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ESL433 Grand Canyon University ELL Vocabulary Strategies Essay

ESL433

Grand Canyon University

Question Description

Please help with assignment . Please use the template provided and rubric.

Details:

Based on the strategies that you learned about in this course and your required readings, write a 250-word reflection about how you would integrate academic vocabulary in the content areas.

Choose one strategy and explain how you would incorporate academic vocabulary throughout the school day in multiple ways. What resources would you need to best facilitate this strategy?

APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.

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Academic Vocabulary Strategies Academic Vocabulary Strategies Your Name Grand Canyon University: ESL 433N Date Academic Vocabulary Strategies Academic Vocabulary Strategies Your introduction belongs here. It should be three sentences and your final sentence should be your thesis statement. Strategies You need to discuss at least one teaching strategy that will assist ELLs develop academic vocabulary. You need to support this section with at least one in-text citation, not a direct quote. Conclusion You need to restate the thesis here and wrap up the paper in two-three sentences. Academic Vocabulary Strategies Reference (You must have at least one source. If you have more than one source, please place an “s” at the end of the word Reference. Remove this before submitting.) Academic Vocabulary Strategies 1 No Submission 0.00% 2 Insufficient 65.00% 3 Approaching 75.00% 4 Acceptable 85.00% 5 Target 100.00% The strategy to teach The strategy to teach academic vocabulary academic vocabulary A strategy to teach A strategy well-suited to teach 40.0% or the resources needed or the resources academic vocabulary Not academic vocabulary and all Strategy and to facilitate it are not needed to facilitate it and resources needed addressed. of the resources needed to Resources clearly identified or could be more clearly to facilitate it are facilitate it are included. are inadequate for the identified or better identified. task. suited for the task. The examples of how academic vocabulary could be incorporated 40.0% into the content areas Not Academic is not clearly addressed. Vocabulary articulated; or cannot realistically be carried out in an educational setting. The explanation The examples of how includes examples of The explanation includes academic vocabulary how academic creative examples of how could be incorporated vocabulary could be academic vocabulary could into the content areas incorporated into be incorporated into all of could be more clearly the content areas. The the content areas. The articulated; or may not examples could examples could realistically be easily carried out in realistically be be carried out in an an educational setting. carried out in an educational setting. educational setting. An attempt is made to organize the content, The content could be but the sequence is organized better 10.0% Not indiscernible. The ideas even though it provides Organization addressed. presented are the audience with a compartmentalized and sense of the main idea. may not relate to each other. Surface errors are 10.0% pervasive enough that Mechanics they impede (spelling, Not communication of punctuation, addressed. meaning. Inappropriate grammar, and word choice or sentence language use) construction are used. The content is logically organized. The ideas presented relate to each other. The content provides the audience with a clear sense of the main idea. The content is well-organized and logical. There is a sequential progression of ideas that relate to each other. The content is presented as a cohesive unit and provides the audience with a clear sense of the main idea. Frequent and repetitive Submission includes mechanical errors are some mechanical Submission is virtually free present but are not errors, but they do not of mechanical errors. overly distracting to hinder comprehension. Word choice reflects wellthe reader; or A variety of effective developed use of practice inconsistent language sentence structures and content-related language. or word choice is are used, as well as Sentence structures are present; or sentence some practice and varied and engaging. structure could be content-related more varied. language. Linguistically Diverse Students & Their Families Building English Language Learners’ Academic Vocabulary Strategies & Tips Claire Sibold Introduction According to Beck, McKeown, and Kucan’s Three Tier Model (2002), when it comes to language instruction the distinction between academic vocabulary words and content specific words has a significant bearing on the language success of English language learners (ELLs). By using the strategies decribed in this article teachers and parents will have the means to develop ELLs’ vocabulary through reading, direct instruction, and reinforcement activities and games. Teachers and parents can use these strategies before, during, and after reading, and thus provide students with a set of tools they can use independently as they read. Often vocabulary instruction receives inadequate attention in elementary and secondary