CSULA Humanities Child Development & Prenatal Care Essay

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Student Name: Course Name: Semester: Grade (%): Child Development 1A - Credit 4 - Performance Task - Do’s and Don'ts of Good Prenatal Care Conduct research and create a one pager explaining the do’s and don’ts of good prenatal care. [Type your response here. Your response must be at least one page.] Family Planning Many families carefully consider whether to have children and when to have them. However, anytime a couple has sexual intercourse, a pregnancy can occur. The only sure way to prevent pregnancy is abstinence, or avoiding sexual activity. There are other methods of contraception, which can help prevent pregnancy. It is impor- tant to understand that most methods of con- traception do not prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Abstinence, however, prevents both STIs and pregnancy. Most family planning methods have possible side effects. These problems develop among some, but not all, users. Figure 4.1 on page 94 compares different methods of family plan- ning. It also indicates if there are side effects. Families should check with their doctors for complete listings of side effects. Effectiveness is given as a percentage. A method that is 100 percent effective, such as abstinence, works all the time. If a method is 80 percent effective, there is a one in five chance that a pregnancy could occur when that method is used. Conception About once every 28 days, an ovum (=%-v`m) is released by one of a woman’s two ovaries. An ovum is an egg cell. This release is part of a wom- an’s menstrual cycle and is called ovulation. At the same time, a woman’s body releases specific hor- mones. These hormones prepare the uterus in the event that the ovum is fertilized. The uterus is the organ in a woman’s body in which a baby develops during pregnancy. It is a pear-shaped muscle able to expand during pregnancy. During ovulation, the inner lining of the uterus grows and thickens. If the ovum is not fertilized, the lining breaks down and passes out of the body. This is the bleeding that women experience as a menstrual period. When an ovum is released from the ovary, it moves through a fallopian tube into the uterus. The fallopian tube is a tube that connects the ovary to the uterus. The journey from the ovary to the uterus takes about two or three days. When the ovum reaches the uterus, it usually breaks up and leaves the body with the menstrual flow. The male cell is known as a sperm. When a sperm reaches the fallopian tube, it may penetrate and fertilize the ovum. Pregnancy For many couples, looking forward to a new baby is an exciting time. What kinds of things do you think a couple might talk about during the pregnancy? Section 4.1 The Developing Baby 93 Methods of Family 48..13 Planning There are many different methods of birth control. Some are more effective than others. Which of the methods listed here can have the lowest rate of effectiveness? Method Cha rac teristic s Effec tiveness Abstinence Only method that is 100% effective. 100% Hormonal implants Capsules placed under skin of upper arm. 99% effective, for up to 5 years Possible side effects include hair loss or growth, acne, headaches, and moodiness. Hormonal patch Thin patch worn on skin for 3 weeks each Hormonal injections Hormones given by physician monthly or once Intrauterine device (IUD) and Uterine implant sperm from fertilizing the egg. May cause discomfort and side effects first 3 months of use. Vaginal implant Birth control pills Condom Diaphragm Cervical cap Natural family planning month. Possible side effects such as weight gain or moodiness. every 3 months. May cause irregular bleeding. Device placed inside the uterus to prevent Ring worn internally for 3 weeks each month. up to 99% up to 99% Side effects can include vaginal bleeding. Daily pill that contains hormones. Possible side 95–99% effects such as weight gain or moodiness. Available for females, but more frequently used 95–98% by males. Helps reduce spread of STDs. Covers the cervix to prevent sperm from entering the uterus. Used with spermicide. Increases risk of urinary infections. 86% to 97% 80–94% Small latex thimble that must remain in place eight hours. Increases risk of infection. Known as the rhythm method. Determines when a female can get pregnant based on her menstrual cycle. Foams, creams, and gels. May cause allergic 60–91% 53–80% reactions. Should be used with condom, diaphragm, and cervical cap. Spermicide 94 99% Chapter 4 Prenatal Development 72% Conception For conception to occur, a sperm cell must penetrate an egg cell in the fallopian tube. What is the fertilized egg called? Ovum Fertilization Occurs Sperm Uterus O var y Fallopian Tube Path of Ovum Path of Sperm The process of the sperm fertilizing the does this happen? Scientists are constantly ovum is called conception. An ovum usually learning more and more about how heredity, lives 12 to 24 hours, while a sperm is capable the passing on of characteristics, works. of fertilizing an ovum for about 48 to 72 hours. At the moment of conception, every human During a woman’s menstrual cycle, there are baby receives 46 chromosomes. A approximately three to four days during which chromosome is a tiny threadlike structure in intercourse could lead to conception. the nucleus of every cell. These chromosomes Pregnancy, which lasts about nine months, come in 23 pairs. The father’s sperm and begins at that time. During this time, a single mother’s ovum each contribute one cell grows and develops into a human being chromosome to each pair. Each chromosome capable of life outside the mother’s body. has hundreds to thousands of genes. A gene is An ectopic pregnancy is one in which the a unit that determines a human’s inherited baby starts to grow somewhere other than the characteristics. The complete blueprint for the uterus, such as the fallopian tube. Ectopic preg- creation of a person is called a genome. The nancies are dangerous for the mother. They do complex molecules that make up genes are not end in a live birth. called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). The Role of Genetics Why do I have this hair color? Why do I have blue eyes like my mom instead of brown eyes like my dad? Figuring out why people have certain traits can be confusing. Have you ever compared your relative’s looks to your own? Maybe you looked a lot like your father when you were both seven years old. People inherit many physical traits from their parents. These traits may include skin color, hair texture and color, eye color, the size and shape of ears, and more. Some children are more likely to have certain talents, such as musical or athletic ability, because their parents have those talents. Some medical conditions are also inherited. How “The development of a baby is quite an intricate journey. From the moment that the egg and sperm meet, a baby is beginning the developmental process. This early part of development lays the foundation for a healthy pregnancy and the birth of a healthy baby.” — The American Pregnancy Association Section 4.1 The Developing Baby 95 Isolated Communities and Genetic Diseases Isolated communities, especially those on islands, often have few people. This means that residents might marry individuals to whom they are at least distantly related. The South Atlantic island of Tristan da Cunha, or simply Tristan to residents, is one such community. All 300 residents of Tristan are cousins. Genetic disease is widespread, and over half of Tristan’s residents have asthma. Close relatives are likely to have similar genetic combinations, which means that their children are more likely to have genetic diseases. These diseases are less likely to appear in places with large numbers of people where parents typically are not related to one another. Build Connections Do you think that the residents of Tristan da Cunha should make their genetic information available for scientific research? Explain your answer. NCSS I A Culture Analyze and explain the ways groups, societies, and cultures address human needs and concerns. A human’s 46 chromosomes form that person’s unique DNA. No two people, except identical twins, have identical DNA. Dominant and Recessive Genes For each inherited characteristic, a person receives two copies of a gene. One copy comes from the mother and one from the father. When both genes are the same, the child automatically has that characteristic. In many cases, a person receives two different genes. What factors determine the characteristic that person will express? The characteristic is controlled by the dominant gene. A dominant gene is a stronger gene. The recessive gene is a weaker gene. The recessive gene will not be expressed. The terms dominant and recessive only refer to the relationship of genes to each other. It does not mean that one characteristic is actually weaker than another. Some people may not look much like their mother or father. They may look a lot like one of their grandparents, though. Some traits may 96 Chapter 4 Prenatal Development skip a generation when recessive genes are inherited. For example, red hair often skips a generation because the gene for red hair is recessive. A recessive gene is only expressed when it is received from both parents. Most traits are influenced by multiple genes. Height, weight, personality, and intelligence are examples of these traits. They are determined by a specific combination of genes that are brought together at conception. See the Science in Action feature on page 97 for more information. Making a Unique Person Heredity explains why people in the same family often look alike. You may have a friend who looks a lot like his or her sibling. Heredity also explains why two family members can look quite different. Each sperm and egg cell contains a different combination of genes. When these genes combine, they make a unique individual. That is why one child in a family can have light brown hair and another can have black