Writing
Reaction Paper - Epigenetics

Question Description

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Write a 1,000 word Reaction Paper. You will be completing the following tasks and gathering the following information for your paper:

  1. Begin your paper by defining epigenetics in your own words.
  2. Complete the Family History-Dr. Oz.pdf . Find out which disease(s) you are most at risk for. (See the pdf attached)
  3. Research and locate one article on epigenetics and whatever disease you are most at risk for: Article: Smoking and Rheumatoid Arthritis, International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014, Vol. 15 Issue 12 (See article attached)

Read the epigenetics article and get the general idea on epigenetics.

  • Continue your paper with a discussion of the epigenetics article. Be be sure to cite the author(s) of the article you find using APA style. Aim for about a page for this part of your paper.
  • Discuss the concept of epigenesis in light of your family history and the article you read. Aim for one page for this section of your paper.
  1. Complete the Living to 100 Questionnaire. Integrate your findings on the questionnaire into your discussion. Aim for another page. (See attached)
  2. Discuss how you can improve your health and longevity in light of your findings in this questionnaire, your understanding of epigenetics, and your knowledge of your family history. This should be your final page.

You can go over or under a page for any of the sections of the paper as long as your total paper is 1,000 words not counting the references.

Rules for an "A" Paper

◻ 1,000 words

◻ Original work; plagiarism score of less than 10% (90% original work)

◻ Double-spaced, 12-point font, 1-inch margins

◻ Covers all 6 tasks

◻ Cite your article APA style (author & year within body of paper; full reference at end)

◻ No abstract, no cover

◻ Place your name and reference number on the first page. Use page numbers.

