Business Finance
Grantham Crosby's Principles: Quality Comes to City Hall Case Study

Grantham University

Question Description

Case Study: Quality Comes to City Hall While there are many notable philosophers and theorists in the field of quality management, their philosophies and theories remain just that without practical application. While the quality management gurus and criteria we have studied in Week 2 have been applied to multi-level, complex quality related issues in many industries, in quality improvement for performance excellence needs to address the culture as well as the quality issue. This case study involves the application of total quality management based on Deming’s theories and practices by the municipal government of Madison, Wisconsin. It is a story of quality, innovation, operating excellence, and renewal, but above all, this is a story of the impact that Deming’s total quality management theories can have on external and internal stakeholders when the concept of service is installed in government. Review the case study: Quality Comes to City Hall. (Sensenbrenner, 1991) located in EBSCOhost in Business Source Complete. Citation: Sensenbrenner, J. (1991). Quality comes to city hall. Nation’s Business, 79(10), 60. Through research from sources provided in the course and from academic and scholarly resources outside of the course, determine, analyze and evaluate the following elements: 1.Determine how the quality management philosophies of Deming, Juran, and Crosby were applied to the Madison, Wisconsin’s city government practices. 2.Analyze the impact of Deming’s quality management concept on the external and internal stakeholder cultures of Madison, Wisconsin’s city government. 3.Evaluate how Crosby’s Zero Defects Theory of quality management could improve the services provided by government agencies. Directions for obtaining the file: Access the Grantham University library by clicking on the Resources tab from the main page in GLife or from the Library Resource Center under My Organizations in Blackboard. You will then click on the EBSCOHost icon. Once you have accessed the database, simply copy and paste the title of the article and press enter to search and you should now have the file accessible to review. The paper should contain the following APA formatted elements: 1.Title Page. 2.Abstract. 3.Body of the essay (Your researched response.). 4.Conclusion. 5.References Section. The requirements below must be met for your paper to be accepted and graded: 1.Write a response between 750 – 1000 words for the body of the essay (The title page, abstract, conclusion and References section are not counted toward the word requirement.) (approximately 4-6¬ pages) using Microsoft Word in APA style, 2.Address all three elements fully. 3.Use font size 12 and 1” margins. 4.Use at least three references from outside the course material (You may use the academic resources included in the Week 8 Bibliography.) one reference must be from EBSCOhost. The course textbook and lectures can be used, but are not counted toward the five reference requirement. 5.References must come from sources such as, academic and scholarly journals and essays found in EBSCOhost, CNN, online newspapers such as, The Wall Street Journal, government websites, etc. Sources such as, Wikis, Yahoo Answers, eHow, blogs, etc. are not acceptable for academic writing. 6.Cite all reference material (data, dates, graphs, quotes, paraphrased words, values, etc.) in the paper and list on a reference page in APA style. Provide citations everywhere information from the sources is used for foundational support and for validation of opinions. 7.Use the third person narrative and avoid the use of the first and second person narrative and terms such as; I, me, myself, you, your, yourself, we or us (or related form such as let’s (let us) or we’ll, we’ve (we will / we have) among others). This will prevent the author or other parties from becoming the subject matter and will maintain the focus of the paper on the central theme and subject matter found in the elements. 8.Be informational and avoid being conversational. A detailed explanation of how to cite a source using APA can be found here (https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/). Grading Criteria Assignments Maximum Points Meets or exceeds established assignment criteria 40 Demonstrates an understanding of lesson concepts 20 Clearly presents well-reasoned ideas and concepts 30 Uses proper mechanics, punctuation, sentence structure, and spelling 10 Total 100

