CSULA Major Child Development Theorists Research Paper

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This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. Unit 1 Children and Parenting Explore the Photo Families that spend time together often build strong relationships. Why would spending time together help to build strong relationships? 2 This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. Chapter 1 Learn about Children Chapter 2 Responsibilities of Parenting Chapter 3 Building Strong Families Unit Thematic Project Preview Learn Parenting Skills By completing this unit, you will learn that using positive parenting skills can help strengthen family relationships. In your unit thematic project, you can show how these skills help to build strong families. My Journal Parenting 101 Write a journal entry about one of the topics below. This will help you prepare for the unit project at the end of the unit. • Identify what kind of parent you think you would be someday. • Determine what you would need to know about children before becoming a parent. • List resources you could use to learn more about parenting. 3 Chapter This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. 1 Learn About Children Chapter Objectives After completing this chapter, you will be able to: • Explain the best way to learn about children. • Identify three areas of childhood that researchers have studied. • Summarize how children learn and develop important skills. • List the stages of development after childhood. • Determine why observation is important in the study of child development. • Compare and contrast different methods of observation and interpretation. Freewriting Caring Children of all ages need to be cared for. However, as they get older they need less care. Use freewriting to generate ways to show caring to a one-year-old child you are babysitting. Writing Tips To jumpstart your writing, it can be helpful to write out ideas freely. This is called freewriting. Use these tips to start freewriting: 1. Write everything that comes to mind, in any order. 2. Do not worry about having an introduction or conclusion. You can go back and revise later. 3. Focus on ideas. Correct your grammar and spelling after you are done writing. 4 This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. Section 1.1 Make a Difference in Children’s Lives Section 1.2 Studying Children Section 1.3 Observing Young Children Explore the Photo Interacting with children through play can help children learn. How can playing with children help you learn about the children? 5 Section 1.1 Make a Difference in Children’s Lives This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. Reading Guide Before You Read Preview Read the Key Concepts listed below. For each Key Concept, write a short paragraph that explains what you think you will learn in this section. Read to Learn Graphic Organizer Key Concepts As you read, compare childhood in the past with childhood in the present. Use a chart like the one shown to list the differences. • Explain the best way to learn about children. • Identify three areas of childhood that researchers have studied. Main Idea Childhood Past and Present Caregivers use their skills and knowledge to interact with children. Caregivers can make a positive difference in a child’s life. Childhood is viewed differently today than in past years. Past Health Content Vocabulary typical behavior caregiver Education Academic Vocabulary Love You will find these words in your reading and on your tests. Use the glossary to look up their definitions if necessary. impact moral Work Play Graphic Organizer Go to this book’s Online Learning Center at glencoe.com to print out this graphic organizer. Academic Standards ● ● ● ● ● ● ● English Language Arts 6 Present Dress ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Social Studies NCTE 4 Use written language to communicate effectively. NCSS V F Individuals, Groups, and Institutions Evaluate the role of institutions in furthering both continuity and change. NCTE National Council of Teachers of English NCTM National Council of Teachers of Mathematics NSES National Science Education Standards NCSS National Council for the Social Studies Chapter 1 Learn About Children This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. Benefits of Studying Children Why do babies like to chew on books? Why do toddlers throw their toys again after you have just picked them up? What should you do if a three-year-old lies? Children’s behavior can be both fascinating and frustrating, especially when you do not understand it. As you study child development, you will find answers to questions such as these. You will also learn that taking care of children is one of the most important responsibilities you can have. Understanding Children and Yourself Have you ever really thought about the process by which children grow up and become independent adults? You might never have realized that you have an impact, or significant effect, on children’s lives. People and events help shape who children become. When you live with children, you influence them every day. If your contact with children is less frequent, what you say and how you act still matter. Even if you do not interact with children regularly, younger children still watch you and pay attention to how you behave. This is true whether the children are relatives, friends of your family, or even strangers that you pass in a store. Do you think that you are a good role model? Studying child development will help you learn how you can make a positive difference in a child’s life. Learning more about how children grow and develop will help you understand children better. It will also improve your understanding of yourself. Many experts have written about how children learn and how best to care for them. No two children are alike, however, and no expert can explain every aspect of a child’s behavior. The best way to learn about children is through your active involvement with them. By interacting with children and studying their behaviors, you will: • Learn why children feel, think, and act the way they do. It is not always easy to understand children’s behavior, especially before they learn to talk. However, there are some typical behaviors. A typical behavior is a way of acting or responding that is common at each stage of childhood. Understanding these behaviors can help you respond to children more appropriately. For example, Carrie was puzzled by the actions of her brother Brett and their neighbor Curtis, both two-year-olds. Learn by Doing Interacting with children is the best way to learn about them. What can this teen learn about toddlers by playing ball with them? Section 1.1 Make a Difference in Children’s Lives 7 This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. Playing with Babies As babies grow and develop they learn new mental, physical, and social skills. As they learn more, their play changes. Very young babies learn physical skills by grasping toys such as rattles or stuffed animals. They interact and learn social skills when adults or older children talk to and play with them. Older babies learn social skills by playing games such as peek-aboo. They might learn physical skills by clapping and moving in time to music. Their toys can be as simple as a bucket and some blocks. They can put the blocks into the bucket. Then they might turn the bucket upside down and dump out the blocks, and start over. Toys that make noise and change