or blonde hair. If each child in a family inherited the same genes from both parents, all of the children in the family would look exactly the same. The gender of the child is determined at conception. The sex chromosomes come in two types, X and Y. Each ovum in the woman’s ovaries carries an X chromosome. Each sperm cell in the man’s body carries either an X or a Y chromosome. If the sperm that fertilizes the egg carries an X chromosome, the child receives an X chromosome from each parent. A child with the XX combination is a girl. If the sperm carries a Y chromosome, the child receives an X chromosome from the mother and a Y chromosome from the father. A child with the XY combination is a boy. Multiple Births The number of children a woman will give birth to at one time is determined at conception or soon after. When a woman gives birth to more than one child at a time, it is called a multiple birth. The most common instance of multiple births is twins. There are two types of twins: identical and fraternal. When a sperm fertilizes a woman’s ovum, the cell begins to divide right away. As the cells continue to divide, the mass of cells may split in half, creating two separate cell masses. Each cell mass continues to divide and grow into a separate embryo. The result is identical twins. Because only one ovum and sperm were involved in con- ception, identical twins have very similar physical characteristics and are always the same gender. Fraternal twins form when two eggs are released from the ovaries at the same time and are fertilized by two different sperm. Because of the different eggs and sperm, fraternal twins may not look alike. They just happen to be in the mother’s uterus at the same time. It is com- mon for fraternal twins to be opposite genders. In a general population, three in 100 births, or about 3 percent, are twins. Identical twins are much less common than fraternal twins. Out of 1,000 births, about 23 will be fraternal twins and about four will be identical twins. The birth of three or more babies is much more rare than the birth of twins. However, a rise in the use of treatments to help women become pregnant has increased the frequency of multiple births. One potential drawback to some of these treatments is that they can cause more than one egg to be released at a time, making multiple births more likely. The more children a pregnant woman carries, the more difficult it is for all of them to survive. Infer tility Not all couples who want to become parents are able to have a child. These couples are considered infertile. Infertility is the inability to conceive a child. There are many causes of infertility in both men and women. About 40 percent of cases are due to female infertility, and about 40 percent are due to male infertility. The other 20 percent have unknown causes or are linked to both partners. Understanding Genetic Traits All people have physical traits that are controlled by the genes they inherit. For each trait, one gene comes from the father, and one comes from the mother. Whether a physical trait is related to a dominate or recessive gene determines the chances of a child inheriting it. Procedure Suppose that two parents each have a dominant gene for brown hair and a recessive gene for red hair. Fill in the following table with the child’s four possible gene combinations. Father Mother BROWN red BROWN red Possible gene combinations of child Analysis 1 What are the chances (in percent) of this child having red hair? . What are the chances of brown hair? What are the chances of blonde hair? 2 NSES C Develop an understanding of . the cell; molecular basis of heredity; and biological evolution. 3 . Section 4.1 The Developing Baby 97 Multiple Births Twins may be identical or fraternal. What is the difference between the two types of twins? People with infertility problems may feel isolated or abnormal. There are support groups available to help couples in this situation. Also, advances in medicine have helped couples over- • come infertility. The treatments used depend on the cause. For example, a doctor can prescribe medication when a woman’s ovaries do not release an ovum each month. Some fertility medications, however, can cause uncomfortable or potentially serious side effects, and require the careful supervision of a doctor. As time passes, research is improving the safety and effectiveness of a variety of infertility treatments. If the spouse has a genetic disorder that prevents his sperm from being used, sperm from a male donor can be used. In Vitro Fertilization This process is used to treat many causes of infertility, such as when a woman has damaged fallopian tubes. With the help of a microscope, the doctor combines a mature ovum from the woman with sperm from her husband. If the ovum becomes fertilized, the doctor places it in the woman’s uterus. Pregnancy occurs the fertilized egg attaches itself to the • ifuterus. Ovum Transfer This procedure is similar to in vitro fertilization, except an Options for Infertile Couples ovum After attempts to treat infertility, some couhas been donated by another woman. ples still cannot conceive a child. There are sevThe ovum is fertilized in a laboratory and eral other options they may discuss with each placed in the mother’s uterus. This proother and with their doctors: is an option for women who lack •Adoption By adopting a child, a couple cedure working ovaries, have poor ovum quality, or legally takes on all responsibilities and • who have inherited disorders. rights for raising, loving, and caring for a Surrogate Mother A surrogate (=s`r-`child in need of a permanent home. +g@t) is a substitute. A surrogate mother is •Artificial Insemination In this process, aawoman who becomes pregnant to have doctor injects sperm into a woman’s uterus. a baby for another woman. This option This procedure is timed to take place when requires legal arrangements be made for a woman’s ovary releases an ovum. Often, everyone involved, including the child. the sperm is from the woman’s husband. Each state has laws regarding surrogate motherhood. 98 Chapter 4 Prenatal Development Questions Raised The Germinal Stage Medical specialists can help some inferThe germinal stage is the first stage in a tile couples. Infertility treatments are often baby’s development. It includes the formation very expensive. Medical insurance plans may of the zygote. The zygote (=z$-+g%t) is the fertilexclude or limit coverage for these treatments. ized egg. This stage lasts only about two weeks, As technology and knowledge continue to but includes the key steps in establishing a advance, other options for the treatment of infer- pregnancy. tility may be discovered. However, personal beliefs may limit a couple’s options. Not everyCell Division one believes that these alternatives are acceptThe zygote begins to grow by cell division able. The use of surrogate mothers or sperm while it is still in the Fallopian tube. The sinand ovum donors is considered controversial, gle cell splits into two cells. Then the two cells or causing opposing views. These practices raise rapidly multiply to four, then to eight, and so many moral questions. New procedures in the on. Within a few days, the zygote has grown to future will raise questions as well. about 500 living cells. After about four days of Recall What is the growth and slow movement, the zygote reaches the opening to the uterus. most common type of multiple birth? Implantation Three Stages of Pregnancy The baby’s development during a pregnancy is called prenatal development. It is often grouped into three stages, called the germinal stage, embryonic stage, and fetal stage. Different developmental milestones are reached during each of the three stages. Figure 4.2 on pages 102–103 shows month-by-month devel- opment of each stage. The lining of the uterus has now thickened enough to provide a place for the zygote to attach itself and continue to grow. The zygote implants in the lining of the uterus and is covered by that lining. Despite the rapid growth of the zygote during the two weeks after fertilization, it is only the size of the head of a pin. Although it is barely big enough to see without a microscope, it is ready to grow into a fully developed human being. Infertility Consulting a doctor is the first step for couples who suspect a problem with infertility. Why would a couple want to consult a doctor if they were having problems conceiving? Section 4.1 The Developing Baby 99 Fallopian Tube Embr yo Embryo Attaches to Uterus The embryo must become implanted in the lining of the uterus in order to grow. What stage does this occur in? O var y The Embryonic Stage Uterus Amniotic Sac The second stage of pregnancy is the embryonic stage. The embryo is what the developing baby is called from about the third week of pregnancy through the eighth week. The embryo grows rapidly during this time. It is also during this stage that many important and amazing changes occur. It is during the first eight weeks that the face, eyes, ears, limbs, and bones begin to form. A sac filled with liquid forms around the embryo. The liquid that surrounds and protects the developing baby in the uterus is called amniotic fluid (+am-n#-=&-tik). The amniotic sac is formed from special layers of cells in the uterus. It cushions the embryo from any bumps or falls that the mother might have. At this point in development, the embryo is still very small (about 1 inch, or 2.5 cm, long). It can float freely in the amniotic fluid. Organs and Body Systems Placenta and Umbilical Cord The cells begin to separate and develop into the major systems of the human body. These systems include the heart, lungs, bones, and muscles. However, these internal organs and their systems are not yet ready to function. They will continue to develop throughout the pregnancy. About 27 days after conception, the neural tube has closed. The neural tube is a tube in the back of the developing baby that will become the brain and spinal cord. At this point, the brain begins to take con- trol of the various body systems. By about the sixth week after conception, the connec- tions between the brain and the spine allow the first movements of the embryo. The developing brain is sensitive to damage from any drugs or alcohol the mother might take. This is especially true at this crucial stage. It is vital that a pregnant woman avoid these substances throughout her pregnancy. 