Unformatted Attachment Preview

I First Person Firsthand lessons from experienced managers How in the world, I wondered, do we get bureaucrats to strive for "continuous improvement^" They invented the status quo! Quality Comes to City Haii by Joseph Sensenbrenner Government may be the biggest and the oldest industry in the world, but tbe statement "I'm from the government, and I'm here to help you" is universally considered a bad joke. Increasingly, people don't believe that government knows how to belp or wants to bother. They find concepts like "total quality," "customerdriven," and "continuous improvement" foreign to everything they know about what government does and how it works. They wish government would be more like a well-run business, but most have stopped hoping it ever will he. Today, fortunately, a new channel bas opened through which business and progressive husiness practices can have an impact on the cost, efficiency, and overall quality of government. This channel is the quality movement-tbe rapidly growing acceptance of the management prac64 tices tbat W. Edwards Deming developed and persuaded Japanese industry to implement after the end of World War II. As more and more U.S. industries work witb and profit from Deming's techniques, we have to wonder whether it's not possible to develop a public sector that offers taxpayers and citizens tbe same quality of services they have come to expect from progressive businesses like Motorola and Westinghouse. My answer to that question is yes, it is possible. Moreover, while I was mayor of Madison, Wisconsin from 1983 to 1989, I took several steps to make it happen. Mayor of Madison, Wisconsin from 1983 to 1989, Joseph Sensenbrenner is now a consultant on the application of total quality management in the public sector. I acted in response to a changing climate. Just as major corporations like Ford and Harley-Davidson have bad to improve or perish, so too the marketplace now confronts governments witb shrinking revenues, taxpayer revolts, and a new insistence on greater productivity and better services. "People are making comparisons," says one quality expert. "They can call American Express on Monday and get a credit card in tbe mail by the end of the week, but it takes six weeks to get a lousy driver's license renewed. You migbt not think the motor vehicles division competes witb American Express, but it does in tbe mind of tbe customer." Welcome to Madison These problems came alive for me when I was elected to the first of three two-year terms as mayor of HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW March-April 1991 Madison in 1983. As state capital and home of the University of Wisconsin, Madison smolders politically even in quiet times. Although life had returned to relative normalcy after the upheavals of the Vietnam War, government was still on the defensive. The Reagan revolution was cutting sharply into revenues (the city lost 11 % of total revenues between 1983 and 1989) even as our service area continued to grow and costs continued to rise. Madison's property-tax base is constrained in two ways - naturally hy the city's location on a narrow isthmus, artificially by the volume of land and buildings devoted to the university and to county and state government. By 1983, we were taxing taxable property nearly to its limit and beginning to turn to controversial measures like ambulance fees to make up the difference. Budget hearings were hecoming an annual nightmare. The people of Madison did not want their services cut or their taxes raised. In their view, city services were in a steady decline already, even as they paid more for them. From what I could see, in many cases they were right. But I felt boxed in. My previous managerial experience - as the governor's chief of staff and as deputy state attorney general - was nearly useless in getting a handle on the mixed operations of municipal government. As deputy state attorney general, I had run an office where I was an expert on every aspect of the work, and I practiced a good deal of participatory decision making. As mayor, I could not run an executive office, deal with the city council, and also be an expert on lawn cutting, snow removal, and motor vehicle maintenance. And it was out there on the front lines that systems were breaking down. For example, a 1983 audit disclosed big problems at the city garage: long delays in repair and major pieces of equipment unavailable for the many agencies that used Madison's 765-unit fleet of squad cars, dump trucks, refuse packers, and road scrapers. The audit gave a depressingly vivid and complete picture of the sympHARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW March-April 1991 toms of the problem (for example, vehicles spent an average of nine days in the garage every time they needed work), but it offered no clear explanation of why things were so bad. Like other managers in similar situations, I felt inclined to call in the shop boss, read him the riot act, and tell him to crack the whip and shape up his department. Just about then, an assistant in my office suggested I attend a presentation by W. Edwards Deming, the then 82-year-old statistician and guru of the Japanese industrial miracle. Deming's approach is no doubt familiar to many businesspeople, but it was unlike anything I had ever heard. It sounded like common sense, but it was revolutionary. American industry, he said, had been living in a fool's paradise. In an ever-expanding market, even the worst management seems good because its flaws are concealed. But under competitive conditions those flaws become fatal, and that is what we are witnessing as U.S. companies lose market share in one area after another. If there was a devil in the piece, Deming said, it was our system of make-and-inspect, which if applied I Applied to toast, the government approach to quality wouid go, "You burn, 111 sorope." to making toast would he expressed: "You burn, I'll scrape." It is folly to correct defects "downstream"; the critical issue, he said, is to get your "upstream" processes under control so you can guarantee the outcome every time. To do this, an organization must create a culture of quality; it must master proven quality techniques. Most important, it must define quality - first, as continuous improvement in pleasing customers and second, as reducing the variation in whatever service or product it offers. As Deming described tbe organizational changes required to produce his culture of quality, I found myself thinking that this was, perhaps, what I had heen searching for. It also occurred to me that it would take a revolution to get it. Autonomous departments are