colors or have blinking lights can help babies learn to distinguish sounds and colors. For babies, play is their school. Through play, they continue to develop mentally, physically, and socially. They never interacted when they played. Brett and Curtis usually sat near each other, but they played with different toys. In a child development class, Carrie learned that two-year-olds typically play alongside each other but not with each other. Carrie understood that her brother’s style of play was typical for his age. Discover caregivers’ importance. A person who takes care of a child is called a caregiver. Parents and others can be caregivers. As you learn more about how children develop, you will see why they are dependent upon others for many years. Caregivers provide more than food and clothes. They give the affection children need to grow emotionally. They help children learn, and teach children how to get along with others and how to know right from wrong. Enjoy children more. Learning about children can help you discover what a joy they can be. Spending time with them will give you chances to experience their honesty, humor, energy, and curiosity. Caring for children can be very rewarding. Learn about career opportunities. Throughout this book, you will be introduced to many jobs related to children. You may find one that interests you. Apply What You Learn • • • 8 Chapter 1 Learn About Children Think About It You are reading to your nine-month-old niece, Rihanna, who is very alert and playful. How is this helping her develop mental, physical, and social skills? You are in an excellent position to study child development. You are close enough to adulthood to think critically, but still young enough to remember what being a child feels like. As you learn about children, some of your views about childhood and child rearing may be reinforced, and you may rethink other views. Interacting and working with children and child care professionals can help you answer questions. Gain New Skills As you learn about children and ways to meet their needs, try to find opportunities to apply your knowledge. You might spend your summers working at a local park or pool, or looking after a younger sibling or a neighbor’s child. Knowing how to bathe a baby, prepare a healthy meal for a toddler, or encourage a fouryear-old to settle down for a nap can give you confidence. This confidence can help make the children you care for feel more secure with you. Understand Yourself As you gain a better understanding of children, you will also come to know yourself better. You may begin to see your own childhood differently. Think of your childhood. This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. Try to recall major events in your childhood. Think about how they revealed different parts of your personality, or how they influenced whom you have become. If you want to work with children, many career paths, such as teacher, children’s librarian, or pediatric nurse, are open to you. You may not intend to work with children as an occupation, but you or someone close to you may be a parent someday. Researchers have made a special study of childhood and its phases. They have looked at how children develop, what their needs are, and how those needs can best be met. One of their most important findings is that childhood has a profound influence on later life. Childhood has not always been considered a separate, important stage of life. In fact, childhood as it is now known is a fairly recent viewpoint. Define What is a typical behavior? Views of Childhood Childhood means different things to different people. The way you think about childhood can depend in part on what your own childhood was like. If your childhood was fairly easy and comfortable, you may think of it as a carefree time of security. If your parents struggled to provide for you, you may think of childhood as a time of hardship. For everyone, childhood is a period of rapid development, dependence on caregivers, and preparation for adult life. “Children need people in order to become human . . . It is primarily through observing, playing, and working with others older and younger than himself that a child discovers both what he can do and who he can become.” —Urie Bronfenbrenner, psychologist and family advocate Explore Careers Summer jobs can be a great way to explore career options. How can this teen’s job help him prepare for a career? Section 1.1 Make a Difference in Children’s Lives 9 This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. Compare Childhood Past and Present Until the twentieth century, some people believed that there was nothing special or important about the early years of life. Some adults believed children were meant to be “seen and not heard.” Little was known about the emotional and intellectual needs of children. Changing attitudes, social changes, and advances in technology and medicine have changed views about childhood. Health Before the twentieth century, diseases caused deaths in almost every family, particularly among children. Today, many deadly diseases can be controlled, and better nutrition has helped children to grow and thrive as never before. However, not all children eat well. Some do not have enough food. Others eat too many high-fat, high-sugar foods. Also, lack of regular exercise is increasingly common. The rate of childhood obesity and related problems has increased. Education Public education for all children did not become common in the United States until the early 1800s. Schools were small, and often children of different ages and abilities were in the same classroom. In today’s schools, students are grouped according to age and sometimes learning levels. Technology has enhanced learning options. Schools work to meet the special needs of individual students. Love One thing that has not changed through the years is children’s need for love. Most parents and other caregivers work hard to build a good life for their children and to raise them as moral, or ethical, people who are also responsible and independent. Changing Times Toys children play with have changed dramatically over time. Do you think children learn more by playing with today’s toys? Explain your answer. 10 Chapter 1 Learn About Children This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. Work For settlers in America, a primary concern was survival. Children helped greatly with chores, gathering wood, sewing, and even plowing. Up until the twentieth century, children were expected to work at an early age. Then laws were enacted banning children from working in factories or other adult workplaces. Today, most young children are only expected to work at growing, learning, and playing. Teens may hold jobs, but laws specify the minimum working age and number of hours worked, and most dangerous jobs are banned. Most children are expected to help out at home by cleaning their rooms, feeding pets, helping with yard work, or helping care for siblings. Play Play has always been important to children. It is how they learn. How much children play and what they play with have changed. In the past, children had far fewer toys, and they were simple. Parents often showed their love for their Section 1.1 children by making them toys out of materials at hand. A child might have had a doll made of cloth or an animal carved from wood. Toys encouraged children to use their imagination. Sports like baseball and basketball were not developed until the 1800s. Video and computer