Humanities
Tracing conversation over time

Question Description

Overview

Project 2 is an 800-1000 word literature review arguing that a scholarly conversation on a topic has changed—or has not changed—over a period of time. This project uses at least four sources, two of which must be published between 2000 and 2010, and two of which must be published between 2011 and 2017. Project 2 is a Global Citizens Assignment that conforms to Learning Outcomes objectives D, E, and F.

Early Draft

The early draft will be an outline that presents your main points with supporting evidence. Include sources and evidence in the form of quotes or paraphrasing in addition to your argument.

Intermediate Draft

The intermediate draft should be an 800-1,000 word literature review that argues how a scholarly conversation about your chosen topic has changed—or not changed—over a period of time, using two sources published between 2000 and 2010 and two sources published between 2011 and 2016. You should integrate summarized, paraphrased, and quoted materials from your four sources to demonstrate your understanding and provide support for your thesis

Project Description/Assignment

For this project, you will find six sources surrounding your topic question and create an annotated bibliography. Then narrow those six sources down to four (two sources published between 2000 and 2010 and two sources published between 2011 and 2016) that demonstrate change or lack of change in perspective over time.

You will create an 800-1,000 word literature review concerning global and cultural interrelationships and interdependencies across place and time that includes the following:

  • An introduction that states your thesis (a claim) about how the scholarly conversation has changed over time
  • Evidence from the research you did in Project 1 to support your thesis; quote, summarize, and paraphrase according to MLA guidelines
  • Four sources from your annotated bibliography, two sources published between 2000 and 2010, and two sources published between 2011 and 2016
  • Connections between sources (comparisons and contrasts) to support your argument

