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Islamic Middle Period: A Period of Consolidation
According to Ibn Khaldum, “the daily struggle of societies in their natural state as they
live in their rural countryside is what binds kinsmen together (Qudrat).” The strong familial bond
(asabiyya) among people who consider themselves as brethren is what creates zealous loyalty
amongst them. This loyalty and bond, in turn, acts as their driving force towards conquests.
However, once they have achieved their conquests, and have nothing requiring a communal
contribution, individualistic desires for material gains kicks in and elitist disposition begins to
form. The once highly-held bond of asabiyya begins to disintegrate as individuals concentrate on
pursuing individual goals. It is at this stage that a state begins to fragment and ultimately
collapses (Qudrat). In the Islamic Middle Ages, the Abbasid dynasty had arrived at this stage.
Surprisingly, despite the dynasty experiencing increasing political fragmentation, economic
decline, and insecurity, it was in the Middle Period that a lot of scientific, political, and cultural
production was witnessed; which was instrumental in strengthening and furthering the unity of
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