100 Chapter 4 Prenatal Development Also at this stage, the placenta (pl`-=sen-t`) develops. The placenta is a tissue that connects the developing baby to the uterus. It is formed from special layers of cells in the uterus. The placenta is rich in blood vessels that allow food and oxygen to flow to the baby. The placenta’s job is to absorb oxygen and nourishment from the mother’s blood to be sent to the baby through the umbilical cord. The umbilical cord is a long tube that connects the baby to the placenta. The umbilical cord also takes carbon dioxide and other waste products away from the baby. These waste products go to the placenta, which releases them into the mother’s bloodstream. The umbilical cord is usually stiff and firm, like a garden hose filled with water. It is generally not flexible enough to loop around the fetus, although this may occur in rare cases. The placenta and umbilical cord provide all of a baby’s needs until birth. The Fetal Stage Sometimes a fetus will roll or stretch just to get more comfortable. A fetus will also move The fetal stage is the third and final stage of in response to loud noises or familiar voices. development. It is also the longest stage. It begins Many parents talk, read, or sing to the develaround the eighth or ninth week of pregnancy oping fetus to encourage movement. This and lasts until birth. During this stage, the develalso helps the fetus become familiar with the oping baby is called a fetus (=f#-t`s). The vocal parents’ voices. The baby can recognize cords develop, and the digestive system and these voices after birth. kidneys begin to function. Spontaneous, or unplanned, movements are possible by the end Completing Development of the third month. During the last few months of pregnancy, development continues, preparing the fetus to Making Movements live independently. By the seventh month, the Sometime during the fourth or fifth month, baby is capable of living outside the uterus, but the kicks and other movements of the fetus only with a lot of medical help. touch the wall of the uterus. These movements The body’s major organs become ready to are faint and infrequent at first. These are usufunction without any help from the mother’s ally the first fetal movements that the mother body. The fetus also gains weight quickly. Fat can feel. She may feel the movement as a kind deposits are formed under the skin. These will of fluttering, like a butterfly. Gradually, these help the baby hold body heat after delivery. sensations become stronger and more freThe fetus goes from thin and wrinkled to the quent, letting the mother know that she really smoother, rounder appearance of a baby. The is carrying a live child within her. fetus also stores nutrients and builds immunity A pregnant woman’s doctor usually asks to diseases and infections. her when she first felt these movements. This By the eighth month of pregnancy, the fetus information helps the doctor estimate the sleeps about 90 percent of the day. Brain scans baby’s age and make sure the baby is develhave shown rapid eye movement (REM) in oping normally. This information can also be some fetuses during this time. That means that used to help project an accurate due date. fetuses can dream while they sleep! Staying Active Amniotic Fluid Placenta Umbilical Cord Uterus Fetus Cervix Fetus at 4 Months The fetus is nourished through the umbilical cord. What is the purpose of the amniotic fluid? The fetus can do a surprising number of things. It uses all five senses. It can suck its thumb, cough, sneeze, yawn, kick, and hiccup. A fetus can even cry. Even though the uterus is crowded, the fetus is still very active and can change positions. Sometimes, around the eighth month, babies will lodge their feet between their mother’s ribs. This can be painful for the mother. She can often dislodge the foot with gentle exercises or stretches. Once the baby has moved down, in the ninth month, he usually cannot reach this high anymore. During the eighth month of pregnancy, the baby should settle into the proper position for delivery. This means the head is angled down to lead the way out of the uterus. The baby will continue to kick and stretch though. By the ninth month, these kicks can be quite powerful, and sometimes painful for the mother. Section 4.1 The Developing Baby 101 Fetal Development 48..23 Month by Month The fetus develops in the uterus for approximately nine months. W hen does hair begin to appear? Month 1 ✤ Size: At two weeks, the size of a pin head. ✤ Egg attaches to lining of uterus. ✤ Critical stage for brain and spinal cord development. ✤ Internal organs and circulatory system begin to form. ✤ The heart begins to beat. Month 2 ✤ Size: About ¼ inch (6 mm) long as month begins. ✤ Face, eyes, ears, and limbs take shape. ✤ Bones begin to form. Month 3 ✤ Size: About 1 inch (25 mm) long as month begins. ✤ Nostrils, mouth, lips, and eyelids form. ✤ Buds for all 20 baby teeth appear. ✤ Fingers and toes almost complete. ✤ All organs present but still immature. Month 4 ✤ Size: About 3 inches (7.6 cm) long, weighs 1 ounce (28 g) as month begins. ✤ Can suck its thumb, swallow, hiccup, and move around. ✤ Facial features become clearer. Month 5 ✤ Size: About 6½–7 inches (16–18 cm) long, weighs about 4–5 ounces (113–142 g) as month begins. ✤ Hair, eyelashes, and eyebrows appear. ✤ Teeth continue to develop. ✤ Organs are maturing. ✤ Becomes more active. 102 Chapter 4 Prenatal Development Month 6 ✤ Size: About 8–10 inches (21–25 cm) long, weighs about 8–12 ounces (227–340 g) as month begins. ✤ Fat deposits under skin, but fetus appears wrinkled. ✤ Breathing movements begin. Month 7 ✤ Size: About 10–12 inches (25–31 cm) long, weighs about 1½–2 pounds (680–907 g) as month begins. ✤ Has periods of activity followed by periods of rest and quiet. Month 8 ✤ Size: About 14–16 inches (36–41 cm) long, weighs about 2½–3 pounds (1.0–1.4 kg) as month begins. ✤ Rapid weight gain continues. ✤ May react to loud noises with a reflex jerking action. ✤ Moves into a head-down position. Month 9 ✤ Size: About 17–18 inches (43–46 cm) long, weighs about 5–6 pounds (2.3–2.7 kg) as month begins. ✤ Weight gain continues. ✤ Skin becomes smooth as fat deposits continue. ✤ Movements decrease as the fetus has less room to move around. ✤ Acquires disease-fighting antibodies from the mother’s blood. ✤ Descends into pelvis, ready for birth. Section 4.1 The Developing Baby 103 Growing Bigger As the fetus grows, so does the amount of surrounding amniotic fluid. The uterus also expands, causing the woman’s stomach to grow. When the fetus grows large during the last few months of pregnancy, it no longer has room to stretch out. It curls up in what is called the fetal position. This means the baby is curled into a ball. The head is bowed forward and the arms and legs are drawn in. Ready for Birth The common length of pregnancy is about 40 weeks, or 280 days, from the first day of the last menstrual cycle. By the ninth month, the fetus is fully developed and can usually survive outside the mother’s body with little medical assistance. Some babies are born either a few weeks early or a few weeks late. This is usually not a problem. Advances in technology allow many babies to survive that are born early. Section 4.1 Fetus at 9 Months As the end of pregnancy nears the fetus is folded in the fetal position. Given its current position in the uterus, how will this baby be positioned when it is born? After You Read Review Key Concepts 1. Describe two options for an infertile couple that wants children. 2. Explain how the developing baby receives oxygen and nutrition during the second and third stages of prenatal development? Practice Academic Skills English Language Arts 3. Ask students to interview a mother with two or more children. They should ask questions such as: How were the pregnancies different? Did you have any worries about each baby’s health? Have students create a chart comparing the mother’s experiences. Social Studies 4. Attitudes about pregnancy and pregnant women have changed over the years. Pregnant women were treated differently in the past. Conduct research to find out how pregnancy was viewed in the United States in the 1950s. Include print or online resources, and consider talking to older family members about their memories. Write a paragraph comparing these attitudes to today’s attitudes. Check Your Answers Check your answers at this book’s Online Learning Center at glencoe.com. 104 Chapter 4 Prenatal Development NCTE 7 Conduct research and gather, evaluate, and synthesize data to communicate discoveries. NCSS II B Apply key concepts such as time and change to analyze and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity. Section 4.2 Reading Guide Problems Prenatal Development in Before You Read Adjust Your Reading Speed Learning to adjust your reading speed can help you remember information. Reading more slowly can help you to understand more complex concepts. Read to Learn Graphic Organizer Key Concepts As you read, look for types of prenatal tests that can be used to check for birth defects. Use a chart like the one shown to help orga- nize your information. Contrast miscarriage and stillbirth. • Identify how ten major birth defects can • be diagnosed. Main Idea Not all pregnancies end in the birth of a healthy infant. Some end early with the unborn baby’s death. Some babies are born with health problems. Content Vocabulary Prenatal Tests miscarriage stillbirth ultrasound amniocentesis Academic Vocabulary You will find these words in your reading and on your tests. Use the glossary to look up their definitions if necessary. predisposition serious Academic Standards Graphic Organizer Go to this book’s Online Learning Center at glencoe.com to print out this graphic organizer. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● English Language Arts Science NCTE 8 Use information resources to gather infor- mation and create and communicate knowledge. NSES A Develop abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry, understanding about scientific inquir y. NCTE National Council of Teachers of English NCTMNational Council of Teachers of Mathematics NSE National Science Education Standards S National Council for the Social Studies NCS S Section 4.2 Problems in Prenatal Development 105 Losing a Baby alone, and may blame themselves for the death. In most cases, however, these deaths Will the baby be healthy? This is a major are com- pletely beyond the parents’ control. concern for all expectant parents. Most babies Couples may need support to work through develop normally and are born healthy. Howtheir grief. Most couples who suffer a ever, sometimes the baby does not develop miscarriage or still- birth are able to have normally. Sometimes the developing baby healthy children later. dies. When the developing baby dies prior to the twentieth week of pregnancy, the event is Recall What called a miscarriage. If the baby dies after the percentage of pregnancies end in miscarriage? twentieth week, it is called a stillbirth. Unfortunately, miscarriages are fairly common. About 15 percent of recognized pregnanSome babies survive pregnancy, but are born cies end in miscarriage. Medical professionals with serious problems that threaten their health do not completely understand the causes. or even their lives. A serious problem that Stillbirth occurs in about 2 percent of threatens a baby’s health, and is present at birth, pregnancies. The most common causes are is called a birth defect. There are hundreds of problems with the placenta, abnormal chrotypes of birth defects, each with its own set of mosomes, poor growth, and infections. symptoms. Some are so mild that no one would ever know the child has a birth defect. Others can result in lifelong disabilities or even death. Dealing with Grief Approximately 120,000 babies are born each The loss of a child by miscarriage or stillyear in the United States with a birth defect. Scibirth can be very unexpected and painful for entists and medical professionals are working the parents. Most couples look forward to a hard to understand the causes of birth defects. baby’s birth. They feel a great sense of attachment long before the birth. When they lose their They hope that knowing the causes will help to baby, they may go through stages of grief similar decrease the number of babies born with birth to those experienced by the loss of a child that defects, and improve the lives of children with was already born. Sometimes these parents feel birth defects. Birth Defects Losing a Baby Sadly, some pregnancies end in a miscarriage or stillbirth. Do you think experiencing a miscarriage would be different from a stillbirth? Why? 106 Chapter 4 Prenatal Development Genetic Birth Defects For some couples, thinking of having a baby needed, the doctor can refer the couple to a brings up concerns about genetic birth defects. genetic counselor. The counselor can discuss This typically happens when the diseases seem with the couple the likelihood of their passing to occur in the family of one or both of the on the condition, and the various options. parents. The couple should share their concerns with their family doctor or obstetrician. If there is a family history of one specific disease Critical Thinking Research the ethical, or symptoms of a genetic disorder, individuals legal, and social issues regarding genetic may wish to be tested. testing. Then write a report in which you There are different types of genetic testanalyze how these issues can affect a ing. Prior to pregnancy, testing can determine couple’s decision concerning whether to whether a person carries the traits for cyshave children. tic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease, or sickle cell. If Types and Causes of Birth Defects Some birth defects cause an abnormality in the structure of the body. For example, an affected baby might have a misshapen foot, or an extra or missing finger. Other birth defects cause one or more systems of the body not to function properly. Blindness, deafness, and mental retardation are examples. Not all birth defects are obvious at birth. Sometimes the abnormality is not discovered until months or years later. Figure 4.3 on pages 108–109 describes types of birth defects as well as their causes, how to detect them, and treatment for them. Scientists do not fully understand the causes of most birth defects. However, research continues to be done to find out why the defects occur. Scientists hope this understanding will lead to cures for the defects. So far, they have determined that there are four main causes for birth defects: •Factors in the environment •Hereditary factors •Errors in chromosomes •A combination of environmental and hereditary factors. Research is continuing in each area. Environmental Causes In the first few weeks after conception, a baby develops all the bodily systems needed for survival and a healthy, normal life. During this time, the baby depends on the mother’s body for nourishment and oxygen. This early development of the embryo is critical. Many choices the mother makes can affect the lifelong health of her baby. Some of these choices can occur before she even knows she is pregnant. There may be environmental factors that the mother is unaware of that can affect the development of the baby. Here is a list of some of the environmental causes of birth defects. Which of these factors do you think the mother can control? •The nutritional balance of the mother’s di •Any diseases or infections the mother has during pregnancy. •Harmful substances the mother consume such as alcohol, over-the-counter medications, tobacco, and illegal drugs. •Some medicines that benefit the mother b hurt the baby. •Air pollution. •Exposure to X-rays and high levels of radi tion, or to certain chemicals such as solvents and pesticides, especially early in pregnancy. Section 4.2 Problems in Prenatal Development 107 48..33 Birth Defects Birth Defect Causes Detections Treatments Cerebral Palsy Causes vary but include damage to the brain before, during, or shortly after birth. Motor skills are typically slow to develop during the first year of life. Damage caused to the brain is irreversible. Physical therapy, speech therapy, surgery, and medication can often lessen the effects. Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate May be caused by hereditary, environmental factors, or both. Conditions are apparent at birth. Often detectable by ultrasound before birth. Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Caused by inheriting defective recessive genes from both parents. Most commonly affects Caucasians. Blood tests can identify carriers of the gene. Sweat tests can diagnose an affected child. No known cure. Special diets, lung exercises, therapies, and medication can treat symptoms. Can be detected in a fetus by amniocentesis or chorionic villi sampling, or after birth with a blood test. No known cure. Treatment includes therapy, special educational assistance, and in some cases corrective surgery. Recognizable once symptoms appear. Genetic counseling can identify carriers. No known cure. A general term for a variety of problems of the motor system. Symptoms can include lack of coordination, stiffness, difficulty with speech, and paralysis. A gap in the upper lip or palate (the roof of the mouth) that causes problems with eating, swallowing, speech, and appearance. Affects respiratory and diges- tive systems. Many with CF die before adulthood, although treatment now allows sufferers to live longer. Down Syndrome A group of problems that may include mental retardation; heart, blood, and digestive system difficulties; and poor muscle tone. Muscular Dystrophy There are many different types; all involve a progressive weakness and shrinking of the muscles. Most common form begins between the ages of two and six. 108 A birth defect can be a serious threat to a baby’s health. Which of these birth defects can be detected before the baby is born? The presence of an extra chromosome 21. Most types are hereditary. Most common form is transmitted by female carriers of the gene but affects only males. Chapter 4 Prenatal Development Surgery corrects the gap and helps eliminate problems associated with it. Physical therapy can minimize the disabilities. Birth Defect Causes Detections Treatments PKU (phenylketonuria) Defective recessive genes inherited from both parents. Newborns are tested for PKU, as required by law in all states. No known cure. If diagnosed early, a special diet can reduce or prevent brain damage. Sickle Cell Anemia Defective recessive genes inherited from both parents. Most common in African Americans. Genetic counseling can identify parents who carry the gene. Amniocentesis or chorionic villi sampling can identify it in a fetus. Blood tests can detect it after bir th. No known cure. Medication can help treat the symptoms. Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus Seems to be a combination of hereditary and environmental factors. Taking a folic acid supplement during pregnancy may reduce incidence. Condition in which the body is unable to process and use a specific protein present in nearly all foods. Brain damage and mental retardation can result. Malformed red blood cells interfere with the supply of oxygen to all parts of the body. Symptoms include tiredness, lack of appetite, and pain. Can lead to early death. In spina bifida, an incompletely formed spinal cord may lead to stiff joints, partial paralysis, and problems with the kidneys and urinary tract. Seventy of every 100 children with spina bifida also have hydrocephalus, in which an excess of fluid sur- rounds the brain. Disease Tay-Sachs Caused by the lack of a specific chemical in the baby’s blood. The body cannot process and use certain fats. This leads to severe brain damage and death, usually by age four. Defective recessive genes inherited from both parents. Most common in families of eastern European Jewish descent. Spina bifida is apparent at birth. Hydrocephalus is indicated by overly rapid growth of the head. Tests of the mother’s blood, amniocentesis, and ultrasound can reveal suspected cases in a fetus. Amniocentesis or chorionic villi sampling can identify it in a fetus. Blood tests can identify carriers and can test for the condition after birth. Corrective surgery, physical therapy, and special schooling can minimize disabilities caused by spina bifida. Hydrocephalus can be helped by surgically implanting a shunt that relieves fluid build-up. No known cure. Treatment involves trying to make the child comfortable. Section 4.2 Problems in Prenatal Development 109 Hereditary Causes Every person has approximately 20,000 to 25,000 genes that determine traits, such as eye color and height. These genes also direct the growth and development of all body systems. Half of the genes come from the mother and half from the father. It is normal for children to get five or six imperfect recessive genes passed on to them. In most cases, a single copy of a faulty recessive gene will have no effect on the baby’s development. However, sometimes both parents will pass on the same faulty recessive gene. This causes the baby to have a birth defect. When this happens, it is called recessive inheritance. Two conditions caused by recessive inheritance are Tay-Sachs disease and cystic fibrosis. Sometimes a child will inherit a defective gene that is dominant. It is only necessary for this gene to be passed on by one parent for the child to have the resulting birth defect. This is called dominant inheritance. Huntington’s disease, a birth defect that does not appear until middle age, is caused by dominant inheritance. Muscular Dystrophy Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by a defective dominant gene. What is the main symptom of muscular dystrophy? 110 Chapter 4 Prenatal Development Some inherited conditions only affect one gender. Hemophilia is a condition that prevents the blood from clotting. Like color blindness and Duchenne muscular dystrophy, hemophilia usually only affects males. Errors in Chromosomes Several types of birth defects are caused by problems in the number or structure of chromosomes. An error may occur when an egg or sperm cell is developing. This can cause a baby to have too many or too few chromosomes, or to have broken or rearranged chromosomes. These are not hereditary defects because neither parent has the abnormal chromosome. The most common birth defect of this type is Down syndrome. A child with Down syndrome may have some degree of mental retar- dation, plus physical problems. One in 800 babies has this condition. Under normal condi- tions, each sperm and egg cell carries 23 chro- mosomes. Sometimes an error occurs when an egg or sperm cell is forming, causing an extra copy of chromosome 21. Instead of having two copies of chromosome 21, the child has three. Because each chromosome carries hundreds of genes, the defect can interfere with develop- ment in many ways. This includes an increased risk of heart defects and leukemia, poor mus- cle tone, vision and hearing problems, delayed physical growth and motor development, and distinctive physical characteristics. The risk for having a child with Down syndrome is higher for mothers over the of 35. Interaction of Heredity andage Environment Some birth defects are caused by a combination of heredity and the environment. For example, a child may inherit a tendency that may later lead to a heart defect. If a factor such as a drug or virus affects the baby during pregnancy, the baby will have the heart defect. If the baby did not inherit the gene for the heart defect or did not get exposed to the drug or virus, the heart would be normal. Because both the inherited factor and the environmental factor were present, the baby’s heart had a defect. Birth defects such as cleft lip, cleft palate, and spina bifida may be caused by a combination of hereditary and environmental fac- Prenatal Testing An amniocentesis and other prenatal tests can provide valuable information. Why are these tests not recommended for all pregnant women? tors. See Figure 4.3 on pages 108–109 for more information on these birth defects. Both cleft lip and cleft palate may be caused by a number of inherited genes joined with exposure dur- ing pregnancy to certain medications, infec- tions, illnesses, or tobacco or alcohol. A genetic predisposition, or tendency, for spina bifida, combined with the use of certain medications during pregnancy, will increase the chance of a child having the defect. Prevention and Diagnosis of Birth Defects It can be challenging for a child born with a serious, or severe, birth defect to lead a normal, productive life. Other family members are affected by the emotional and financial strain the defect causes. However, advances in treatment and support groups are helping children and their families cope. Not all causes of birth defects can be anticipated or controlled. There are several things that couples can do, though, to lessen the chances of having a child with birth defects. Couples who are planning to become parents should get a checkup to evaluate their overall health before trying to conceive. They can discuss lifestyle changes that may improve their chances for a healthy baby. For example, women should stop using tobacco and alcohol prior to pregnancy. Both of these can lead to health problems and birth defects. Because many women do not know they are pregnant in the early weeks, it is safer to quit smoking and drinking before there is a possibility of pregnancy. Men are also advised to avoid or drink less alcohol, since it has been linked to low sperm count. Once a woman is pregnant, she should visit her doctor for prenatal care. This care helps ensure a successful pregnancy. The doctor can monitor the mother’s health and the baby’s growth and development throughout the pregnancy. The mother should continue to avoid substances such as alcohol, drugs, and tobacco. She can talk to her doctor or pharmacist about the effects of any over-thecounter and pre- scription medications on her baby. A pregnant woman should not take any medication without her doctor’s approval. Genetic Counseling Some people seek genetic counseling to assess their risk of having a child with a birth defect that is caused by a defect in the genes. Section 4.2 Problems in Prenatal Development 111 certain genetic birth defects. It is the couple’s decision whether or not to have children. If they do, they will be aware of extra testing that may be needed during pregnancy to closely monitor the development of the baby. Prenatal Tests Down Syndrome The fluid obtained from amniocentesis can be used to check chromosomes. In these chromosomes, Down syndrome is shown by what unusual circumstance? There may be a history of birth defects in the family. Some couples may already have a child with a birth defect and want to learn more about the risks for future children. Genetic counselors can explain the options and risks. Family doctors can perform genetic counseling, but most patients are referred to a genetic counselor. This specialist usually begins by evaluating the family history of both members of the couple. This includes information such as the medical histories, diseases, and causes of death of all known family members. Along with the family history, a genetic counselor will usually request a physical exam for both parents. If specific birth defects are of concern, some other members of the fam- ily may receive physical exams as well. Special lab tests may also be performed. Small samples of blood and body tissue may be analyzed. For example, a blood sample can be tested to deter- mine whether the parents are carriers for the gene that causes cystic fibrosis. Once all of the testing is complete, the genetic counselor can usually tell the couple what their risks are for having a child with 112 Chapter 4 Prenatal Development More than 100 kinds of birth defects can now be detected before a baby is born. There are many tests that are standard for prenatal care in this country. These help a doctor decide whether or not a baby might have a birth defect. These tests can help determine what treatments, if any, are needed for the child before or after birth. Sometimes prenatal tests are simple blood tests. Other tests involve procedures that carry more risks. The couple must weigh the potential value of the information to be gained against possible risks for the developing baby or the mother. Here are examples of some common prenatal tests. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) This blood test is performed on the expectant mother between weeks 15 and 20 of a pregnancy. AFP is a protein produced in the liver of the fetus that is evident in the mother’s blood. Abnormal AFP levels can indicate a possible birth defect. Further testing can be done to determine if a birth defect does exist, and what it might be. Ultrasound Ultrasound is a test that uses sound waves to make a video image of an unborn baby. This image is called a sonogram. It can help the doctor monitor the development of the baby, pinpoint the baby’s age, and detect certain birth defects. Problems with the baby’s skeletal, circulatory, or nervous system may be detected during an ultrasound. The sonogram also helps confirm the due date and the presence of more than one fetus. Many women will have an ultrasound during their pregnancy, usually near the 20th week. Many doctors now do 3D ultrasounds, which give more detailed images and information about the baby’s development. Research has shown that an ultrasound poses no threat to the unborn child or the mother. However, it should be performed only when there is a valid medical reason for doing so. Amniocentesis The process of withdrawing a sample of the amniotic fluid surround- ing the unborn baby is called amniocentesis (+amn#-%-(+)sen-=t#-s`s). The doctor uses the view from an ultrasound to guide a needle through the mother’s abdomen into the amniotic sac. Some cells from the fetus are in the amniotic fluid. These cells are then taken to a lab and tested for evidence of birth defects and other health problems. Amniocentesis is most often used as a test for Down syndrome when the expectant mother is age 35 or older. The test may also be given if uncertain results have been obtained from an ultrasound or AFP blood test. Amnio- centesis involves some risk to the fetus and is performed only when there is a strong medi- cal reason to do so. It can be done between the 15th and 20th week of pregnancy. Chorionic Villi Sampling A prenatal test that uses a sample of the tissue from the membrane that encases the fetus to check for specific Section 4.2 birth defects is called chorionic villi sampling (+k}r-#-=&-nik =vi-+l$). Samples of the tissue are cut or suctioned off and analyzed. Chorionic villi sampling tests for the same disorders as amniocentesis. This test does not detect neural tube defects though. It is used less often because its risks are greater. One advan- tage is that it can be done much earlier in the pregnancy than amniocentesis. Chorionic villi sampling is usually done between the 10th and 12th week of pregnancy. New Prenatal Diagnosis Several methods of prenatal diagnosis are now in experimental stages. These may someday provide more accurate information earlier in a pregnancy. For example, it is possible to view the fetus directly through a special instrument called a laparoscope. Doctors can get samples of fetal blood and tissue, and even do surgery on an unborn child. Currently, these procedures carry a risk. New technology may make these procedures safe for widespread use in the future. After You Read Review Key Concepts 1. Summarize the causes of stillbirth. 2. List the four categories of birth defects. Practice Academic Skills English Language Arts 3. Studies show that taking prenatal vitamins with folic acid can help prevent birth defects. Research the amounts of folic acid recommended and how it can help prevent defects. Use the information from your research to create a handout promoting the use of prenatal vitamins. Use art or photos to make your handout visually appealing. Science 4. Choose one of the birth defects listed in Figure 4.3. Use print or online resources to learn about the current research being done on the causes or treatments of this birth defect. Write a brief report explaining what you learned. Check Your Answers Check your answers at this book’s Online Learning NCTE 8 Use information resources to gather information and create and communicate knowledge. NSES A Develop abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry, understanding about scientific inquiry. Center at glencoe.com. Section 4.2 Problems in Prenatal Development 113 Section 4.3 Avoiding Dangers to the Baby Reading Guide Before You Read Categorize Before reading, skim this section to determine whether the dangers to baby can be placed into categories. As you read, categorize each type of danger to help you see the big picture. Read to Learn Academic Vocabulary Key Concepts • Summarize the hazards that alcohol and other drugs pose to prenatal development. • Assess why environmental hazards must be avoided during pregnancy. • Describe how a fetus can be affected by certain illnesses the mother may contract. Main Idea A fetus needs to be protected from many dangers. These include the mother drinking alcohol or taking other drugs, environmental hazards, diseases, and infections. You will find these words in your reading and on your tests. Use the glossary to look up their definitions if necessary. deformity congenital Graphic Organizer As you read, list examples of each of the three types of dangers that can affect a baby. Use a chart like the one shown to help organize your information. Add additional boxes as needed. Content Vocabulary Types of Dangers fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) fetal alcohol effects SIDS toxoplasmosis Graphic Organizer Go to this book’s Drugs Environmental Hazards Diseases and I nfec tions Online Learning Center at glencoe.com to print out this graphic organizer. Academic Standards ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● English Language Arts 114 Science NCTE 5 Use different writing process elements to communicate effectively. NSES F Develop understanding of personal and community health; and environmental quality. NCTE National Council of Teachers of English NCTM National Council of Teachers of Mathematics NSE National Science Education Standards S National Council for the Social Studies NCS S Chapter 4 Prenatal Development Effects of Alcohol and Other Drugs on Pregnancy • Nicotine and other toxic chemicals found • in cigarettes. Illegal drugs such as heroin, LSD, ecstasy, marijuana, and cocaine. Inhalants. These are fumes that are inhaled into the lungs. The mother-to-be has a big responsibility throughout her pregnancy. She must do every- • thing possible to increase the chances of having a healthy baby. She needs to consider the Alcohol effects of her actions on her unborn child. She must take care of herself physically and emoSometimes people forget that alcohol is tionally, and avoid potential dangers. a drug. It is an especially dangerous one for An essential part of good prenatal care is unborn children. When a pregnant woman avoiding hazards such as alcohol and other drinks alcohol, she puts her baby at great drugs, smoking, X-rays, hazardous chemicals risk. Anything the mother consumes or and other substances, and infections. Research- inhales is passed directly to her child ers and doctors believe that drugs consumed through the pla- centa. This is true for during pregnancy are among the major causes alcohol too. Even a small amount of alcohol of birth defects linked to environmental faccan harm the developing systems of the tors. These drugs include: baby. •Alcohol, in any form. Doctors do not know how much alcohol it •Prescription and over-the-counter takes to endanger a developing baby. There is medicines. no known safe amount of alcohol that a preg•Caffeine. This is found in foods such as nant woman can drink. For this reason, most chocolate, and beverages. The safety of doctors recommend that women consume no caffeine during pregnancy is controversial. alcohol when they are trying to become pregHowever, until researchers know more about nant or during the pregnancy. Abstaining from its effects, it is wise to avoid caffeine. alcohol will prevent any negative effects on the baby related to alcohol. Drugs and Fetal Harm Birth defects caused by drinking, smoking, and other drugs are preventable. How do you think a mother feels if she finds out her behavior caused her child’s birth defect? Section 4.3 Avoiding Dangers to the Baby 115 How Does Alcohol Affect a Fetus? The dangers of alcohol to an unborn fetus may seem like common sense. Many people are unaware just how dangerous this common drug can be though. Consuming alcohol during pregnancy can also cause serious health problems for the baby. The alcohol passes directly to the baby through the placenta. It may cause problems in development, especially that of the brain. Even small amounts of alco- hol can harm the baby. Greater amounts have been linked to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which causes life-long physical and mental disabilities. Expectant mothers can avoid these risks by completely avoiding alcohol during pregnancy. Be Prepared Imagine that your aunt is pregnant and thinks it is fine to drink occasionally. Conduct research to learn more about how even occasional drinking can affect a fetus. Create a one-page report explaining why any amount of alcohol is unsafe. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is an incurable condition found in some children of mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy. FAS includes a wide range of physical and mental disabilities that last a lifetime. One in five babies born with FAS does not live to see his or her first birthday. Those who do survive can suffer many problems. These can include delayed physical growth; heart, liver, or kidney defects; hyperactivity; and facial deformity. A deformity is a defect in a structure. Some babies with FAS are mentally retarded. Others have difficulties with learning, attention, memory, or problem solving. Alcohol can interfere with tissue growth and development. Brain tissue is easily injured by alcohol. Other common problems include poor coordination and difficulty controlling behavior. 