Human Resource Development , annotated bibliographies , used from articles .

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I want two annotated bibliographies on the articles that I attached a copy of them below .Using APA format

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European Journal of Business and Management ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol.5, No.4, 2013 The Effect of Training on Employee Performance Dr . Amir Elnaga1* Amen Imran2 1. Vice Dean of College of Business Administration, Assistant Professor, Dar Al Uloom University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 2. Ms. Amen Imran, Lecturer, Institute of Management Studies, University of Peshawar, Pakistan. * E-mail of the corresponding author: Abstract Employee is a blood stream of any business. The accomplishment or disaster of the firm depends on its employee performance. Hence, top management realized the importance of investing in training and development for the sake of improving employee performance. This conceptual paper aimed at studying the effect of training on employee performance and to provide suggestion as to how firm can improve its employee performance through effective training programs. The research approach adopted for the study conforms to qualitative research, as it reviews the literature and multiple case studies on the importance of training in enhancing the performance of the workforce. Further the paper goes on to analyse and understand the theoretical framework and models related to employee development through training and development programs, and its effect on employee performance and on the basis of the review of the current evidence of such a relationship, offers suggestions for the top management in form of a checklist, appropriate for all businesses, to assess the employee performance and to find out the true cause(s) of the performance problem so the problem could be solved in time through desired training program. The study in hand faces the limitations as there are no adequate indications to correlate directly the relationship between training and employee performance. Hence, there is a need for conducting an empirical research in future to test the proposition discussed in the study. The study in hand provides brief overview of the literature about training effectiveness and how it contributes in enhancing the employee performance and ultimately concludes along with recommendation to give directions for future research by applying different level of analysis on exploring the impact of training practices on employee performance. Keywords: Training , Employee performance. 1. Introduction Improved capabilities, knowledge and skills of the talented workforce proved to be a mojor source of competitive advantage in a global market (McKinsey, 2006). To develop the desired knowledge, skills and bilities of the employees, to perform well on the job, requires effective training programs that may also effect employee motivation and commitment (Meyer and Allen, 1991). In order to prepare their workers to do their job as desired, organizations provides training as to optimize their employee’s potential. Most of the firms, by applying long term planning, invest in the building new skills by their workforce, enabling them to cope with the uncertain conditions that they may face in future, thus, improving the employee performance through superior level of motivation and commitment. When employees recognizes their organization interest in them through offering training programs, they in turn apply their best efforts to achieve organizational goals, and show high performance on job. Employees are the most valuable asset of every company as they can make or break a company’s reputation and can adversely effect profitability. Employees often are responsible for the great bulk of necessary work to be done as well as customer satisfaction and the quality of products and events. Without proper training, employees both new and current do not receive the information and develop the skill sets necessary for accomplishing their tasks at their maximum potential. Employees who undergo proper training tend to keep their jobs longer than those who do not. Training is a necessity in the workplace. Without it, employees don't have a firm grasp on their responsibilities or duties .Employee training refers to programs that provide workers with information, new skills, or professional development opportunities 137 European Journal of Business and Management ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol.5, No.4, 2013 The companies aimed at gaining the competitive advantage realized the importance of training in improving the employees performance. Past researches provides the evidence regarding the positive affect of training programs on both employee and organizational performance. On one hand previous work in the field proved that effective training programs leads to superior return on investment while the other researches mentioned the positive role of training in attaining the supreme levels of employee retention (Colarelli & Montei, 1996; Becker, 1993). Due to fast pace global and technological development the firms are now facing new changes as well as challenges. Technological advancements have moulded the need of capabilities and competencies required to perform a particular tasks. Thus, to cope with these challenges, more improved and effective training programs are required by all corporates. Effective training programs helps in constructing a more conducive learning environment for the workforce and train them to cope with the upcoming challenges more easily and in time (Wei-Tai, 2006). According to Farooq. M, & Aslam. M. K (2011), managers are trying their level best to develop the employee’s capabilities, ultimately creating good working environment within the organization. For the sake of capacity building managers are involved in developing the effective training programs for their employees to equip them with the desired knowledge, skills and abilities to achieve organizational goals. This struggle by the top management not only improves the employee performance but also creates positive image of the firm worldwide, (Jia-Fang, 2010). Effective training programs helps employees to get acquaintance with the desired new technological advancement, also gaining full command on the competencies and skills required to perform at s particular job and to void on the job errors and mistakes (Robert, 2006). Amongst the important function of human resource management, one of the crucial function is employee development through proper training and development programs. Employee development refers to the capacity and capability building on an employee, and thus as of whole organization, to meet the standard performance level (Elena P. 2000). More the developed employees, more