games first became available in the 1970s. Today, the variety of toys seems endless. Many toys are electronic and do not involve as much use of the imagination. However, children still enjoy books and other traditional toys. Children today spend much of their time playing. Dress If you look at old pictures, you will quickly notice that children dressed more formally in the past. Infants and toddlers of both genders often wore long gowns. Older boys wore suits, while girls wore dresses. Today, casual clothes for boys and girls are often similar in style. It is not uncommon for infants to wear onesies or t-shirts. They are washable, comfortable, and loose enough to allow freedom of movement. After You Read Review Key Concepts 1. Describe two ways learning about children can benefit you. 2. List six areas in which views about children have changed over the years. Practice Academic Skills English Language Arts 3. Use your personal experience and any observations you have made over the years to explain what is meant by the phrase, “Children are dependent upon others for many years.” Write your explanation in a paragraph. NCTE 4 Use written language to communicate effectively. Social Studies 4. Children have better health today due to advances in medical technology. Many diseases that were responsible for childhood deaths in the past are treatable today. Conduct research and write a list of four ways medical advances affect our society today. Check Your Answers Check your answers at this book’s Online Learning Center at glencoe.com. NCSS V F Evaluate the role of institutions in furthering both continuity and change. Section 1.1 Make a Difference in Children’s Lives 11 Section 1.2 Studying Children This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. Reading Guide Before You Read Cause and Effect A cause is an action or event that makes something happen. An effect is the result of the cause. As you read, look for causes and effects to better understand how the material is related. Read to Learn Academic Vocabulary Key Concepts develop important skills. • List the stages of development after childhood. You will find these words in your reading and on your tests. Use the glossary to look up their definitions if necessary. theory sequence Main Idea Graphic Organizer Childhood is an important time of physical, mental, and emotional development. A child’s heredity and environment affect development. Development continues throughout the life cycle. As you read, note three effects of low selfesteem on a developing child. Use a chart like the one shown to help organize your information. • Summarize how children learn and Content Vocabulary Low self-esteem stimulation heredity environment self-esteem human life cycle developmental task Academic Standards Graphic Organizer Go to this book’s Online Learning Center at glencoe.com to print out this graphic organizer. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● English Language Arts 12 ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Social Studies NCTE 12 Use language to accomplish individual purposes. NCSS IV C Individual Development and Identity Describe the ways family and cultural influences contribute to the development of a sense of self. NCTE National Council of Teachers of English NCTM National Council of Teachers of Mathematics NSES National Science Education Standards NCSS National Council for the Social Studies Chapter 1 Learn About Children This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. Importance of Childhood Development Imagine spending your whole career researching child development. By the time you retired, do you think you could solve all its mysteries? Many researchers have devoted their careers to the study of children, yet there are still many unanswered questions. What has been learned, however, has dramatically changed how parents raise children, how educators teach them, and how we think of development today. Today we know development is a lifelong process. Childhood prepares us for adulthood. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A child’s brain is not yet fully developed at birth. The brain is the least developed of the organs. A baby’s brain is about one-fourth the size of an adult’s. By age three, it has made trillions of connections among the brain cells. Scientists have found that a baby’s brain develops in direct response to stimulation. Stimulation is any activity that arouses a baby’s sense of sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. Such activities can improve a baby’s curiosity, attention span, memory, and nervous system development. Babies who receive stimulation develop more quickly and have a more secure self-image. By the time babies are three to four months old, they are beginning to connect what they see with what they smell, feel, and taste. By the time toddlers start walking, the brain is sending messages faster and more clearly. Repetition of actions, such as throwing a ball, reinforces pathways in the brain. This makes it easier to perform the same action the next time. What Researchers Have Found Child development theorists have provided valuable information about how children learn and develop skills. Some perform experiments involving children to test a theory, or belief. For example, children’s perception of volume can be tested using the same amount of water in containers of various shapes. Other theories cannot be tested, such as Erik Erikson’s belief that each stage of development includes a personal crisis. Not everyone agrees on how parents, caregivers, and educators should apply theories and research findings. Figure 1.1 on page 15 summarizes the study and research findings of some of the major child development theorists. Although they do not always agree, scientific researchers have given us insight about how best to nurture and educate children. They have also laid the foundations upon which future researchers can build. There are five basic areas of child development: physical, emotional, social, intellectual, and moral. Physical Development Toddlers cannot learn to walk until their bodies are physically developed and ready. What happens when a toddler is just learning to walk? Why does it happen? Section 1.2 Studying Children 13 This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. Different but Same No matter where a child lives, research has shown that all children develop skills in about the same order. What skills might this infant have already mastered? Characteristics of Development Researchers have found that child development follows five general rules: • Development is similar for each individual. Children go through the same stages in about the same order. All babies lift their heads before they lift their bodies. • Development builds upon earlier learning. Development follows a sequence, or an order of steps. The skills learned at one stage build on those mastered earlier. • Development proceeds at an individual • • rate. While all children pass through the same stages of development, each child goes through these stages at his or her own pace. The different areas of development are interrelated. Though research tends to focus on one area at a time, changes occur in many areas at the same time. Development is continuous throughout life. The rate of development varies. No matter what the pace is, development does not stop. Influences on Development Neural Connections Babies learn alot in the first three years of life. Newborn babies’ brains contain about 100 billion nerve cells, called neurons. Those neurons have about 50 trillion connections. These connections increase rapidly, and by the age of three, a child has twice as many connections as an adult. As a child matures, unused pathways are removed. This means that babies who live in an environment where they learn more will keep more connections. Science Inquiry A stimulating environment is important for babies’ brains to develop to their fullest potential. How would a stimulating environment lead to an increased number of neurological connections? 