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Write a 1,000 word Reaction Paper. You will be completing the following tasks and gathering the following information for your paper: 1. Begin your paper by defining epigenetics in your own words. 2. Complete the Family History-Dr. Oz.pdf . Find out which disease(s) you are most at risk for. (See the pdf attached) 3. Research and locate one article on epigenetics and whatever disease you are most at risk for: Article: Smoking and Rheumatoid Arthritis, International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014, Vol. 15 Issue 12 (See article attached) Read the epigenetics article and get the general idea on epigenetics. 4. Continue your paper with a discussion of the epigenetics article. Be be sure to cite the author(s) of 5. 6. 7. the article you find using APA style. Aim for about a page for this part of your paper. Discuss the concept of epigenesis in light of your family history and the article you read. Aim for one page for this section of your paper. Complete the Living to 100 Questionnaire. Integrate your findings on the questionnaire into your discussion. Aim for another page. (See attached) Discuss how you can improve your health and longevity in light of your findings in this questionnaire, your understanding of epigenetics, and your knowledge of your family history. This should be your final page. You can go over or under a page for any of the sections of the paper as long as your total paper is 1,000 words not counting the references. Rules for an "A" Paper ◻ ◻ ◻ ◻ ◻ ◻ ◻ 1,000 words Original work; plagiarism score of less than 10% (90% original work) Double-spaced, 12-point font, 1-inch margins Covers all 6 tasks Cite your article APA style (author & year within body of paper; full reference at end) No abstract, no cover Place your name and reference number on the first page. Use page numbers. Living To 100 Life Expectancy Calculator 1 of 2 Home Take the Calculator Contact Dr Perls About Sign Up Log In Personal What is your marital status? Single Married Widowed/Divorced I feel I am too young to get married Do you have in-person contact with family members, or with friends who are practically like family, at least three times a week? Yes No I do not have any family How do you evaluate your current stress level (within the last 12 months)? Low Medium High How do you usually cope with your stress? Very well! It helps me to get motivated Good! I can shed stress by using techniques that reduce stress (meditation, exercise, etc.) I am doing all right! I am trying to find ways to protect myself from it. Not very good! Stress eats away at me and I cannot seem to shake it off. How would you characterize your sleep habits? Very good! I sleep enough and through the night. It varies. I have sleepless nights once in a while. It could be better. I frequently do not feel well rested. Very bad! Every night I have problems falling asleep or staying asleep. How much formal education have you had? Advanced Degree (Masters, Doctorate) College Degree (Bachelors, Associates) High School Degree or Equivalent I am currently in High School Some High School Working on an advanced degree Working on an college degree Number of hours that you work at your job(s) (including your commute and if you are a stay-at-home parent): 40 hours or less per week 41-60 hours per week(more than 9 hours per day up to 12 hours per day) 61-80 hours per week (more than 12 hours per day up to 16 hours per day) More than 80 hours per week (more than 16 hours per day) I am retired or I am not working Number of days per week you work: 2/19/2018, 12:01 PM Living To 100 Life Expectancy Calculator 2 of 2 5 days or less per week 6 days 7 days I am retired or not working Are you optimistic about your aging, or, pessimistic? I feel I am aging well and my older years will be fulfilling ones I am dreading my older years Something in between the above two options Home | Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Legal Statement LivingTo100™, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Patent Filed and Pending. If you experience any problems with this site, please send your comments to webmaster@livingto100.com 2/19/2018, 12:01 PM Living To 100 Life Expectancy Calculator 1 of 2 Home Take the Calculator Contact Dr Perls About Sign Up Log In Lifestyle How is the air quality (air pollution) where you live? Very bad! (Industrial area/ lots of smog) Average (Urban area/ medium smog) Okay (Suburbs/ low smog) Very good! (Country side/ no smog) How often do you put your seat belt on when you are in a car (either as driver or passenger)? Always About 80% of the time Half of the time Less than half of the time How many cups of caffeinated coffee do you drink per day? None 1 to 2 cups Over 3 cups How many cups of tea do you drink per day? None 1-2 cups per day 3-5 cups per day 6-10 cups per day Greater than 10 cups per day Do you smoke or are you exposed to second-hand smoke? Yes No How often do you smoke or chew tobacco (cigarettes, pipe, chewing tobacco)? Daily Not daily, but often Sometimes Rarely or never How many cigarettes do you smoke a day? None 1 cigarette to half a pack 1 pack 1 and a half packs 2 packs 3 or more packs What is your exposure to close-proximity second-hand smoke? Answer even if you also smoke. Daily and prolonged Not daily, but often and prolonged 2/19/2018, 12:06 PM Living To 100 Life