they are satisfied with their job, hence increasing the firm productivity and profitability. (Champathes, 2006). In spite of the large number of researches on the relationship between training and employee performance, there appears to be a gap, concerning the study of effect of training on employee performance. The purpose of this study is to close this gap by deeply investigating this phenomenon through the relevant literature, shedding more light into the relationship of training effectiveness, and superior employee performance and providing suggestions to the firms as how they can make best use of training programs to make their employees perform well on job. 2. Research problem This study begins from the realization of the need to effectively administer the effect of training on employee performance. Training is a systematic process to enhance employee’s skill, knowledge and competency, necessary to perform effectively on job. Overall, training impacts organizational competitiveness, revenue and performance. Unfortunately, the majority of governmental, private organization and international organizations are not recognizing the importance of training to increase their employee's productivity and when the economy slows or when profits decline, many organizations first seek cuts in their training budgets. This will leads to high job turnover then increase the cost to hire new employees which low down the organizational profitability. Past researches proved a positive link between training and employee performance, as training brings benefits for the employee along with for the firm by positively impacting employee performance through the enhancement of employee’s competencies and behaviour. Firms that focuses on shareholders and customer satisfaction realized the importance of investing in training, and thus recognizes the worth of employee development (Evans and Lindsay, 1999). Keeping above discussion in mind, the significant function of this study is to answer the following research question: Research Question: How training effect the employees’ performance. Moreover, to find the answer to the above mentioned research question, the study highlights the critical review on the topic under consideration to better understand the phenomenon as to how effective training leads to superior employee performance and higher organizational returns and provide a checklist for improving employee performance through designing effective training programs. 138 European Journal of Business and Management ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol.5, No.4, 2013 3. Research objectives Through the relevant review of different studies, reports, periodicals and books, on the topic under consideration, following objectives could be drawn: • • • • 4. To investigate the meaning and importance of training. To identify the significance of employee performance. To explore the relationship between Training and employees performance. To develop guideline for assessing the employee performance Review of Literature In the fast pace changing world of business and environmental uncertainty, organizations realize its limitation of dealing with new challenges (Tai, 2006). However te further states that the firms should invest in training programs to make their employees competent enough to face uncertainties and take effective decision in time, in order to remain competitive in the market. Effective training is beneficial for the firm in variety of ways, such as, it plays a vital role in building and maintaining capabilities, both on individual and organisational level, and thus participates in the process of organisational change (Valleet al., 2000). Moreover, it enhances the retention capacity of talented workforce, hence decreasing the unintentional job rotation of the workers (Jones and Wright, 1992; Shaw et al., 1998). Furthermore, it indicates the firm’s long-term commitment towrds its workers and increases the employee’s motivational level (Pfeffer, 1994). All these contributions lead to a achieving competitive advantage (Youndtet al., 1996) and to an enhancement in employee performance and organisational productivity (Bartel, 1994; Knoke and Kalleberg, 1994; Huselid, 1995; Delery and Doty, 1996). 4.1 Training Effective training and development programs aimed at improving the employees’ performance. Training refers to bridging the gap between the current performance and the standard desired performance. Training could be given through different methods such as on the coaching and mentoring, peers cooperation and participation by the subordinates. This team work enable employees to actively participate on the job and produces better performance, hence improving organizational performance. Training programs not only develops employees but also help an organization to make best use of their humane resources in favour of gaining competitive advantage. Therefore, it seems mandatory by the firm to plan for such a training programs for its employees to enhance their abilities and competencies that are needed at the workplace, (Jie and Roger, 2005). Training not only develops the capabilities of the employee but sharpen their thinking ability and creativity in order to take better decision in time and in more productive manner (David, 2006). Moreover it also enable employees to deal with the customer in an effective manner and respond to their complaints in timely manner (Hollenbeck, Derue and Guzzo, 2004). Training develops self efficacy and results in superior performance on job (Svenja, 2007), by replacing the traditional weak practices by efficient and effective work related practices (Kathiravan, Devadason and Zakkeer, 2006). Training refers to a planned intervention aimed at enhancing the elements of individual job performance” (Chiaburu and Tekleab, 2005). It is all about improving the skills that seems to be necessary for the achievement of organizational goals. Training programs, may also help the workforce to decrease their anxiety or frustration, originated by the work on job (Chenet al., 2004). Those workers who feel themselves to be unble to perform a task with the desired level of performance often decide to leave the firm (Chen et al., 2004), otherwise their stay at frim will not dd to productivity (Kanelopoulos and Akrivos, 2006). The greater the gap between the skills necessary and those possessed by the workforce, the higher the job dissatisfaction of the workers. Rowden (2002), suggest that training may also be an efficient tool for improving ones job satisfaction, as employee better performance leads to appreciation by the top management, hence employee feel more adjusted with his job. According to Rowden and Conine (2005), trained employees are more able to satisfy the customers and (Tsai et al., 2007), employees who learn as a result of training program shows a greater level of job satisfaction along with superior performance. 