the virtual essence of government bureaucracy, so how was I going to implement Deming's command to break down harriers? "Cover your ass" and "go along to get along" are ancient tenets of the civil service, so how was I going to follow Deming's admonition to drive out fear and license more workers to solve problems? Most daunting of all was his command to install continuous improvement not just as a goal but as a daily chore of government. My God, government invented the status quo! And what were the voters going to think of "quality" as a cost item in a city budget? The First Street Garage These were some of my thoughts as I headed back to city hall. But I had another: there was nowhere else to go. 1 had already seen that management by objective and threats of audits were not going to produce change. I might as well try it, I thought. And the city garage, where the rubber hit the road, seemed a likely place to start. The manager and mechanics at the First Street Garage were surprised to see the mayor and a top assistant show up to investigate their problems; most previous mayors had shown their faces only when they needed a tankful of gas. Over the next few years I learned again and again the crucial importance of the top executive getting personally and visibly involved on the battlefield of hasic change. For the most part, the crew at the garage were doubters. But when I met Terry Holmes, the president of Laborers International Union of North America, Local 236, I looked him squarely in tbe eye, pledged my personal involvement, and confirmed his membership's central role. He agreed to participate. We formed a team and gathered data from individual mechanics and from continued on page 68 65 FIRST PERSON the repair process itself. We found thai many delays resulted from the garage not having the right parts in stock. We took tbat complaint to the parts manager, who said the problem with stocking parts was that the city purchased many different makes and models of equipment virtually every year. We discovered tbat the fleet included 440 different types, makes, models, and years of equipment. Why tbe bewildering variety? Because, the parts manager told us, it was city policy to buy whatever vehicle had the lowest sticker price on tbe day of purchase. "It doesn't make any sense," one mechanic said. "Wben you look at all tbe equipment downtime, the warranty work that weak suppliers don't cover, tbe unreliability of cheaper machines, and the lower resale value, buying what's cheapest doesn't save us anything." Our next trip was to the parts purchaser. He agreed witb the mechanic. "It would certainly make my job easier to have fewer parts to stock from a few reliable suppliers. But central purchasing won't let me do it." Onward to central purchasing, where we heard this: "Boy, I understand what you're saying hecause I bear it from all over the organization. But there's no way we ean change tbe i We found one chronio service failure whose cause and solution were well known - but no one ever fixed it. policy. The comptroller wouldn't let us do it." Enter tbe comptroller. "You make a very strong ease," he admitted. "But I can't let you do it because the city attorney won't let me approve such a thing." On to tbe city attorney. "Why, of course you ean do that," be said. "All you need to do is write the specifications so they include the warranty, the ease of maintenance, tbe availability of parts, and 68 the resale value over time. Make sure that's clear in advance, and there's no prohlem. In fact, I assumed you were doing it all along." Tbis was a stunning disclosure. Here was a major failure of a city service wbose symptoms, causes, and solution were widely known but that had hecome ehronie hecause government was not organized to solve it. No doubt there are dozens of large corporations that have made similar discoveries about their own bureaucracies. (Indeed, Deming would not he famous in tbe business world if this were not the case.) But for me - and, I later learned, for local governments all over the country and the world - tbis kind of discovery was eye-opening. This first exercise confirmed point after point of Deming's paradigm and suggested strongly that what worked for husiness would work for govemment. To hegin with, tbe source of tbe downtime problem was upstream in the relationship of the eity to its suppliers - not downstream where tbe worker eouldn't find a missing part. The problem was a flawed system, not flawed workers. Seeond, solving the problem required teamwork and breaking down barriers between departments. The departments were too self-contained to be helpful to one anotber, and helpfulness itself - treating the people you supplied or serviced as "customers" - was an unknown concept. Third, finding the solution meant including frontline employees in problem solving. The fact of being consulted and enlisted rather than blamed and ignored resulted in buge improvements in morale and productivity. When we actually changed our purchasing policy, cutting a 24-step process with multiple levels of eontrol to just 3 steps, employees were stunned and delighted tbat someone was listening to tbem instead of merely taking them to task. They were so enthusiastic, in fact, that they hegan to research the possihle savings of a preventive maintenance program. Tbey discovered, for example, that city departments did not use truck-bed linings when hauling corrosive materials such as salt. Mechanics also rode along on police patrols and learned that squad cars spend much more time at idling speeds tban in the higb-speed emergencies mechanics bad imagined and planned for in tuning engines. Various eity departments - streets, parks, police - helped the First Street mechanics gather data, and we ultimately adopted their proposals, ineluding driver cheek sheets for vehicle condition, maintenance sched- I We cut vehicle turnaround time fronn nine days to three days and saved $715 for every $1 invested in improvennents. ules for eaeh pieee of equipment, and an overtime budget to cut downtime and make sure preventive maintenance work was done. The result of these ehanges was a reduction in the average vehicle turnaround time from nine days to three and a savings of $7.15 in downtime and repair for every $1 invested in preventive maintenance - an annual net savings to the city of Madison of ahout $700,000. The Second Wave Despite the satisfying outcome of this first foray into publie-sector quality, I understood that we were far from having enough knowledge and experience to develop a program for the entire city work force. I attended a seeond, four-day seminar with Deming, and I enlisted the support of university faculty and loeal and national quality consultants. I also helped found the Madison Area Quality Improvement Network and recruited academic, professional, and corporate members. Today it is the largest and most active community quality council in the world. In the years that followed, corporate and academic experts provided the eity with in-kind .services that were worth hundreds of thousands of dollars. HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW March-April 1 went about setting up a formal quality and productivity (QP) program that would eventually function citywide. I hired a full-time quality and productivity administrator - the first sucb public-sector position in the eountry - even though that meant giving up one of the four policy positions on my staff. 