Expectancy Calculator 2 of 2 At least once a week and prolonged Rarely or never Do you have any lung disease as a result of smoking in the past? I did not smoke in the past I have chronic lung disease from my past history of smoking resulting in a diagnosis of emphysema or chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), requiring supplemental oxygen, or shortness of breath with minimal exertion I still smoke or have quit and seem to have minimal or no lung problems. How many days per week do you usually consume alcohol? I don't drink alcohol 1 or 2 days per week 3 to 5 days per week 6 or 7 days per week On the days when you drink alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, liquor and mixed drinks) how many glasses do you usually drink? I don't drink 1 to 2 3 Over 3 How often do you take aspirin (eg. 81-325 mg)? Never Occasionally Frequently Every day Do you wear sunscreen (at least SPF 30) or protective clothing when you spend time in the sun? Rarely or never Sometimes Most of the time Always Do you engage in risky sexual (unprotected) behavior and/or do you inject illegal drugs? Never Rarely (once a year or less) Sometimes (few times a year) Often (every few months) Very often (once or more a month) Do you floss your teeth every day? Yes No Go back Home | Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Legal Statement LivingTo100™, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Patent Filed and Pending. If you experience any problems with this site, please send your comments to webmaster@livingto100.com 2/19/2018, 12:06 PM Living To 100 Life Expectancy Calculator 1 of 2 Home Take the Calculator Contact Dr Perls About Sign Up Log In Nutrition What is your weight? What is your height? Do you body build or strength train to the degree that your body mass index is high because of muscle, not because of fat? Yes No How many servings of processed meats of fast foods, excluding hamburgers (like hot dogs, chicken nuggets, bologna) do you eat per week? None 1 - 2 servings 3 - 4 servings Over 5 servings How do you barbecue fish, poultry, or meat? I am a vegetarian I never barbecue I put aluminum foil on the grill Lightly grilled Almost charred or charred How many servings of dairy products (milk, cheese, yogurt, etc.) do you eat per day? (Example for 1 serving: 1 cup of milk, 1 cup of yogurt, or 1/2 oz. cheese). 0 - 1 servings 2 - 3 servings More than 3 servings Do you take supplemental calcium? Yes No If you snack between meals, generally which of the following are your snacks? Choose all that apply! Fruit Yogurt Veggies Sweets Bagels/Chips Crackers Popcorn "Healthy" drinks (e.g. fruit based, teas, etc.) "Unhealthy" drinks (e.g. popular sodas) How often per week do you have red meat as your main course? 2/19/2018, 12:13 PM Living To 100 Life Expectancy Calculator 2 of 2 I don't eat red meat I eat red meat 1-2 days per week I eat red meat 3-5 days per week I eat red meat 6-7 days per week How often do you eat sweets such as ice cream, cake/ pie/ pastry, or candy bars? I avoid sweets 1-2 days per week 3-5 days per week Once a day More than once a day What about carbohydrates like white bread or rolls, potatoes, French fries, pasta, white rice (basically anything white)? If one meal's worth of each one of these counted as 1 serving of simple carbohydrate, how many servings of these do you have? 3 or more servings a day 1-2 servings a day 1 serving every other day 1 serving twice a week 1 or fewer servings a week Do you have a diet that leads to weight gain, or do you have a diet that maintains a healthy weight or is conducive to healthy weight loss? I eat too much everyday, making it easy for me to stay overweight or to gain more weight I eat such that I am losing weight with a target of reaching a healthy weight I am maintaining a healthy weight with the way I currently eat Do you take iron either as a supplement or part of a multivitamin? Yes No Yes, but it relieves symptoms related to my anemia (low blood count) or I am taking it temporarily after surgery How many days a week do you exercise (strength training, aerobic exercises or activities such as swimming, running, strenuous walking and biking) for at least 30 minutes a day? 7 days per week 6 days per week 5 days per week 4 days per week 3 days per week 2 days per week 1 day per week I get the equivalent of 30 or more minutes of excercise that significantly raises my heart rate through my job I don't exercise Aside from exercise, during your leisure time, are you: Generally engaged in some physically active activity Not at all Something in between Go back Home | Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Legal Statement LivingTo100™, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Patent Filed and Pending. If you experience any problems with this site, please send your comments to webmaster@livingto100.com 2/19/2018, 12:13 PM Living To 100 Life Expectancy Calculator 1 of 2 Home Take the Calculator Contact Dr Perls About Sign Up Log In Medical Do you have a bowel movement at least once every two days? Yes No, I have a bowel movement less frequently then every two days Do you regularly screen for skin cancer by doing self-examinations and have regular screenings by your health care provider for breast or testicular cancer? Yes No I am 20 years or younger What is your HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol): Lower than 40 mg/dl (1.0 mmol/L) Higher than 40 mg/dl (1.0 mmol/L) I haven't checked it in the last 3 years I have had the test done within the past 3 years but don't remember the results What is your LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol): Lower than 100 mg/dl (3.4 mmol/L) Higher than 100 mg/dl (3.4 mmol/L) I haven't checked it in the last 3 years I have had the test done within the past 3 years but don't remember the results What is your total cholesterol level: Lower than 180 mg/dl (5 mmol/L) Higher than 180 mg/dl (5 mmol/L) I haven't checked it in the last 3 years I have had the test done within the past 3 years but don't remember the results What is your systolic blood pressure (the number stated first and the higher value): Lower than 85 86-100 101-119 120-129 130-139 140-189 Higher than 230 I don't remember or haven't had it checked in the past year 211-230 What is your diastolic blood pressure (the number stated second and the lower value): Lower than 80 80-89 90-105 106-115 Higher than 116 2/19/2018, 12:16 PM Living To 100 Life Expectancy Calculator 2 of 2 I don't remember or haven't had it checked in the past year Do you know whether you have diabetes? What is your fasting blood sugar level? I have not had it checked in the past 3 years No diabetes (<120) 120-200 >200 Have you had a heart attack (answer only one)? No heart attack Yes, I had a heart attack more than 2 years ago, and I took action to reduce my risk factors for another one (regular exercise, stop smoking, lose weight, changed diet) Yes, I had a heart attack within the past 2 years, and I took action to reduce my risk factors for another one (regular exercise, stop smoking, lose weight, changed diet) Yes, I had a heart attack within the past 2 years, and I HAVE NOT taken action to reduce my risk factors for another one (regular exercise, stop smoking, lose weight, changed diet) When did you have your last doctor's appointment for your regular medical check-up (which includes blood pressure check, age- and genderappropriate screenings, immunizations, review of medical history, and analysis about your risk factors)? My last preventive care visit was over 3 years ago. My last preventive care visit was between 1 - 3 years ago. My last preventive care visit was within the past year. Go back Home | Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Legal Statement LivingTo100™, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Patent Filed and Pending. If you experience any problems with this site, please send your comments to webmaster@livingto100.com 2/19/2018, 12:16 PM Living To 100 Life Expectancy Calculator 1 of 2 Home Take the Calculator Contact Dr Perls About Sign Up Log In Family How many members of your immediate family (parents and brothers and sisters) have diabetes or have had a heart attack? None One Two Three or more I don't know Does cancer run in your family? How many non-smoking members of your family (grandparents, parents, brothers and sisters) were diagnosed with cancer (other than benign skin cancers)? None One Two Three or more I don't know How old and how healthy is/was your mother? Under the age of 80/healthy Age 80-89 and healthy Age 90-94 and healthy Age 95-99, no matter what health Age 100+, no matter what the health Mother has or died of a smoking related (cancer, heart attack, stroke, emphysema) illness OR trauma prior to age 80 Under the age of 80 and dependent on others Age 81-89 and dependent on others Age 90-94, dependent on others Died before age 80 (not from trauma or accident) Died age 80-89 Died age 90-94 Died age 95-99 Died age 100 or older Adopted / I don't know How old and how healthy is/was your father? Under the age of 80/healthy Age 80-89 and healthy Age 90-94 and healthy Age 95-99, no matter what health Age 100+, no matter what health Father has or died of a smoking related (cancer, heart attack, stroke, emphysema) illness OR trauma prior to age 80 Under the age of 80 and dependent on others Age 81-89 and dependent on others Age 90-94, dependent on others Died before age 80 (not from trauma or accident) Died age 80-89 Died age 90-94 Died age 95-99 Died age 100 or older 2/19/2018, 12:23 PM Living To 100 Life Expectancy Calculator 2 of 2 Adopted / I don't know Did any of your grandparents or great-grandparents live to age 98 years or older? Yes No Go back Home | Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Legal Statement Your calculated life expectancy is 78 years! 2/19/2018, 12:23 PM Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 22279-22295; doi:10.3390/ijms151222279 OPEN ACCESS International Journal of Molecular Sciences ISSN 1422-0067 www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms Review Smoking and Rheumatoid Arthritis Kathleen Chang 1, So Min Yang 2, Seong Heon Kim 3, Kyoung Hee Han 4, Se Jin Park 5 and Jae Il Shin 2,* 1 2 3 4 5 Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne 3800, Australia; E-Mail: kcha105@student.monash.edu Department of Pediatrics, Severance Children’s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752, Korea; E-Mail: YANG_SO@yuhs.ac Department of Pediatrics, Pusan National University Children’s Hospital, Yangsan 626-770, Korea; E-Mail: pedksh@gmail.com Department of Pediatrics, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju 690-767, Korea; E-Mail: hansyang78@gmail.com Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Daewoo General Hospital, Geoje 