Purpose

In Project 2, you will research and write a literature review that argues how a scholarly conversation about your chosen topic has changed–or not changed–over a period of time. Your audience for this project is an academic audience who is unfamiliar with the topic and changes in perspectives regarding the topic. Project 1 lays the foundation of research and understanding of scholarship concerning global and cultural interrelationships and interdependencies across place and time. You will further develop your research question to reflect the evolution of the research process as it moves from an annotated bibliography to an evidence-based academic essay.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Project 2: Tracing Conversations Over Time Rubric 0 1 Low Emerging Emerging: •Does not meet assignment requirements •Thesis is absent or does not establish a shift in global and cultural interrelationships across place and time •Ideas are underdeveloped; claims do not clearly support thesis High Low Emerging Developing Low Emerging Emerging: High Low •Sources are not appropriate for scholarly Emerging Developing research •Analyses do not connect sources and thesis •Sources and supporting details do not demonstrate major trends in the scholarly conversation over time •Analyses do not show connections between sources and do not put the sources in conversation with each other •Does not reflect an understanding of intellectual property conventions or plagiarism •Quoting, summarizing, and paraphrasing are not clearly and consistently introduced, integrated, and analyzed to support arguments Analysis 25% Evidence 25% 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Developing: •Partially or incompletely meets assignment requirements •Thesis is underdeveloped or partially explicates an argument for a shift in global and cultural interrelationships across place and time •Ideas are partially developed for an audience of critical readers; claims inconsistently support thesis High Developing Low Mastering Mastering: High •Meets assignment requirements and Mastering exhibits consistent exemplary quality •Thesis explicitly argues for a shift in the global and cultural interrelationships across place and time •Ideas are fully developed for an audience of critical readers; all claims consistently support thesis Developing: •Sources are inconsistently appropriate/credible for scholarly research •Analyses inconsistently connect sources and thesis •Sources and supporting details inconsistently demonstrate major trends in the scholarly conversation over time •Analyses inconsistently show connections between sources and inconsistently put the sources in conversation with each other •Inconsistently reflects an understanding of intellectual property conventions or plagiarism •Quoting, summarizing, and paraphrasing are inconsistently introduced, integrated, and/or analyzed to support arguments High Developing Low Mastering Mastering: High •Sources represent an array of formats Mastering appropriate/credible for scholarly research •Analyses consistently and clearly connects sources and thesis •Sources and supporting details consistently and explicitly demonstrate major trends in the scholarly conversation over time •Analyses explicitly show connections between sources and put the sources in conversation with each other •Consistently reflects an understanding of intellectual property conventions or plagiarism •Quoting, summarizing, and paraphrasing are clearly and consistently introduced, integrated, and analyzed to support arguments Low Emerging Emerging: •Introduction does not clearly demonstrate a critical understanding of processes that influence the topic or scholarly conversation over time •Topic sentences are absent or do not clearly support the thesis by identifying major trends and shifts in the scholarly conversation over time •Absent or infrequent transitions •Conclusion is absent or not relevant to thesis High Low Emerging Developing Developing: High •Introduction incompletely demonstrates a critical Developing understanding of processes that influence the topic and the scholarly conversation over time •Topic sentences inconsistently support the thesis by identifying major trends and shifts in the scholarly conversation over time •Transitions inconsistently facilitate a logical progression of supporting points •Conclusion is underdeveloped or incompletely restates the argument Low Mastering Low Emerging Emerging: High Low •Little compliance with accepted Emerging Developing documentation style (i.e., MLA, APA) for paper formatting, in-text citations, annotated bibliographies, and works cited •Citations reflect little effort to conform to MLA/APA format conventions •Necessary in-text citations are absent •Minimal attention to document design (for example: line and paragraph spacing, font style, and size) Developing: High •Inconsistent employment of MLA/APA Developing documentation style for paper formatting, in-text citations, annotated bibliographies, and works cited •Citations inconsistently maintain ethical and legal standards of the format guide •Necessary in-text citations are inconsistently present and/or inconsistently conform to MLA/APA format conventions •Inconsistent attention to document design (for example: line and paragraph spacing, font style, and size) Low Mastering Low Emerging Emerging: •Frequent diction, grammar and/or punctuation issues •Frequent shifts in point of view •Frequent problems demonstrating Developing: High •Some diction, grammar and/or punctuation errors Developing •Inconsistent point of view •Inconsistently demonstrates accurate usage of Low Mastering Organization 20% Format 15% Style 15% accurate usage of standard edited English •Language significantly interferes with the communication of ideas High Low Emerging Developing standard edited English •Language does not interfere with communication of ideas Mastering: •Introduction clearly and concisely demonstrates a critical understanding of processes that influence the topic and scholarly conversation over time •Topic sentences clearly and explicitly support the thesis by identifying major trends and shifts in the scholarly conversation over time •Transitions consistently facilitate a logical progression of supporting points •Conclusion restates the argument and underscores why/how the argument matters within the scholarly conversation about the topic Mastering: •Consistent compliance with accepted documentation style (i.e., MLA, APA) for paper formatting, in-text citations, annotated bibliographies, and works cited •Citations consistently and accurately maintain ethical and legal standards of the format guide •Necessary in-text citations are consistently present and consistently conform to MLA/APA format conventions •Consistent attention to document design (for example: line and paragraph spacing, font style, and size) High Mastering Mastering: •Appropriate diction, grammar, and punctuation •Consistent point of view •Consistently polished and appropriate High Mastering usage of standard edited English •Language consistently complements and facilitates communication of ideas High Mastering Ghazwi 1 Ahmed Ghazwi Instructor Romigh ENC 1101, Section 024 18 February 2018 The Impact of Water Pollution on Aquatic Life: An Annotated bibliography Water is important for the existence of all lives. Water pollution has been ignored for years, but in the past decades, its consequences have become evident. The pollutants dumped in the water bodies such as the seas and oceans have caused detrimental effects on the health and survival of aquatic lives. Water pollution is affecting aquatic life on a large scale; it threatens biodiversity, climate and the preservation of some of the most valued regions around the globe. Materials that are potentially harmful to aquatic life find their way into the water bodies; such materials are pesticides, hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. When the pollutants are released in large quantities into the aquatic environment, there may be the immediate impact that is measured by large-scale sudden deaths of the aquatic organisms. Lower levels of such pollutants may result in the impact to take place long after the pollutants have accumulated bit by bit. This may lead to damaged gills and epithelia, reduced metabolism, and immunosuppression among other effects. Therefore, people ought to know that water pollutants can lead to both short- and long-term effects and sometimes causes death to aquatic life. Aquatic organisms depend on water to survive thus when it is polluted it affects their lives leading to immediate impacts such as death or other serious lasting long-term effects. My research question is, what are the causes of water pollution and its effects on marine life? Ghazwi 2 Agrawal, Anju, Pandey, Ravi and Sharma Bechan. "Water Pollution with Special Reference to Pesticide Contamination in India." Journal of Water Resource and Protection, vol 02, no. 05, 2010, pp. 432-448. doi:10.4236/jwarp.2010.25050. Agrawal, et al. discussed the effects of pesticides on aquatic life. Many people use pesticides not knowing their real effects on water. This leads to water pollution which has a direct effect on aquatic life. Agrawal, et al. discussed the effects of pesticides on aquatic life as well as the types of pesticides that are harmful. They also explain how the contamination occurs once a pesticide has been used. Pollution by pesticides in most cases usually occurs in rivers all the pollutants are drained into large water masses such as oceans and lakes. Agrawal, et al. article is useful because it will help in understanding one of the major causes of water pollution, where it starts, and the process by which the water gets polluted. Agrawal, Pandey and Bechan’s article is also essential in identifying some of the pesticides that people use without even knowing their effects on the environments. There are safety measures that are highlighted in the article that a person can use to help in preventing water pollution thus saving marine lives. There are people who do not understand how aquatic life is affected yet they live far from large water bodies. Agrawal, Pandey and Bechan explained the entire process of how it happens. Agrawal, Anju is an expert. He has written different articles regarding the environment and pollution. The article was published in Journal of Water Resource and Protection which is peer-reviewed journal. Kent, Michael L. Feist Stephen W, Harper Claudia, Miller Shelley Hoogstraten, Law J mac, Morgado Jose m Sanchez, Tanguay Robert L, Sanders George E, Spitsbergen Jan M and Whipps Christopher M. "Recommendations for Control of Pathogens and Infectious Ghazwi 3 Diseases in Fish Research Facilities." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, vol 149, no. 2, 2009, pp. 240-248. doi:10.1016/j.cbpc.2008.08.001. Kent et al. Highlighted the effects of water pollution on fish and other aquatic lives in water bodies. aquatic lives also get diseases, and most of them are because of human contamination which is referred to as water pollution. This research helped in identifying the causes of the diseases and what can be done to help resolve the problems. There are more and more diseases that are being discovered as water pollution levels increase by the day. People are using harsh substances every day, and they are all directed to water bodies such as lakes, rivers, dams, and oceans. The article by Kent et al. will be helpful in highlighting the adverse effects of water pollution has on not only on fish but aquatic life. The article is discussing the impact of pollution and the types of diseases that people are also exposed to when they consume foods obtained from water bodies. The effects of pollution not only affect aquatic life but humans as well but in humans it is indirect. Some of these diseases are severe and might lead to the loss of many aquatic lives. Kent et al. article send a stern message to humans to stop water pollution. Kent is a professor at the University of Tennessee. He was teaching for twenty-five years and published several articles and books. The article is published in a peer-reviewed journal. Per the journal website, “focuses on toxicological mechanisms at different levels of organization, primarily chemical and drug action, biotransformation of xenobiotics, endocrine disruptors, nanoparticles, pharmaceuticals, and natural products chemistry.” Ghazwi 4 Read, Paul, and Teresa Fernandes. "Management of Environmental Impacts of Marine Aquaculture in Europe." Aquaculture, vol 226, no. 1-4, 2003, pp. 139-163. doi:10.1016/s0044-8486(03)00474-5. Read and Fernandes wrote this article after research they had conducted in some parts of Europe on marine aquaculture. Read and Fernandes’s article discusses various environmental factors that have had a negative effect on marine aquaculture in Europe. Water pollution was one of the effects that they came up. Water pollution is the worst and most dangerous environment effect on aquatic life not only in Europe but in the world, as well. Read and Fernandes’s article also gives hints on what can be done to help stop water pollution to save and preserve marine aquatic life in Europe and the rest of the world. Aquatic life relies on safe environmental measures and if not it will be adversely affected. Read and Fernandes’s article will be helpful in answering my research question because it highlights real-life experience son the effects of water pollution on aquatic life. Europe is one of the best examples that the article has given. This is a real-life example of the effects of environments effects on aquatic marine life caused by human beings. Read and Fernandes’s article will help in highlighting some of the measures that should be taken to prevent water pollution to save not only our environment but aquatic life as well. The source is credible because it giving that Read is a member of the department of biological sciences at Napier University UK, and had published different papers about the pollution. The fact that the author is an expert in this field supports the credibility of the book. Ghazwi 5 Risebro, Helen L. et al."Contaminated Small Drinking Water Supplies and Risk of Infectious Intestinal Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study." Plos ONE, vol 7, no. 8, 2012, p. e42762. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042762. Water pollution is a serious environmental issue to all living things. This includes humans, animals, plants and aquatic marine animals such as fish. They all suffer when water is polluted either directly or indirectly. Per Risebro, et al. water pollution levels have gone up in the past years. This shows the most affected living things are the animals and plants living in the water bodies. They have no option but to consume and live in the polluted waters. Humans beings have an option of purifying the water, but the aquatic animals do not have this option. Aquatic animals do suffer from diseases that are caused by the harmful substances disposed of in the water bodies. This leads to data. When humans consume the aquatic animals, they also risk the dangers of having diseases such as intestinal diseases. Risebro, et al. article will be useful in answering my research question because it gives an overall effect on water pollution not only in the aquatic marine life but also to other living things such as plants and humans. This shows that water pollution is a serious issue and the food web that all living things use can be highly affected by pollution. The paper will also help in tackling the preventive measures that will be taken to help save our waters, aquatic life as well as the environment. The source is credible the authors are experts. Risebro, Helen L., is a member in University of East Anglia and she is a researcher also she had published articles regarding ‘Impact of the Provision of Safe Drinking Water on School Absence Rates in Cambodia: A Quasi-Experimental Study.' Also, the article was published in a peer-reviewed journal. Ghazwi 6 Roberts, David A. Nys de Rocky, and Paul Nicholas A "The Effect of CO2 On Algal Growth in Industrial Waste Water for Bioenergy And Bioremediation Applications." Plos ONE, vol 8, no. 11, 2013, p. e81631. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081631. Carbon dioxide is by far one of the most known pollutants to the environment. Robert et al. researched the effects of carbon dioxide on aquatic life and mostly on algal. These are organisms that are either unicellular or multicellular that live-in water. They form part of aquatic life habitats like small fish, breeding ground, and even food for some other types of aquatic animals. If they are affected by water pollutants, it means that there would be no habitat or food for fish. This is a bad indication that most aquatic animals could be suffering and do not have an option but to live and consume the polluted algae. Carbon dioxide, released in water bodies is believed to be one of the causes of such adverse effects. Plants are believed to take in carbon dioxide for survival, but if it is contaminated, it means that the plants will be directly affected. Robert et al. article will be helpful in highlighting the direct and indirect effects of water pollution on aquatic animals. If the food, breeding ground, or habitat is messed with, it means that aquatic life pattern will be affected. Small fish will have no food, and the big fish, which rely on small fish on food will also be affected. Once this chain is messed up with by pollutants, it means that aquarium life is in danger. Carbon dioxide taken in by plants should be in its purest forms to help the plants survive. If not, aquatic life will be highly affected. Roberts, David A. is a member of James Cook University and he is leading the fertilizers and bio stimulants project and he had published several articles in the field. The fact that the author is an expert in this field supports the credibility of the article and it was published in a peer-reviewed journal. Ghazwi 7 Thomas, Amber et al. "Praziquantel Degradation in Marine Aquarium Water." vol 4, 2016, p. e1857. doi:10.7717/peerj.1857. Praziquantel (PZQ) is a drug used by scientists utilized to treat both human schistosomiasis and some parasitic infections and infestations in animals. In the aquatic life, this chemical is used in waters to clean the water from some of the adverse pollutants that might have a bad effect on the aquatic life. Per Thomas et al., PZQ is a good drug that can be the ultimate solution to some of the poisonous pollutants in water bodies. This drug has so far been used, and the results have been good. More of this drug should be used in large water bodies to help all aquatic animals live a normal life. Thomas, Amber and her group trial, will be used to give one of the best solutions to treat contaminated water. In as much as only human beings can stop water pollution, something must be done to already polluted water. Aquatic animals and plants have suffered so much in the past years which has led to the death of so many. Only human beings can stop this by using the correct products and treating any wastes before disposing of in large water bodies. Aquatic life plays a big role in the ecosystem, and any measures that can be taken to help should be done. Thomas, Amber is a member at the University of New England and she had done deferent researches about marine biology during her career. The article was published in a peer-reviewed journal. Title: An Outline I. Introduction A. w/ thesis statement/change over time in conversation (or not) and how II. Body A. Paragraph 1: first source w/ name, title, date of publication (oldest source) 1. Summary-main point 2. Examples/direct quotes from source that supports summary. B. Pg 2: second source w/name, title, date of pub 1. Summary/main point 2. Examples/quotes 3. Compare to previous source. C. Pg 3: third source w/ name, title, date of pub 1. Summary/main point 2. Examples/quotes 3. Compare to both previous sources a. Compare to first source b. Compare to second source D. Pg. 4: fourth source w/ name, title, date of pub (newest source) 1. Summary/main point 2. Example/quotes 3. Compare source to all three previous sources a. Compare to first source b. Compare to second source c. Compare to third source III. Conclusion A. Restate thesis and how conversation has or has not changed over time ...
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Final Answer

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Outline: Tracing conversion over time
Introduction
Conversion of authors understanding and ways of expression has changed over time due to the
enhanced research which tends to reveal more information than in the past.
Body
A. Read, Paul, and Teresa Fernandes. Management of Environmental Impacts of Marine
Aquaculture in Europe, 2003.
Summary: In this piece, Read, Teresa and Paul state the environmental factors that have
evidently spoilt aqua culture specifically in Europe. One of their findings is that water pollutions
is key contributor that possess a lot of dangers to the aq...

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