1 also organized a QP steering committee of top managers to direct the effort. Originally, the committee itself was a throwback to an older, hierarchical tradition: all top managers. Within two years, it replaced eight of its own original eleven members with two union presidents - Firefighters and AFSCME - three middle managers, two of our most enthusiastic frontline workers, and the president of the city council. The steering committee issued a mission statement that envisioned employee involvement, customer input, continuous improvement, creativity, innovation, and trust. On a more practical level, it said that the hallmarks of quality in Madison city govemment would he excellence "as defined hy our customers," respect for employee worth, teamwork, and data-based decision making. We called this foursquare commitment the Madison Diamond. Finding the lofty words was tbe easy part; now we had to live up to them. The first task was to recruit the initial cadre of what we hoped would become a quality army We set out to identify pioneers in several city departments - managers and frontline employees with the imagination and motivation to lead tbe way. Their most important characteristic, 1 found, regardless of political philosophy or training, was a strong ego: the capacity to take responsibility for risks, share credit for sueeess, and keep one eye on the prize. We found enough of these people to begin a new round of experiments like our suecessful First Street prototype. This second wave included projects in the streets division, the health department, day care, and data processing. We expanded the lesson we'd learned ahout purchasing at the First Street Garage to create a citywide "Tool Kit" program HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW March April 1991 that got workers directly involved in choosing the most cost-effective tools and materials for their jobs. City painters picked the most durable, long-lasting paints for city housing projects, for example, and police officers chose the equipment they would be using every day in their patrol car "offices." Selections had to be made on the basis of hard data, however, so mnning the comparisons became quality projects for the employees. In the health department, the challenge was simply to give citizens quicker, hetter answers to their questions about clinies and programs. Employees began to sample and analyze the questions that were coming in, then on the basis (if that data they set up briefings for phone receptionists so they eould answer most questions directly. They also created a clear system of referrals for more complicated requests. Follow-up studies showed considerable improvement in the department's level of "customer" satisfaction. By gathering and analyzing data, the day care unit shortened its waiting list for financial assistance hy 200 names, while data processing customized and thus greatly improved its relations with internal customers. ^ I expected opposition from ;, voters, city council or our 14 unions. But the resistance canne from bureaucrats. As with our first experiments at the garage, the second wave of quality initiatives worked minor wonders in productivity and morale, and they met with little resistance - so long as the projects stayed small. But as the program grew to involve more departments and demand more time of managers, opposition began to emerge. 1 bad expected problems from structural sources: the 14 different unions that represented 1,650 of Madison's 2,300 employees,- tbe strong civil serviee system that included and protected all of tbe city's mid-level managers and most of Its department heads; the 22-member, nonpartisan city council (meaning no partisan bloc for the mayor's program); and Madison's "weakmayor" system of government that invested little authority in the chief exeeutive. But it turned out that the city council supported the program, and the unions grew increasingly helpful, The real opposition was not structural but bureaucratic. There were individual mangers wbo could not tolerate the idea of bringing their employees into decisions or who resented taking time to reassess tried and true procedures. There were employees who scorned the program as faddish and who looked on enthusiastic colleagues as management finks. There were cynics who tried to exploit the program hy packaging their pet projects as QP initiatives, and I had politieal opponents in a few departments who tried periodically to entice some reporter into prohing the "QPboondoggle." Most surprising and disappointing to me were the harriers ! discovered between work units, including even units in the same department. One department head told bis middle managers that be expeeted them to deal with quality prohlems while he, as he put it, "protected" the department from the rest of city government! He could hardly have devised a better way to nip eooperation in the hud and help problems multiply. The most unsettling indication of how far we had to go came early in the program when all the individual team members in our second wave of projects independently resigned. They felt their managers, who should have been giving them guidanee and support, were simply cutting them adrift and thus setting them up for failure and hlame. For their part, the managers believed that all they had to do was make an initial statement of support and invite subordinates to "call if you have a problem." Employees, of course, took this to mean, "I expect you to take care of it." 69 FIRST PERSON "Cargill -1 haven't come to the punch line yet!" I addressed this problem by discussing it directly with all tbe people involved. I then restructured our procedures to require specific work plans and regular, scheduled meetings between tbe frontline project teams and their managers. Contacts had to stop being intrusions into a manager's ...
Purchase answer to see full attachment