656-711, Korea; E-Mail: fli018@hanmail.net * Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: shinji@yuhs.ac; Tel.: +82-2-2228-2050; Fax: +82-2-393-9118. External Editor: Kathleen Gilbert Received: 27 August 2014; in revised form: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 17 October 2014 / Published: 3 December 2014 Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Smoking has been implicated as one of the most important extrinsic risk factors for its development and severity. Recent developments have shed light on the pathophysiology of RA in smokers, including oxidative stress, inflammation, autoantibody formation and epigenetic changes. The association of smoking and the development of RA have been demonstrated through epidemiologic studies, as well as through in vivo and animal models of RA. With increased use of biological agents in addition to standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), there has been interest in how smoking affects drug response in RA treatment. Recent evidence suggests the response and drug survival in people treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy is poorer in heavy smokers, and possible immunological mechanisms for this effect are presented in the current paper. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15 22280 Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; smoking; cyclic citrullinated peptide; synovial fibroblasts; drug response 1. Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by persistent synovitis and the production of auto-antibodies against various factors, including rheumatoid factor (RF) and cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) [1,2]. Typically, RA manifests as sustained inflammation of the synovium, which leads to destruction of joints [1,2]. Uncontrolled RA may cause permanent joint damage, reduced mobility and decreased quality of life, as well as cardiovascular and other extra-articular complications [1,2]. It is well established that genetic factors, such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA), and environmental factors, such as infection, ultraviolet, radiation and smoking, can affect the development of various autoimmune diseases [1–3]. Among these factors, cigarette smoking significantly increases the risk of not only various types of cancer, cardiopulmonary diseases and infections, but also autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and RA [4–8]. Although the exact pathogenic effect of smoking on RA still remains uncertain, several mechanisms have been proposed to better understand how cigarette smoking plays a role in various autoimmune diseases [3–8], and citrullination has been reported to be an important factor for the development of RA in the anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive subset. In this review, we describe the known immunobiologic effects of cigarette smoking, the epidemiologic studies implicating smoking with increased risk of RA, the effect of smoking on synovial fibroblasts and the impact of smoking on the response to anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy. 2. Smoking and Risk of RA Susceptibility Previous epidemiological studies have identified smoking as an important risk factor for RA [9–17]. Important studies are summarized in Table 1. Some studies demonstrate that smoking increases the risk of developing RA in men more than in women [10,11,18], while several other reports show that smoking increases the risk of developing RA in women [9,12,16]. Recently, Sugiyama et al. [16] conducted the first meta-analysis investigating the significance of smoking as a risk for developing RA, which suggested that smoking is indeed a risk factor for RA in RF-positive men and heavy smokers. The risk of developing RA was approximately twice as high for smokers than for non-smokers. For female smokers, the risk was approximately 1.3-times higher than for non-smokers [16]. Even tho ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

Running head: EPIGENETICS

1

Epigenetic
Students Name
University Affiliation

EPIGENETICS

2
Epigenetic

Definition of Epigenetic
Epigenetic is the scientific study of hereditary nature and function in genes that do not
involve any changes in DNA sequence. The research is done to monitor and determine the
heritable changes that take place in the genes of people related and both have a history of a
hereditary ailment.
Epigenetic Discussion
The study of genetically inherited ailments has increased because others are activities and
actions that people get involved in and that act as a predisposing factor to the human body. For
instance, Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an example of an inherited disease which is facilitated by
frequent and heavy smoking. RA has been seen to be recessive in some cases but stimulated by
smoking, which has adverse effects on the smoker. Despite the fact that doctors have been able
to get a cure for RA, the treatment is sometimes rendered useless by the continued smoking by
an individual who is not able to stop the habit (Onozaki, 2013). The effectiveness of any drug is
reduced by continued intake of smoke as it affects its operation and action on the specified
disease.
Smoking and Risk of RA Susceptibility
Smoking has been seen to be a catalyst for RA for people who have a family history ...

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