14 Chapter 1 Learn About Children If you traveled the world visiting families in various countries, you would see that babies are cared for in different ways in different cultures. However, all infants follow a predictable sequence of development at about the same ages. Babies must learn to lift their heads before they can sit or crawl, stand, and walk. Children develop at different rates because each has a unique combination of factors influencing their development. These factors fall into one of two categories: • Heredity is the biological transfer of certain characteristics from earlier generations. Blood type, eye color, and hair color are just a few of the characteristics determined by heredity. • Environment is the people, places, and things that surround and influence a person, including family, home, school, and community. This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. 8.3 1.1 Child Development Theorists These are some of the researchers who have made a major contribution to the study of child development. Which theorist said that each stage of development includes a psychological crisis? Why is this important? Theorist Findings or Ideas Significance Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) Believed that personality develops through a series of stages. Experiences in childhood profoundly affect adult life. Childhood is much more important than previously thought, and its effects are longer lasting. Jean Piaget (1896–1980) The first to study children scientifically. Focused on how children learned. Believed that children go through four stages of learning. Children must be given learning tasks appropriate to their level of development. Lev Vygotsky (1896–1934) Wrote that biological development and cultural experience influence children’s ability to learn. Social contact is essential to intellectual development. Children should be given the opportunity for frequent social interaction. Erik Erikson (1902–1994) Like Freud, said that personality develops in stages. Thought that each stage includes a unique psychological crisis. If that crisis is met in a positive way, the individual develops normally. Parents and other caregivers must be aware of, and sensitive to, children’s needs at each stage of development and support them through crises. B. F. Skinner (1904–1990) Argued that when a child’s actions have positive results, they will be repeated. Negative results will make the actions stop. Parents and other caregivers can affect a child’s behavior through the use of negative and positive feedback. Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917–2005) Outlined layers of environment that affect a child’s development, such as the child’s own biology, family/community environment, and society. Child’s primary relationship with a caregiver needs to be stable, loving, and lasting. Albert Bandura (b. 1925) Said that children learn by imitating others. Disagreed with Skinner. Pointed out that although the environment shapes behavior, behavior also affects environment. Caregivers must provide good examples for children to follow. Section 1.2 Studying Children 15 This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. What Wou ld Do? A Healthy Environment Anne is a pediatric nurse. She has two nineyear-old patients, Ian and Seth, who have asthma. Aside from their age and diagnosis, their situations are different. “Seth has been to the hospital only once for an asthma attack,” Anne says. “His mom also has asthma, so they have learned together how to manage their symptoms. They keep emergency medication on hand and clean their house often to reduce dust. Ian, on the other hand, spends a lot of time in the hospital for asthma attacks.” Anne continues, “Two conditions in his home can make his asthma worse: his family has a cat and one of his parents smokes.” Ian’s parents asked how to help reduce his number of attacks. Write About It How might Ian’s parents change his environment to reduce the number of his asthma attacks? Write a brief article for the Health section of your local newspaper to offer ideas for Ian’s parents. Heredity is often referred to as nature. For example, if someone says, “Dylan is musically talented—it’s in his nature,” they mean that he was born with this gift. Nurture is used to refer to influences and conditions in a child’s environment. Dylan may play the piano well because he practices each day. For years, scientists and philosophers have debated whether nature or nurture has more influence. Most agree, however, that they work together. Children inherit certain physical characteristics from their parents and ancestors. For example, Alejandra has brown hair and brown eyes, as do her parents. Children learn attitudes and beliefs from their environment. Samira’s parents take helping family and friends very seriously, and so does she. Children are also greatly influenced by the world around them. What they read, the music they listen to, the movies and television shows they watch, the type of community in which they grow up, and many other influences play a part in who they become. If you spend time around children, you can count yourself as one of these influences. Heredity Affects Development Heredity plays a major role in physical characteristics and development. What are some ways environment might affect development? 16 Chapter 1 Learn About Children This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. Of course, children do not always copy the attitudes and actions of others, and no two children are exactly alike. They react to outside influences in their own ways. That is one reason that brothers and sisters who grow up in the same home may experience life differently. This is also why they may become very different people. No two children have exactly the same environment. Even children who grow up in the same home have different environments. Their choice of friends, food, and activities will differ, and so will they. They might belong to different clubs. They will be exposed to different classmates. All of these things make up their environment. During infancy and early childhood, environment plays a particularly important role in development. That is why working with young children is such an important responsibility and such a challenging opportunity. The Role of Self-Esteem in Development Self-esteem, or self-worth, is the value people place on themselves. Self-esteem plays a role in people’s ability to face and overcome the challenges of each developmental stage, including those of young childhood. People with low self-esteem often feel that they are failing or constantly disappointing others. Researchers have found a link between low self-esteem and poor school performance, truancy, and criminal behavior. A sense of self-worth is critical to children’s development. Children who feel good about themselves are more likely to show enthusiasm for learning, form friendships, and make healthy