classrooms (Biemiller & Boote, 2006). Academic vocabulary, specifically the language that may occur in multiple contexts or the precise words that are presented in a specific context, can help students acquire new learning strategies and skills (Marzano, 2005). Academic vocabulary, however, is notably more difficult to learn than conversational language because it is more specific and sometimes abstract, making it difficult to grasp. Knowledge of this kind of technical vocabulary in any specific content area—for example, social science, science, mathematics, or language arts—is directly linked to content knowledge. Stahl and Fairbanks (1986) found that such vocabulary instruction directly improves students’ reading comprehension of textbook content. While the majority of teachers develop students’ vocabulary across the curricuClaire Sibold is a professor in the School of Education at Biola University, La Mirada, California. lum, it is essential that English language learners have explicit instruction about the academic vocabulary that is necessary for their success in school. The Importance to ELLs When English language learners struggle with reading comprehension, it can often be attributed to their difficulty with understanding the vocabulary. Many studies report that low academic language skills are associated with low academic performance (Baumann, Edwards, Font, Tereshinski, et al, 2002; Biemiller & Boote, 2006; Carlo, August, McLaughlin, Snow, et al, 2004). These studies also report a discrepancy among students of diverse ethnicities related to the amount of vocabulary they know and the depth to which they know and use that vocabulary. According to Beck, McKeown, and Kucan, “there are profound differences in vocabulary knowledge among learners from different ability or socioeconomic (SES) groups” (2002, p. 1). Thus, students with smaller vocabularies are at a greater disadvantage in learning, and this lack of knowledge too often is the main barrier to their comprehension of texts and lectures (Newton, Padak, & Rasinski, 2008). According to Graves (2006) and Zwiers (2008), ELLs require assistance in developing content-related vocabulary in their second language if they are to experience success in school. Both native English speakers and ELLs need support in learning the language that is used in the classroom as part of instruction, reading, discussion, and assignments. Interweaving direct instruction in academic language helps students acquire an understanding of abstract concepts, multiple meaning words, and content vocabulary. When students are able to understand the vocabulary for the that content they are reading and hearing, they will have a better understanding of the material. While wide reading promotes vocabulary growth, ELLs who do not read enough cannot acquire the word wealth that would help them with language learning. Three Tier Model Beck, McKeown, and Kucan’s (2002) Three Tier Model places vocabulary words into three categories: Tier 1 which consists of basic or common words, Tier 2 which involves words that are used across the curriculum and multiple meaning words, and Tier 3 which is content specific vocabulary. In this model (see Figure 1), Figure 1 Graphic Organizer of Three Tier Model Three Tier Model Tier 2: General Academic and Multiple Meaning Words Tier 1: Basic Words sight words function words words that name objects u u u usage only in specific field u technical vocabulary u not part of everyday use u u u important to understanding text words used across the curriculum u words with several meanings MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION 24 Tier 3: Specific Content Words Teaching Language Learning Tier 1 words are the most common words in English and they make up a significant percentage of the words students read. These words generally require little or no instruction, e.g., table, swim, cars, and dog (Wosley, 2009). Sight words, function words, and words that name objects are included within Tier 1 vocabulary. Tier 2 words are useful terms found with high frequency. These are words that are important to understanding the text and are used across the curriculum. For example, analyze, compare, and conclusion are words commonly used in academic settings during instruction, in discussions, on tests, and in assignments. Multiple meaning words such as set, bat, base, and check have several meanings and must be presented in context in order to be understood. Students who are proficient in English typically have a better grasp of these words and are able to use them to communicate. Tier 3 vocabulary words are found with less frequency and are typically limited to specific content areas. According to Vacca and Vacca (2008) these words have “usage and application only in a particular subject field,” e.g., centimeter, kilogram, and deciliter in a mathematics or science class, or abolitionist, emancipation, and secession in a history class (p. 145). It is relatively easy for teachers to iden- tify these Tier 3 words in their textbooks. Students, on the other hand, struggle to define or explain the meaning of these vocabulary words, words that are not part of the language they use every day. Therefore, this technical vocabulary needs to be taught explicitly