4.2 The Importance of Training 139 European Journal of Business and Management ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol.5, No.4, 2013 Training is important and an imperative tool for the organization to revamp the performance of all the personnel for organizational growth and success. It is beneficial to both employers and employees of an organization. An employee will become more efficient and productive if he is trained well. Firms can develop and enhance the quality of the current employees by providing comprehensive training and development. Training is essential not only to increase productivity but also to motivate and inspire workers by letting them know how important their jobs are and giving them all the information they need to perform those jobs (Anonymous, 1998). The general benefits received from employee training are: increased job satisfaction and morale , increased motivation , increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain, increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods, increased innovation in strategies and products and reduced employee turnover. 4.3 Employee performance According to Hawthorne studies, and many other research work on productivity of worker highlighted the fact that employees who are satisfied with their job will have higher job performance, and thus supreme job retention, than those who are not happy with their jobs (Landy, 1985). Moreover, it is stated that employees are more likely to turnover if they are not satisfied and hence demotivated to show good performance. Employee performance is higher in happy and satisfied workers and the management find it easy to motivate high performers to attain firm targets. (Kinicki and Kreitner, 2007). The employee could be only satisfied when they feel themselves competent to perform their jobs, which is achieved through better training programs. Recognizing the role of training practices, enable the top executives to create better working environment that ultimately improves the motivational level as well as the performance of the workforce. According to Leonard-Barton, (1992), an organisation that gives worth to knowledge as a source of gaining competitive edge than competitors, should build up system that ensure constant learning, and on the effective way of doing so is training. Pfeffer (1994) highlights that well-trained workforce is more capable of achieving performance targets and gaining competitive advantage in the market. Training is determined as the process of enabling employee to complete the task with greater efficiency, thus considered to be vital element of managing the human resource performance strategically (Lawler, 1993; Delaney and Huselid, 1996). The importance of training on the employee performance, through ccelerating the learning process, is mentioned in many researches (e.g. McGill and Slocum, 1993; Ulrichet al., 1993; Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995; DiBella et al., 1996). Employee performance, achieved through training, refers to immediate improvements in the knowledge, skills and abilities to carry out job related work, and hence achieve more employee commitment towards the organizational goals (Huselid, 1995; Ichniowski et al., 1997). Kamoche and Mueller (1998) mentioned that training should leads to the culture of enhancing learning, to raise employee performance and ultimately higher return on investment (in training) for the firm. “ A term typical to the Human Resource field, employee performance is everything about the performance of employees in a firm or a company or an organization. It involves all aspects which directly or indirectly affect and relate to the work of the employees” ( employee performance, website ). Employee's performance important for the company to make every effort to help low performers. Performance is classified into five elements : Planning, monitoring, developing, rating and rewarding. In the planning stage ,Planning means setting goals, developing strategies, and outlining tasks and schedules to accomplish the goals. Monitoring is the phase in which the goals are looked at to see how well one is doing to meet them .Monitoring means continously measuring performance and providing ongoing feedback to employees and work groups on their progress toward reaching their goals. Ongoing monitoring provides the opportunity to check how well employees are meeting predetermined standards and to make changes to unrealistic or problematic standards . During the developing stage an employee is supposed to improve any poor performance that has been seen during the time frame one has been working at the company. During planning and monitoring of work, deficiencies in performance become evident and can be addressed. The rating is to summarise the employee performance. This can be beneficial for looking at and comparing performance over time or among various employees. Organizations need to know who their best performers are at the end of the cycle is rewarding stage. This stage is designed to reward and recognise outstanding behavior such as 140 European Journal of Business and Management ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol.5, No.4, 2013 that which is better than expected. 4.4 The relationship between Training and employees performance Most of the previous studies provides the evidence that there is a strong positive relationship between human resource management practices and organizational performance. (Purcell et al., 2003). According to Guest (1997) mentioned in his study that training and development programs , as one of the vital human resource management practice, positively affects the quality of the workers knowledge, skills and capability and thus results in higher employee performance on job. This relation ultimately contributes to supreme organizational performance. The result of Farooq. M, & Aslam. M. K (2011) study depicts the positive correlation between training and employee performance as r=.233. Thus, we can predict from this finding that it is not possible for the firm to gain higher returns without best utilization of its human resource, and it can only happen when firm is able to meet its employees job related needs in timely fashion. Training is the only ways of ident ...
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Annotated Bibliographies

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Dobre, O. I. (2013). Employee motivation and organizational performance
This article discusses lengthily on employee motivation and performance within an organization,
providing literature to deeply understand the concept of motivation and performance of
employees. The articles commences by explaining why organizations strive to be successful in
the current competitive market, one of the reasons ...

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