Final Answer

Hi, kindly find attached

Running head: QUALITY COMES TO CITY HALL

Quality Comes to City Hall
Student’s Name
Institution
Date

1

2

QUALITY COMES TO CITY HALL
Abstract

Quality management is as good for the governmental agencies just like for businesses.
Deming, Juran, and Crosby are pertinent persons who were core to the development of principles
and theories that can be employed towards the achievement of quality in any organization. They
encourage the involvement of the workers and the management for better management of
excellence in the organization. This essay look at how the Madison City achieved quality using
the principles set forth by these men. Additionally, it examines how quality management was
incorporated for both the internal and external customers. Lastly, the essay explains how Crosby’s
principles can be used to achieve quality management in the governmental agencies.

3

QUALITY COMES TO CITY HALL
Quality Comes to City Hall

Deming, Juran, and Crosby proposed fundamental principles that are useful in the quality
management of any business enterprise. These principles can still be applied to governmental
institutions to achieve quality. Specifically, these principles were applied to the Madison,
Wisconsin’s City government. They ensured that quality management was completed by offering
all services to the citizens.
Firstly, according to Deming, managers are very vital when working with other employees
as better feedback will be obtained from the employees who work the best. The problem of the
city services affirmed that what worked best for the businesses could as well work correctly for
the government and other more significant corporations as well. For instance, the source of the
downtime ...

NicholasI (28193)
Cornell University

Anonymous
I was on a very tight deadline but thanks to Studypool I was able to deliver my assignment on time.

Anonymous
The tutor was pretty knowledgeable, efficient and polite. Great service!

Anonymous
Heard about Studypool for a while and finally tried it. Glad I did caus this was really helpful.

Studypool
4.7
Trustpilot
4.5
Sitejabber
4.4

Brown University





1271 Tutors

California Institute of Technology




2131 Tutors

Carnegie Mellon University




982 Tutors

Columbia University





1256 Tutors

Dartmouth University





2113 Tutors

Emory University





2279 Tutors

Harvard University





599 Tutors

Massachusetts Institute of Technology



2319 Tutors

New York University





1645 Tutors

Notre Dam University





1911 Tutors

Oklahoma University





2122 Tutors

Pennsylvania State University





932 Tutors

Princeton University





1211 Tutors

Stanford University





983 Tutors

University of California





1282 Tutors

Oxford University





123 Tutors

Yale University





2325 Tutors