choices. Having a sense of self-worth can help children deal with life’s frustrations and disappointments, as well as its successes. Identify Explain what is meant by nature versus nurture. Help Children Develop Self-Esteem Parents and other caregivers play a major role in developing a child’s sense of self-esteem. Here are a few ways to have a positive effect. ❥ Give praise. Praise children for their accomplishments or real effort. ❥ Do not be overly critical. When children do not do things quite right, try to find the good in what they have done and discuss how they can do better the next time. ❥ Set realistic goals. Help children set goals that they can reach. Reaching realistic goals makes children feel good about their accomplishments. ❥ Encourage new activities. Help children learn to enjoy trying new things. ❥ Model self-esteem. Children learn by example. If the adults in their lives say negative things about themselves, children will imitate this negative behavior. ❥ Be honest about mistakes. Children need to see that adults have faults and make mistakes, too. Take Charge Write a journal entry that describes a time when someone’s criticism lowered your self-esteem. Explain how that person might have encouraged you instead. Section 1.2 Studying Children 17 This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. • The Thirties This stage presents the Stages of Life After Childhood Development does not end when childhood does. It continues from birth to death in the human life cycle. The human life cycle is a set of stages of human development that each present different challenges to be met or skills to be acquired. The challenge to be met or skill to be acquired in each stage is known as a developmental task. These tasks can be such things as creating an identity or starting a career. Individuals differ in how they approach the challenges. Mastering the tasks of one stage helps prepare a person for the next stage. • Adolescence This is the stage of life between childhood and adulthood. Teens work on three developmental tasks: creating an identity, becoming independent, and pursuing education and careers. • Young Adulthood This stage refers to people in their twenties, when many young adults finish their education and begin working. Many marry in this period. Section 1.2 • • • challenges of establishing roots, reevaluating life choices made earlier, and finding stability in career and relationships. Middle Age This stage lasts from about ages 40–55. Parents adjust as their children become more independent. Adults in this stage may make life changes, such as starting a new career. Late Adulthood At some point during this stage (ages 55–75), many adults retire. They may become more politically or socially active, travel, take classes, or enjoy hobbies they did not have time for before. Some take on a part-time job. Others enjoy having more time with their grandchildren. Health issues may arise. Very Late Adulthood It is in this stage (beyond age 75) when health problems become more common. However, many older adults are still active, and they contribute their knowledge and experience to society. Those in fragile health often need more assistance or care. After You Read Review Key Concepts 1. Explain why early childhood is considered the most important period for brain development. 2. Identify common characteristics of late adulthood. Practice Academic Skills English Language Arts 3. Imagine that you will participate in a panel discussion on Nature versus Nurture. Create notes to use that explain how heredity and the environment can work together to shape a child. Social Studies 4. Having a sense of self-worth helps children deal with life’s successes and challenges. Research someone who has overcome obstacles in his or her life. Write a paragraph explaining how you think having a sense of selfworth helped them to succeed in life. Check Your Answers Check your answers at this book’s Online Learning Center at glencoe.com. 18 Chapter 1 Learn About Children NCTE 12 Use language to accomplish individual purposes. NCSS IV C Describe the ways family and cultural influences contribute to the development of a sense of self. This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. Section 1.3 Observing Young Children Reading Guide Before You Read Vocabulary Read the Content and Academic Vocabulary. Choose a term that you are not familiar with and when you see it in the text, write down the definition. Read to Learn Academic Vocabulary Key Concepts in the study of child development. • Compare and contrast different methods of observation and interpretation. You will find these words in your reading and on your tests. Use the glossary to look up their definitions if necessary. assumption judgment Main Idea Graphic Organizer An important component in learning and understanding child development is observation. Observation allows caregivers to better understand individual children and their particular needs. As you read, note the four methods of recording observations described in the text. Use a chart like the one shown to help organize your information. • Determine why observation is important Content Vocabulary subjective objective running record anecdotal record frequency count baseline developmental checklist interpretation confidentiality Academic Standards Types of Observation Records Graphic Organizer Go to this book’s Online Learning Center at glencoe.com to print out this graphic organizer. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● English Language Arts ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Science NCTE 4 Use written language to communicate effectively. NSES A Develop abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry, understandings about scientific inquiry. NCTE National Council of Teachers of English NCTM National Council of Teachers of Mathematics NSES National Science Education Standards NCSS National Council for the Social Studies Section 1.3 Observing Young Children 19 This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. Learning by Observation Observation can help you learn traits and personalities of individual children. What have you learned by observing children? Why Observe Children? While you can learn a great deal from reading about children, observing them is even more helpful. Observing offers you the chance to see children as individuals. You see them meeting the challenges of development in their own ways and in their own time. Child development comes to life when you observe children in action. Learning how to observe children is an important skill for teachers, parents, and other caregivers. Observing young children and interpreting their behavior are skills that take time to learn. You will see how one stage leads to the next, for example, as an infant learns to sit up, then pull up, then stand alone, and finally walk. Caregivers who are familiar with the various stages of development can help and encourage children as they progress. Observing a child will let you see his or her unique personality. If you get to know a child, you will be able to adapt activities to that child’s needs. Parents and caregivers who are careful observers often can identify children who may have disabilities or require extra care. 20 Chapter 1 Learn About Children Children developing slowly can be evaluated and treated. Researchers have found that children whose special needs are spotted and treated early do better over the long term. Finally, observing children provides