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UNITS, ERROR CALCULATION, AND GRAPHING

1.

UNITS

In order that measurement may be meaningful to everybody, units of measurements are

standardized internationally. Such a system of units is called System Internationale (S.I).

The following are some of the commonly used S.I units.

Quantity measured

Length

Mass

Time

Electric Current

Temperature

Unit used

Meter

Kilogram

Second

Ampere

Kelvin

abbreviation

m

kg

s

A

K

Length is measured using a meter ruler. For measuring small lengths or distances a meter

is divided into smaller units such as the centimeter (cm), millimeter (mm), micrometer

(m), nanometer (nm), picometer (pm) etc. Long distances are measured in kilometers

(km)

102 cm = 1 m

103 mm = 1 m

106 m = 1 m

109 nm = 1 m

1012 pm = 1 m

1 km

1 cm = 10-2 m

1 mm = 10-3 m

1 m = 10-6 m

1 nm = 10-9 m

1 pm = 10-12 m

= 1000 m

In a similar way a kilogram is divided into grams (g), milligram (mg), microgram (g),

nanogram (ng) and so on. There are different forms of laboratory scales that you may use

to measure mass. The most popular is the electronic balance that you see along the side

benches.

.

Question:

Perform the following conversions:

1.1.

1.2 mm

= 12 cm

1.2.

1.2 mm

= 0.012 m

1.3.

17.6 cm

= 0.176 m

1.4.

356 g

= 0.356 kg

1.5.

586 mg

= 0.000568 kg

1.6.

15 m

= 1500 cm

1.7.

1.51 m

= 1510 mm

1.8.

252 m

= 0.252 km

1.9.

500 km

= 500 000 m

1.10. 0.5 km

= 50 000 cm

The units of length, mass, time, temperature and electric current are called

FUNDAMENTAL UNITS. The units of a lot of other quantities that we measure in the

lab are obtained by suitably combining these fundamental units. For example, the unit of

area is m2, the unit of speed is meter per second (m.s-1) and so on. Such units are called

DERIVED UNITS. Units are written in the scientific notation form. For example m/s is

written as ms-1.

Question:

Perform the following conversions:

2.1.

15 cm2

= 0.0015 m2

2.2.

226 mm2

= 0.000226 m2

...