and thoroughly (Vacca & Vacca, 2008). Effective Vocabulary Instruction Effective vocabulary instruction emphasizes direct instruction. For example, presenting both key words that help ELLs understand difficult text and multiplemeaning words that require students to use context to figure out the meaning will be necessary. By using direct instruction, teachers can incorporate relevant vocabulary into the before, during, and after reading stages of instruction (see Table 1). In order to help students remember new words, teachers can ask ELLS to associate the new words with things that are already familiar to them, or the teacher can translate the words into the students’ primary language (Colorado, 2007). After students read, teachers can use word play to reinforce the understanding of new words and create enthusiasm for learning those new words. For example, “Find the Antonym” (divide g multiply) and “Which One Doesn’t Fit” (square, circle, ruler, triangle) are two possibilities While students may learn new words by encountering them in their reading, it is critical that teachers give ELLs the tools for acquiring vocabulary through explicit instructions. To create enthusiasm for learning new words, teachers can help students hunt for clues that unlock the meaning of unknown words such as synonyms, descriptions, explanations, and visual aids. It is important to connect the new words to students’ prior knowledge. To do this, teachers can actively involve ELLs in learning new words, create a vocabulary rich environment, and teach through a variety of strategies. For younger children, realia, actual objects or items, are useful for making abstract words more concrete. For example, in teaching shapes, teachers can bring to the classroom objects of different shapes. Real objects, pictures, and photographs that clearly match unfamiliar words provide visuals that help ELLs make sense of the new words, e.g., photographs of frogs and salamanders to illustrate “amphibians.” Teachers can also use anchor words for new words, e.g., “baseball cards” as the anchor for “collection,” “frogs” for “amphibians,” and “rice” for “grains.” To create a rich vocabulary environment teachers can use a word wall that contains words from different content Table 1 Three Stages for Incorporating Relevant Vocabulary Before Reading: Pronounce the word and use the Spanish equivalent; then have students repeat the word in English several times Tap students’ prior knowledge and identify anchor or familiar words for new vocabulary words, e.g., “walk” as the anchor for “saunter” u Pre-teach words before students read the material u Introduce graphic organizers that show relationships among words u Show realia, actual objects, pictures, picture books, and video clips to introduce vocabulary u Use the Spanish equivalent u Teach students how to use the structure of words, e.g., compound words, prefixes, roots, and suffixes, to break down a word into the meaningful units u u During Reading: Define words in context, using sentences from students’ reading material Help students find the context clues that will help them determine the meaning of an unknown word as they read u Use graphic organizers to help students process the content u Show students how to use the dictionary to confirm their predictions about the meaning of the vocabulary they meet in their reading u Talk-through the words as students hear these during oral reading u Use a variety of strategies to help students process the meaning of difficult words u u After Reading: Focus on a limited number of key words, particularly interrelated words, to increase the depth of their understanding and concept development Give students multiple exposures to words throughout the day in order to cement their understanding of the word meanings u Reinforce new words through activities, discussions, and assignments following students’ reading u Help make the words meaningful to students by linking the words with familiar things, people, or experiences u Have students incorporate the new words into students’ writing assignments u Help students integrate new words into their speaking and writing vocabularies u Display word walls and other graphic organizers with the new vocabulary and definitions u u WINTER 2011 25 Linguistically Diverse Students & Their Families areas, word books, and develop a reading room with books that teach and reinforce new concepts. Word walls engage students visually and can be used to display content vocabulary from the curriculum or involve students in activities that will help them learn new words. It is also helpful to integrate the new vocabulary into students’ writing assignments. Strategies for Teaching Academic Vocabulary It is important to explicitly teach vocabulary using effective strategies that will engage students in learning new words—for example, association strategies, imagery, and graphic organizers. When introducing a new word, it is helpful to avoid a lexical definition as dictionary definitions often include other words that are equally difficult and do not make sense to the students. Instead, teachers can provide students with a description or explanation of the word or an example as shown in Figure 2. Repetition is one of the keys to learning a new