caregivers with useful feedback. Watch how children respond to your attempts at guiding their behavior, and you will see how successful your methods are. If you stick to what works, you will be more effective at earning children’s cooperation and trust. Recall Why is it useful to get to know a child? How to Observe Young Children Knowing how to record what you observe and analyze it later will give you insight into children’s development. Observing means more than just watching. It means following certain steps so that your observations will be useful. You must have a written record of your observation to refer to for analysis. This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. Objective Versus Subjective Observations When observing, you must learn to separate fact from opinion. Compare the two observations of the same event in Figure 1.2. Observation A is subjective. Subjective means to rely on personal opinions and feelings, rather than facts, to judge an event. From reading the observation, it is hard to tell what really happened between Ethan and Cody. The observer in this example recorded an opinion about how Ethan felt. Observation B is objective. Objective means something is factual, and leaves aside personal feelings and prejudices. The observer describes only what was actually seen and heard. You know exactly what actions Ethan and Cody performed. Analyzing the observation later will help determine why those actions occurred. 1.2 Examples of Observations Subjective observations are based on the false assumption that the observer knows what is going on in the child’s mind. An assumption is a fact that is taken for granted. Subjective observations can be misleading. Ethan might not have been acting selfishly. He might have had an earlier agreement with Cody about taking turns. He might be angry because Cody is not holding up his end of the deal. Subjective observations do not record facts, so they are hard for others to use. A teacher who knew that Ethan was generally shy at school would probably prefer to hear the objective facts presented in Observation B. The teacher might interpret Ethan’s behavior as a sign of growing self-assertion. Ethan might not be behaving appropriately, but the teacher might be pleased that he is sticking up for himself. The teacher might also realize that Cody needs more practice at sharing. Observations can be subjective or objective. What differences do you see between these two observations? Observation A Observation B Section 1.3 Observing Young Children 21 This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. Observe to Learn Observing young children is an important way to learn about child development. Why do you need to have a specific focus or purpose for an observation? Writing objective observations takes practice. An observer can note that a child smiled or laughed, for example, but should avoid saying that this means the child is happy. That is making a judgment, or opinion. Remember to record only what you see and hear. Do not make judgments when you are observing. Running Record Types of Observation Records Anecdotal Record When making observations, it is important for observers to write down what they see when it happens. If they wait, observers may forget details. Begin each record by noting the date and time, the number of children and adults present, and their names and ages. Young children develop so quickly that it is helpful to include months when you record their ages. A child of two years and one month is quite different from one who is two years and eleven months of age. The record should also note the setting, such as school or home, and exactly where the observation occurred, such as on the jungle gym. There are many ways to observe children. The above information should be included in any observation. The following four methods are particularly useful. Choose a method based on what you are hoping to learn from the observation. 22 Chapter 1 Learn About Children A running record is a record of everything observed for a set period, such as 15 minutes. This method is useful for observers who are just getting to know the child or children. It is also good when concentrating on a certain area of development, such as social interaction. An anecdotal record is a report of a child’s actions that concentrates on a specific behavior or area of development. The time is not limited for this record. For example, suppose an observer wanted to focus on adjustment to a new child care center. Every day for two weeks the observer could record how a child behaves upon arriving at the center. Frequency Count A frequency count is a tally of how often a certain behavior occurs. This kind of record is useful when you are trying to change an unwanted behavior. First, the observer finds a baseline. A baseline is a count made before any steps are taken to try to change the behavior. As attempts are made to change the behavior, additional frequency counts can be made. The observer can then determine whether the methods are working. This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. Developmental Checklist A list of skills children should master, or behaviors they should exhibit at a certain age, is called a developmental checklist. Observers can use this checklist and simply check off the skills or behaviors they see. How to Act While Observing There are two different ways you can observe young children: formally and informally. A formal observation might be something you set up with a child care center or a family. An informal observation is one where you do not make yourself so obvious. This could be sitting at a mall or airport watching children. When you make informal observations, you will have to estimate the ages of the children you observe. Avoid making quick judgments about children, since you are only getting glimpses of their abilities and behavior. Whether you observe children formally or informally, you do not want to be noticed. When you observe children, it is generally important to try to blend into the environment as much as possible. Avoid calling attention to yourself. If your presence affects the children’s behavior, it may not be possible to gather objective information. Sit or stand slightly outside the area where the children are, and be ready to take notes. Make sure you clearly understand your observation assignment before you begin. Also make sure you have noted the basic information. When you are observing children, things happen very quickly. You need to be prepared. Figure 1.3 offers more tips on how to take notes that will be useful for later analysis. How to Take Notes 1.3 During an Observation Preparing ahead of time will help ensure a successful observation. How might you prepare your paper to help you complete all the aspects of your observation? Action Explanation Know your purpose. Before you do your observation, define the purpose of your observation. Ask yourself what you are supposed to observe. Identify the when, where, who, and what. Take note of the physical features of the setting. Who is there? What activities are going on? Make a record of the time and place. Be descriptive. You can use words and phrases to capture the moment. Think of it as giving a picture of what you see. Make comparisons. Look for similarities and differences. If you are watching groups of children, evaluate what each group is doing. If you are focusing your observation on one child, how do his or her skills compare to those of another