Center, The University of North Carolina. (n.d.). Literature reviews. Retrieved from http://writingcenter.unc.edu/handouts/literature-reviews/ Page 4 of 4
BUSI 715 NARRATIVE ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS Each qualitative design is slightly different from the others; these differences are important for researchers to consider when selecting a design that is most appropriate for exploring their research problem. After reviewing the Reading & Study material for the module, address the following in a paper in current APA format: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Provide a description of the narrative design and when it is appropriate to use this design. Describe 2 problems or challenges you might encounter when using this design. Provide a problem statement pertaining to doctoral persistence of business students. Craft 2 qualitative research questions that appropriate for narrative design. Compose a purpose statement to address one of these research questions that aligns with a narrative design. Submit this assignment by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of Module/Week 3. Here is the information I reference in the video Narrative Design in the Journal of Marketing Management (could give some really good ideas on building a case for narrative and some of the challenges). Sample Problem Statement & Purpose Statement 2 (Risk Behavior, Narrative Design) Script for purpose statement (Also in your text): The purpose of this ______ (strategy of inquiry, such as ethnography, case study, or other type ) study is (was? will be?) to ______ (understand? describe? develop? discover?) the ______ (central phenomenon being studied) for ______ (the participants, such as the individual, groups, organization) at ______ (research site). At this stage in the research, the ______ (central phenomenon being studied) will be generally defined as ______ (provide a general definition). Creswell & Poth Chs 4-5 Qualitatives Inquary and research Design BUSI 715 NARRATIVE ASSIGNMENT GRADING RUBRIC Criteria Design Challenges Problem & Purpose Statement Levels of Achievement Proficient 28.2 to 30 points Competent 26.4 to 28.1 points Provides a correct and detailed description of the design that addresses when to use the design. Provides a basic description of the design. 18.8 to 20 points 17.6 to 18.7 points Describes 2 problems or challenges that the researcher may encounter when using the design and how these might be addressed. Describes 2 problems or challenges that the researcher may encounter when using the design but not how they may be addressed. 18.8 to 20 points 17.6 to 18.7 points Provides a correctly phrased problem statement pertaining to the assigned research topic and a purpose statement that both aligns with the design and the selected research question. Provides a problem statement pertaining to the assigned research topic and a purpose statement that lacks alignment with either the design or the selected research question. Novice 0 to 26.3 points Provides an erroneous description of the design or does not provide a description of the design. 0 to 17.5 points Describes 2 problems or challenges unrelated to the design that the researcher may encounter or does not provide a description of 2 problems or challenges. 0 to 17.5 points Does not provide a problem statement pertaining to the assigned research topic and a purpose statement that lacks alignment with either the design or the selected research question. Points Earned BUSI 715 Research Questions Criteria Format 18.8 to 20 points 17.6 to 18.7 points Crafts 2 qualitative research questions appropriate for the design; the research questions include appropriate phrasing/terminology. Crafts 2 qualitative research questions appropriate for the design; the research questions lack appropriate phrasing/terminology. Levels of Achievement Proficient Competent 9.6 to 10 points 8.8 to 9.5 points The paper adheres to current APA format, including a title page, levels of heading, and citations (parenthetical or intext) and references, without errors or 1 minimal error. Instructor’s Comments: One or more of the below criteria are not met: The paper adheres to current APA format, including a title page, levels of heading, and citations (parenthetical or intext) and references, without errors or 1 minimal error. 0 to 17.5 points Does not craft 2 qualitative research questions appropriate for the design. Novice 0 to 8.7 points Two or more of the below criteria are not met: The paper adheres to current APA format, including a title page, levels of heading, and citations (parenthetical or intext) and references, without errors or 1 minimal error. Total Points Earned /100

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Please let me know if there is anything needs to be changed or added. I will be also appreciated that you can let me know if there is any problem or you have not received the work Good luck in your study and if you need any further help in your assignments, please let me know Can you please confirm if you have received the wo...

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