word. First, have the students listen to the pronunciation of the new word and at the same time view a picture or an actual object that goes with the word. Have them repeat the word out loud at least three times. Then have them use the word in a sentence similar to what appears in the material the students are reading. For example, the teacher reads, “There are four geographic regions in California.” Then the teacher explains that regions are parts of Figure 2 Presenting a New Word Introduce the new word g Provide synonyms g Describe or explain the word g Use the word in a sentence the state of California. She shows these regions on a map. Students can work in pairs to come up with a new sentence using the word in question. This procedure can be repeated with each key word as shown in Figure 3. When teaching academic vocabulary using this repetition cycle, carefully select a few content-specific words from the textbook that are critical to students’ understanding of the main concepts, topics, or sub-topics. After developing activities that provide multiple exposures to the words in context, then present opportunities for the student to practice using these words. Through the use of a variety of strategies, teachers can scaffold students’ learning of new vocabulary. Since learning vocabulary through reading may not be sufficient, direct teaching of vocabulary words will ensure learning and greater opportunities for academic success. Sample Strategies for Elementary Students Signal Word of the Day In an elementary classroom the teacher selects a word for the day from students’ reading as the “signal word” of the day. The teacher pronounces the word; Figure 3 Repetition Cycle then the students echo the word. This word is used as a signal for the children to start or stop an activity. When the students are seated, the teacher checks their understanding of the word. The teacher asks: “What does this character mean?” “Can you use the word in a sentence?” To help the class pay attention to the word the rest of the day, the teacher states the definition of the word and has the students say in unison the word. Through this method the use of repetition and the multiple exposure to the word throughout the day increases the students’ retention of new words. “Talk-through” Strategy with Reading Aloud Both teachers and parents can help students learn new words by “talking-through” the definitions and giving examples during oral reading. This allows students to hear the word in context. For example, in reading a passage from the science textbook on the earth’s water, teachers would stop and talk through the meanings of cover, surface, and atmosphere. Repeated readings of the text are essential for learners with more limited vocabularies and help them link the pronunciation of new words withtheir meanings. After reading, reinforcement activities can help cement the students’ newly obtained knowledge. Academic Vocabulary Journals Students repeat the word 3x Say the word Students write the word in a sentence Read the word’ from the textbook In a fifth-grade class, the teacher asks students to guess what a new word means; the teacher then gives the students the formal definition. Next, the students use the word in a sentence and draw a pictorial representation of the word. Students record the new words alphabetically in their journals. These academic journals may also be created in chart form and include ratings, pictures, and ideas that are connected to the new words (see Figure 4 for a sample Academic Vocabulary Chart). Graphic Organizers Explain the word Graphic organizers are visual representations that show arrangements of concepts and/or vocabulary words. Such organizers are effective when coupled MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION 26 Teaching Language Learning with direct instruction. Because graphic organizers use visual images, they are particularly appropriate for English language learners. The use of graphic organizers, such as word trees, concept maps, and relational charts, help students understand concepts and the related vocabulary. Graphic organizers also help to link the definitions to examples (Colorado, 2007). Teachers can also use a flow chart to look at a multiple-meaning word. This graphic organizer helps students break the word down into syllables, note the parts of speech, bring into view different definitions, and provide sample sentences. Both teachers and students can draw pictures to illustrate the words. See an example in Figure 5 for the word “difference.” The Power of Games Games can also be powerful tools for reinforcing ELLs’ vocabulary. Commercially published games such as Balderdash and Scrabble ...
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Running head: ELL VOCABULARY STRATEGIES ESSAY

Ell Vocabulary Strategies Essay
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ELL VOCABULARY STRATEGIES ESSAY
ELL VOCABULARY STRATEGIES ESSAY
English language learners face difficulties in learning the English language due to the
difficulty in understanding the vocabulary that is especially in academic vocabulary because
unlike in conversational language, academic vocabulary is more specific and abstract mak...

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