child of the same age? Uncover the data. Record as much factual information as you can, focusing on the evidence at hand. Review and clarify. At the end, read through your comments, make clarifications or corrections, and add any additional notes. Section 1.3 Observing Young Children 23 This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. An Observer’s Role Children often do not have the judgment or skills to realize that they are in danger. While observing, if you see a child in a dangerous situation, you must intervene and get help from a teacher or caregiver. For example, imagine you are observing children at a child care center and you notice a young toddler put a small puzzle piece in his mouth. You should get help from a child care worker immediately. Getting help quickly often prevents harm from coming to children. Be Prepared Think of a dangerous situation in which you would intervene immediately. Decide what you would do in the situation. Develop a step-by-step procedure that you would follow in the situation and create a poster with the steps. Hang the poster in the classroom. Always be respectful of others. If you are doing a formal observation, arrive on time. Be sure to follow any sign-in procedures or other rules a center might have. Children are naturally curious, and they will want to find out who you are and what you are doing. Answer questions honestly but briefly. You can also just smile and say you are working. Avoid asking questions, which will encourage conversation. If the children need to be persuaded to return to their activities, you might say, “I am writing a story about how children play. If you go back to playing, I can write about you in my story.” There are some situations when you may need to interact with a child. For example, if you are updating a developmental checklist you might need to know how well a child can catch and throw a ball. You could pull the child aside for a few minutes and test for these skills. The Safe Child, Healthy Child feature describes other reasons you might need to step in. Time to Understand It takes time to develop good observation skills and to be able to interpret observations accurately. Why should you discuss questions about what you observe with your teacher rather than your friends? 24 Chapter 1 Learn About Children This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. How To Interpret Observations Before you use your observations, you will need to finalize your paperwork. In many cases, you will want to transfer your notes to another sheet, or use your notes to write a longer observation record. Some observations are kept in a child’s file for future reference, so make sure that your final report appears neat and professional. You might want to type your report using word-processing software. This will allow you to save an electronic file for reference and print a copy for the child’s file. Simply having a half-hour’s running record of a child’s behavior is of little use unless you analyze it. The analysis an observer forms and expresses about what was observed is called an interpretation. In recording the information, it was your job to remain objective. Now it is time to form and express ideas about what you saw. Your study of child development will help you do so. Section 1.3 Anyone who observes children and interprets information about them must maintain confidentiality. Confidentiality (+k&n-f`-+den(t)sh#-=a-l`-t#) is the protection of another person’s privacy by limiting access to personal information. You may share your information only with the child’s parents or your child development teacher. It is not ethical to discuss children outside of class. Remember that most observations are short in length. For this reason, your interpretation may not be accurate. You are just developing your observation skills, so your interpretation may not match that of a professional. These are further reasons that you must avoid discussing the child’s behavior with your friends. Comments such as “Lauren is spoiled” or “Caleb is a slow learner” might lead to gossip that could hurt the child or the family. If you have questions or concerns about a child you observed, discuss them only with your child development teacher. After You Read Review Key Concepts 1. List two reasons why observing children is helpful in your study of child development. 2. Identify four basic facts an observation record should include. Practice Academic Skills English Language Arts 3. Imagine that you have just completed your observation of a kindergarten-age boy. Write a paragraph to discuss how you would go about interpreting his behavior. List the steps you would take after recording your information. Science 4. With a partner, observe one child for at least ten minutes. One of you will write a running record of all the behaviors observed. The other will write an anecdotal record, focusing on one aspect of behavior, such as attitude toward learning. How are your records similar or different? . Check Your Answers Check your answers at this book’s Online Learning Center at glencoe.com. NCTE 4 Use written language to communicate effectively. NSES A Develop abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry, understandings about scientific inquiry. Section 1.3 Observing Young Children 25 This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. Parent Educator Sometimes parents want to do more for their children outside of the home and classroom. Parent educators are trained in child development. They use their training to help educate parents about parenting skills. What Does a Parent Educator Do? Parent educators provide assistance, instruction, and materials in a variety of areas. These can include academic areas as well as nutrition, parenting styles, and behavioral management. Parent educators can demonstrate techniques to enhance parent-child growth. One primary responsibility of these educators is to teach parents about the resources available to them. They provide referral information for books, Web sites, and workshops. Where Does a Parent Educator Work? Depending on the area in which they specialize, parent educators have the flexibility of working in schools, community centers, and hospitals. Some parent educators visit the homes of the people they work with. Explore Careers Preparation and Skills Education and Training Most parent educators have bachelor’s degrees with an emphasis in early childhood education or psychology. Some hold master’s degrees in social work or developmental psychology. Aptitudes, Abilities, and Skills Parent educators must be proficient in communication and language skills. They should possess a knowledge of early childhood behavior, characteristics, and development. Effective parenting skills, mentoring abilities, and recordkeeping abilities are also needed. Academic Skills Parent educators use English language arts, such as speaking and listening, when they talk to parents or groups of parents. They also use mathematics, science, and social studies skills in the research and skills they teach to parents. Research a career related to parent educator, such as teacher or family counselor. Write a paragraph describing the career. Explain why you would or would not pursue that career. Careers Online For more information on careers, visit the Occupational Outlook Handbook Web site through the link on this book’s Online Learning Center at glencoe.com. 26 Chapter 1 Learn About Children This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. Chapter 