116 Chapter 4 Prenatal Development Some children may suffer from fetal alcohol effects. Like FAS, fetal alcohol effects are abnormalities caused by the mother consuming alcohol during pregnancy. These children suffer from many of the same problems as those with FAS, but to a lesser degree. The extent of damage to the child is often directly related to the amount of alcohol the mother consumed during pregnancy. It may also be affected by the stage of pregnancy when she drank. For example, women who binge drink in the early stages of pregnancy may have an increased risk of having a baby with FAS. Binge drinking means to drink a lot in a short amount of time. The combination of alcohol with other drugs also affects the degree of damage to the child. Prescription Drugs and Over-the-Counter Drugs An expectant mother should check with her doctor every time she considers using any type of medication, vitamin, or herbal supple- ment. There is no such thing as a completely safe drug for a developing fetus. An extreme example of an unsafe medication is thalidomide. This drug was prescribed to women in the 1950s to relieve morning sickness. Before its devastating effects were discovered, more than 5,000 babies were born with severe birth defects, such as missing or deformed arms and legs. Had doctors known the effects of this drug, they never would have prescribed it. More recently, a prescription medicine for acne proved harmful to unborn children. When taken during pregnancy, the drug can cause serious birth defects. Therefore, it is not prescribed for pregnant women or those who may become pregnant. The first three months of pregnancy are the most critical because the baby’s body sys- tems, including the brain, are being formed. The chemicals found in some medications can cause severe harm, including mental retarda- tion. This includes drugs sold without prescrip- tions, or over-the-counter (OTC) medications. Even something as seemingly harmless as an antacid can harm a fetus. In the fourth through ninth months of pregnancy, harmful substances may cause slow growth, infections, or bleeding at birth. Drugs taken shortly before delivery will still be in the baby’s bloodstream after birth. Sometimes the expectant mother needs medication for a specific medical condition. For example, some women may need to take medications for epilepsy, diabetes, or high blood pressure. A pregnant woman can take these, as long as her doctor prescribes them and she takes them correctly. Medications that are not absolutely necessary should be avoided. Small amounts of caffeine, such as two cups of coffee or soft drinks per day, do not appear to pose great pregnancy risks. However, larger quan- tities have been associated with a variety of pre- natal problems. That is why most doctors advise women to avoid caffeine during pregnancy. When women consume large amounts of caffeine during pregnancy, there is an increased risk of miscarriage, premature birth, and low birth weight. There is also a higher risk of infant death. Birth weight is a critical factor to a baby’s survival. Low birth weight is a weight of less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2.5 kg) at birth. Babies with low birth weight may have serious health problems as newborns and are Caf feine at greater Caffeine is in the beverages many people risk of long-term problems. drink each day, such as coffee, tea, cocoa, and Caffeine can draw fluid and calcium out of most soft drinks. It is also present in some the body. It may also interfere with the absorpfoods and many over-the-counter medications. tion of iron. These are all vital to the health of Because it is consumed so frequently, caffeine the mother and the developing fetus. In addiis often not considered a drug, but it is. tion, drinks with caffeine, such as coffee and Caffeine passes easily from a mother to her tea, can make you feel full. This will spoil your fetus through the placenta. The fetus may have appetite for nutritious foods. Soft drinks may higher blood levels of caffeine than the mother have other chemicals and large amounts of because of its immature metabolism. Caffeine sugar, in addition to the caffeine. The caffeine can increase fetal heart rate and movement. and sugar can also worsen mood swings and prevent the mother from getting needed rest. OTC Drugs and Pregnancy Even common medicines that are sold in pharmacies and supermarkets may be unsafe for an unborn baby. How can a pregnant woman be sure that a medicine is safe? Section 4.3 Avoiding Dangers to the Baby 117 What Would Do? Stopping Smoking Lori and her husband want to have a baby, so Lori has been exercising and watching what she eats. Unfortunately, Lori has been a smoker for several years. She knows that she needs to stop smoking before she becomes pregnant. Lori says, “I have tried almost everything to quit: the nicotine patch, other over-the-counter treatments, classes. Nothing worked. I’ve got to make it work this time. I want to do everything possible to improve my baby’s chances for a healthy life. But it’s hard when I’ve failed so many times in the past.” Write About It Imagine you are a friend of Lori’s. Write a script in which you talk with Lori about specific problems for both her and her baby associated with smoking. Also offer tips that might help her quit. If possible, base your tips on what you have done to break a bad habit. Tobacco Many studies have shown that the nicotine found in tobacco is harmful to the health of any person. It is especially harmful to a baby’s development before birth. Smoking has been shown to cause low birth weights. The more a mother smokes, the smaller her baby is likely to be at birth. Heavy smoking is believed to cause premature birth as well. Finally, smoking during pregnancy is linked to respiratory infections and allergies among children after they are born. Nicotine from secondhand smoke has similar effects. Illegal Drugs Illegal drugs should never be used. This is especially true for women who are pregnant.In addition to the effects on the mother’s health, the use of illegal drugs can have devastating effects for an unborn baby. This includes cocaine, marijuana, and other illegal substances. 118 Chapter 4 Prenatal Development A mother who is addicted to a drug usually passes the addiction on to her baby. All drugs in the mother’s bloodstream pass through the placenta to the baby. As a result, addicted newborns may suffer the consequences throughout their lives. Right after birth, infants with an inherited drug addiction must go through a painful period of withdrawal. This is because the body is no longer receiving the drug upon which it depends. Babies that survive withdrawal have an uncertain future. Many experts believe that the long-term effects of prenatal addiction can be severe. Many of these children have learning and behavioral difficulties. Cocaine has been proven to increase the risk of miscarriage when used during the early stages of pregnancy. It may also cause stillbirth or premature birth. Cocaine may cause the unborn child to have a stroke. This can result in brain damage, a heart attack, serious birth defects, or even death. Fetuses exposed to cocaine tend to have a low birth weight, smaller heads than other newborns, and a risk of seizures and sudden infant death syndrome. SIDS, or sudden infant death syndrome, is the sudden, unexpected death of a baby under one year of age with no clear cause. Marijuana and methamphetamine use are also linked to low birth weight and premature delivery. Babies exposed to cocaine may also have tremors, exaggerated startle response, sleep and feeding difficulties, irritability, and developmental delay. All of these problems may persist into the school years. Use of marijuana and methamphetamines during pregnancy can cause breathing difficulties, poor attention span, drowsiness, or heart defects in children. Researchers are still learning about the effects of the drug ecstasy on unborn children. The results are not good. Recent studies have shown that babies of women who take ecstasy are more likely to be born with heart disease or a physical abnormality. This drug is not safe to take any time, but it is especially unsafe during pregnancy. List What kinds of drugs, other than alcohol, can harm a developing baby? Environmental Hazards Environmental hazards are all around us. However, they may not be obvious. For these reasons, it is vital that pregnant women be aware of them. Two possible hazards to unborn babies are X-rays and chemicals such as pesticides and mercury. X-rays X-rays present a potential danger to the unborn baby. Radiation from X-rays, or from other sources, can cause birth defects. There has been a great deal of debate about the safety of X-rays during pregnancy. If an X-ray is necessary due to an accident, illness, or dental work, the mother should inform the medical staff that she is pregnant. Special precautions can be taken to make sure the fetus is not exposed to much radiation. Patients should always wear abdominal shields during an X-ray to reduce the amount of radiation they are exposed to. Dental X-rays are generally considered safe, because they are focused very far from the uterus. Many dentists still delay routine X-rays for a patient until after she has given birth. Hazardous Substances and A pregnant woman must be careful about hazChemicals ardous substances in her home and work environment. Some of these substances include: •Paint. Low-odor latex paint in a wellventilated area may not pose a problem. A woman should check with her doctor before any exposure. •Pesticides used to exterminate bugs. •Lead, in water and paint. •Carbon monoxide. •Mercury, found in some fish such as swordfish and shark. •Solvents, paint thinners, and formaldehyd (used in some workplaces). Pregnancy and X-rays When X-rays are suggested, a pregnant woman should inform the medical staff that she is pregnant so precautions can be taken. W hat precaution should be taken if a pregnant woman requires an X-ray? Section 4.3 Avoiding Dangers to the Baby 119 If a pregnant woman must live or work around some of these substances, she should consult her doctor immediately. She should also take extra precautions to minimize her exposure to any of these substances. Explain Why should a woman tell a dentist when she is pregnant? Diseases and Infections Occasionally, an expectant mother might get an infection during the course of her pregnancy. Some infections pose more of a risk to a fetus than others. The timing of an infection also may have an effect on the level of risk to a fetus. Some infections can be treated without any harm to the unborn baby, if they are found early and treated properly. Rubella If a pregnant woman contracts rubella, also known as German measles, it can have terrible consequences for her unborn baby. The infection can cause severe birth defects, especially in the first three months of pregnancy. These can include blindness, deafness, heart disease, and mental retardation. “Each system of the body is most vulnerable to harmful outside influences at the time that it is forming. Since so many body systems are forming in the first weeks and months of pregnancy, this is the time when the risks are greatest of birth defects caused by exposures to certain medications, drugs, radiation, infections, or nutritional problems.” — Robert Needlman, pediatrician, The Dr. Spock Company 120 Chapter 4 Prenatal Development A vaccine for rubella is available, and millions of children have been vaccinated. The vaccine may be dangerous, however, for women who are pregnant or who become pregnant shortly after receiving it. A woman who is unsure whether she has been vaccinated can check her health records or ask her doctor to test her. Every woman should be sure she is immune to rubella before she considers becoming pregnant. Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis (+t&k-s`-+plaz-=m%-s`s) is an infection caused by a parasite. This parasite is found all over the world, so the infection is quite common. It is estimated that 60 million people in the United States carry the parasite. Most people have immune systems that are strong enough to keep them from feeling any ill effects. However, developing babies are at risk if their mothers get the disease. Toxoplasmosis can cause blindness, hearing loss, and learning disabilities in babies. Some cases are so severe that a baby dies shortly after birth or has longterm mental disabilities. Toxoplasmosis can also cause miscarriage or stillbirth. An expectant mother can take several precautions to avoid exposing her baby to toxoplasmosis. She should never clean a cat’s litter box, because cats carry the parasite that causes the infection. She should not eat undercooked meat and should wash her hands immediately and thoroughly after touching raw meat. Chicken Pox Varicella is a viral infection that generally occurs in childhood. It is more commonly known as chicken pox. Some women who have not had chicken pox will get the infection during pregnancy. Depending upon when the infection occurs, there can be serious consequences to the fetus. If an expectant mother gets chicken pox during the first half of her pregnancy, her baby has a slight risk of getting a condition called congenital varicella syndrome. Congenital means present at birth. This condition can cause scarring of the skin, limb defects, eye problems, and other serious abnormalities. In a very small number of cases, it can cause miscarriage. Ounce of Prevention Washing hands immediately after handling raw meat can help avoid toxoplasmosis. What other precautions can a pregnant woman take to prevent infections? Women who have not had chicken pox should get the vaccine before getting pregnant. They should also avoid contact with people who have chicken pox. Sexually Transmitted As with rubella, sexually transmitted infecInfections tions (STIs) can do great harm to unborn babies. In some instances, STIs may be passed to the child during the birth process. As you read in Chapter 2, some STIs include syphilis, gonorrhea, hepatitis B, genital herpes, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and chlamydia. Many of these diseases can be passed on from the pregnant woman to the unborn child. This occurs in the same way that the child receives nutrients from the mother. Some of these diseases can result in serious illnesses, physical disabilities, or even death. People can get a sexually transmitted infection without realizing it. They may never have any symptoms to indicate a problem. For this reason, special measures are usually taken to protect babies from the effects of STIs. Most doctors routinely test pregnant women for syphilis and group B streptococcus. Many states require these tests by law. Doctors also usually treat the eyes of newborns with a solution that will kill any gonorrhea germs that could cause blindness. Medical treatment can cure syphilis and gonorrhea and can relieve the symptoms of herpes in adults. No drug can cure the damage to a newborn that comes from a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Any pregnant woman who thinks she might have been exposed to an STI should discuss this possibility with her doctor as soon as possible. Syphilis The effects of syphilis on an unborn baby can usually be treated if the infection is discovered before the sixteenth week of pregnancy. If left untreated, syphilis can cause a skin rash or lesions, bone or facial deformities, deafness, or brain damage. Many babies infected with syphilis will develop anemia, jaundice, or pneumonia in the first few months of life. About two in five pregnancies with untreated syphilis end in miscarriage, a stillbirth, or a baby who dies soon after birth. Section 4.3 Avoiding Dangers to the Baby 121 AIDS When an expectant mother has AIDS, there can be serious consequences for her unborn baby. There is a 35 to 65 percent risk that the virus will be passed on to the baby. AIDS attacks the brain, and infected babies often have seizures and retarded mental development. Most states now require an AIDS test early in a pregnancy. If a doctor knows that a pregnant woman has AIDS or the virus that causes it, special steps can be taken to reduce the baby’s exposure to the disease. For example, the mother can take medication to reduce the chance of the baby being infected with the virus. Also, most babies exposed to the AIDS virus and other STIs are delivered by cesarean section, a surgical procedure. This avoids exposure to the disease that may exist in the birth canal. AIDS testing also helps doctors to prepare for a newborn infected with the HIV virus that causes AIDS. Section 4.3 Genital Herpes Managing genital herpes during pregnancy is important to the health of the developing fetus. When the mother develops her first genital herpes infection during pregnancy, the risk to the infant is greater. Herpes simplex can cause the infant to be born with a brain infec- tion or mental retardation. Some newborns will die from a herpes simplex infection. In most cases, the infection is transmitted to the newborn during the birth process. For this reason, if a doctor knows that the mother is infected, he will often schedule a cesarean birth. You will learn more about this surgical procedure to deliver the baby in Chapter 6. In addition, there are medications that are safe to treat genital herpes during pregnancy. As with any sexually transmitted infection, couples should honestly discuss with their doctor the possibility of either parent having a herpes infection. After You Read Review Key Concepts 1. Explain what causes FAS. How can it be avoided? 2. Identify three common chemicals a woman should avoid during pregnanc y. 3. Describe why a woman should be vaccinated against rubella and chicken pox before becoming pregnant. Practice Academic Skills English Language Arts 4. Suppose you are having coffee with a friend when she tells you that she is pregnant. Write a skit in which you urge your friend to avoid caffeine during the pregnancy, explaining the possible effects on her developing baby. NCTE 5 Use different writing process elements to communicate effec tively. Science 5. Health care professionals are concerned about pregnant women eating certain types of fish. Because of environmental pollution, these fish can contain high levels of mercury. Conduct research and create a chart showing the quantities of different types of fish a pregnant woman can safely eat. NSES F Develop understanding of personal and community health; and environmental quality. Check Your Answers Check your answers at this book’s Online Learning Cen- ter at glencoe.com. 122 Chapter 4 Prenatal Development Chapter 4 Review and Applications Chapter Summary Any time sexual intercourse takes place, a pregnancy may occur. There are many family planning methods available. Chromosomes from each parent determine the baby’s inherited traits. There are three stages in prenatal development. Couples who cannot conceive may seek infertility treatment or adopt a child. Some pregnancies end in miscarriage or stillbirth. Birth defects have a variety of causes. There are tests to help diagnose potential problems. Everything a pregnant woman eats, drinks, and breathes affects her developing baby. Vocabulary Review 1. Use each of these content and academic vocabulary words in a sentence. Content Vocabulary ovum (p. 93) uterus (p. 93) fallopian tube (p. 93) sperm (p. 93) conception (p. 95) chromosome (p. 95) gene (p. 95) genome (p. 95) DNA (p. 95) infertility (p. 97) surrogate (p. 98) prenatal development (p. 99) zygote (p. 99) embryo (p. 100) amniotic fluid (p. 100) placenta (p. 100) umbilical cord (p. 100) fetus (p. 101) miscarriage (p. 106) stillbirth (p. 106) ultrasound (p. 112) amniocentesis (p. 113) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) (p. 116) fetal alcohol effects (p. 116) SIDS (p. 118) toxoplasmosis (p. 120) Academic Vocabulary controversial (p. 99) spontaneous (p. 101) predisposition (p. 111) serious (p. 111) deformity (p. 116) congenital (p. 120) Review Key Concepts 2. List the methods of family planning. 3. Outline what occurs during each of the three stages of prenatal development. 4. Contrast miscarriage and stillbirth. 5. Identify how ten major birth defects can be diagnosed. 6. Summarize the hazards that alcohol and other drugs pose to prenatal development. 7. Assess why environmental hazards must be avoided during pregnancy. 8. Describehow a fetus can be affected by certain illnesses the mother may contract. Critical Thinking Why do babies born at full term have a better chance for survival than babies born a few months early? 10. Predict What could be the consequences if someone denies that she is pregnant and does not seek any medical care? 9. Analyze Chapter 4 Prenatal Development 123
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Child Development 1A-Credit 4 – Performance Task- Dos and Don'ts of Good Prenatal
Conduct research and create a one-pager explaining the dos and don'ts of good prenatal care.
Prenatal care refers to activities and procedures undertaken by an expecting woman to
ensure their health and the health of their unborn babies. It involves regular visits and checkups
by midwives, doctors, or nurses to monitor the child's development and the pregnant woman's

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