1 Review and Applications Chapter Summary By studying children, you can learn why they act the way they do, discover why caregivers are an important influence, and enjoy children more. As more has been learned about children through research, attitudes and practices have changed. Experiences in the first years of life promote rapid brain development. Heredity and environment both impact development. Self-esteem influences a person’s ability to face life’s challenges. You can learn things by observing children that you cannot learn from a book. There are several types of observation methods. All observations should be conducted carefully and kept confidential. Vocabulary Review 1. Use each of these content and academic vocabulary words in a sentence. Content Vocabulary typical behavior (p. 7) caregiver (p. 8) stimulation (p. 13) heredity (p. 14) environment (p. 14) self-esteem (p. 17) human life cycle (p. 18) developmental task (p. 18) subjective (p. 21) Academic Vocabulary objective (p. 21) running record (p. 22) anecdotal record (p. 22) frequency count (p. 22) baseline (p. 22) developmental checklist (p. 23) interpretation (p. 25) confidentiality (p. 25) impact (p. 7) moral (p. 10) theory (p. 13) sequence (p. 14) assumption (p. 21) judgment (p. 22) Review Key Concepts 2. Explain the best way to learn about children. 3. Identify three areas of childhood that researchers have studied. 4. Summarize how children learn and develop important skills. 5. List the stages of development after childhood. 6. Determine why observation is important in the study of child development. 7. Compare and contrast different methods of observation and interpretation. Critical Thinking 8. Examine How might studying the different aspects of child develop- ment better help you understand yourself? 9. Conclude What are two reasons adults might have less responsibility as they settle into middle age? 10. Infer Why might the conclusions of scientific studies, such as those in child development, later be viewed as invalid? Chapter 1 Learn About Children 27 This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. Chapter 1 Review and Applications 11. Shadow a Teacher Work with your teacher to set up a time when you can shadow, or observe, a preschool or kindergarten teacher. Notice how the teacher interacts with the children. Take notes on the techniques used to stimulate learning. Prepare an oral presentation to share your observations with your class. 12. Research Childhood Vaccinations One of the main reasons for the decline in childhood deaths from disease is the development of vaccines. Select and research two vaccines. Find out at what ages they are given to children. Research what diseases they will protect against. How do the vaccines work? Do the vaccines have any side effects? Record your findings in a chart. 13 Observe Child Interaction Obtain per- mission to observe elementary school– age children in a class setting. Choose an age in which you have a particular interest. Be sure the class has both boys and girls in it. Procedure Pay close attention to the children’s interactions with one another. Do they all get along well? Is there one who does not seem to fit in? Analysis Take notes during your observation. After the observation, rewrite your notes into a short report. Be sure to note any behaviors that show an inability to interact positively with others. NSES 1 Develop an understanding of science unifying concepts and processes; evidence, models, and explanations. Real-World Skills ProblemSolving Skills 14. Making Conclusions A three-year-old child consistently tries to get Technology Skills 15. Research a Theorist Conduct research about one of the child develop- Financial Literacy Skills 16. Compare Video Games Imagine that your brother is celebrating his in the front of the line for the playground slide. Answer the following questions in a short report: What conclusions can you make about the child’s behavior? What are some ways that might help this child learn to take turns? ment theorists mentioned in this chapter. How does this theory help caregivers, parents, and teachers understand children? Use presentation software to create a presentation about your selected theorist and include your answers to the questions. Share your presentation with the class. 10th birthday. You want to buy him an educational computer game that teaches map skills. Do research to find the best game at the best price. Record the name of each game researched, the cost of each game, and its strengths and weaknesses. Which game would you buy? Why? Additional Activities For additional activities, go to this book’s Online Learning Center at glencoe.com. 28 Chapter 1 Learn About Children This material is provided to the School for individual educational purposes only and may not be further reproduced or distributed. Chapter 1 Review and Applications Academic Skills English Language Arts Science 17. Campaign for Change Imagine that you 19. Graph Communicable Diseases Public are campaigning to promote longer recess times in elementary schools. Write a letter to the editor of a local newspaper stating why you feel children this age need more play time. Use the information you have learned about child development to support your arguments. health services track communicable diseases that may affect public health. They keep statistics that help them determine when they might have a health disaster and how to avoid it. They also offer prevention services. Procedure Contact your local public health agency to obtain statistics related to communicable childhood diseases in your area during the past ten years. Analysis Create a bar graph to show the incidences of childhood diseases in your area for the past ten years. NCTE 12 Use language to accomplish individual purposes. Mathematics 18. Respiratory Diseases Young children spend most of their time at home, where they are exposed to a wide range of hazards. These exposures affect 8.5 million children below the age of 15 every year. 2.5 million of those children have respiratory diseases. What percentage of children exposed to environmental hazards contracted respiratory diseases? Math Concept Percentages A percent is a ratio that compares a number to 100. Starting Hint Divide the number of children with respiratory diseases by the total number of affected children. Multiply by 100 to convert the answer to a percent. For math help, go to the Math Appendix at the back of the book. NCTM Number and Operations Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems. NSES F Develop understanding of personal and community health. Standardized Test Practice MULTIPLE CHOICE Read the passage, then answer the question. Whether you observe children formally or informally, you do not want to be noticed. When you observe children, it is important to try to blend into the environment as much as possible. If your presence affects the children’s behavior, it may not be possible to get objective information. Stay slightly outside the area where the children are. 20. In this passage, the phrase blend into the environment means: a. wear camouflage clothing. b. ignore the children if they talk to you. c. stay slightly outside the area where the children are. d. participate in the children’s activities. Test-Taking Tip In a multiple-choice test, read the question first, then read all the answer choices. Eliminate answers that you know are incorrect. Chapter 1 29
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