HURD, annotated bibliography, Employee Development,


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Innovative Journal of Business and Management 4: 2 March – April (2015) 35 – 41. Contents lists available at INNOVATIVE JOURNAL OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT Journal homepage: METHODS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Kanu Raheja Assistant Professor, MBA, Satpriya Group of Institutions, Rohtak ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT Corresponding Author: Kanu Raheja Assistant Professor, MBA, Satpriya Group of Institutions, Rohtak Training and Development is an important function of Human Resource management. It aims to improve employees’ skills by making them learn new techniques of doing work. It helps, updating their knowledge of doing work which results in increasing their efficiency and hence, results in increasing productivity of an organisation. Since Human resource is the most important asset of an organisation so, making best use of them is possible with the help of training which leads to their as well as organisation’s development. Key Words Training, development, Employees, work performance, Productivity, supervision. DOI: m.vol4.iss2.17.pp35-41 ©2015, IJBM, All Right Reserved INTRODUCTION Training and development is a function of human resource management concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. It has been known by several names, including "human resource development", and "learning and development.[1] TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structured format.[2] Training and development -- or "learning and development" as many refer to it now -- is one of the most important aspects of our lives and our work.[3] The official and ongoing educational activities within an organization designed to enhance the fulfillment and performance of employees. Training and development programs offered by a business might include a variety of educational techniques and programs that can be attended on a compulsory or voluntary basis by staff.[4] TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACH OF TRAINING AND DEVLOPMENT Traditional Approach – Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing. The modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results The name of the discipline has been debated, with the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development in 2000 arguing that "human resource development" is too evocative of the master-slave relationship between employer and employee for those who refer to their employees as "partners" or "associates" to feel comfortable with. Eventually, the CIPD settled upon "learning and development", although that was itself not free from problems, "learning" being an over-general and ambiguous name, and most organizations referring to it as "training and development" Training and development encompasses three main activities: training, education, and development. • Training: This activity is both focused upon, and evaluated against, the job that an individual currently holds. • Education: This activity focuses upon the jobs that an individual may potentially hold in the future, and is evaluated against those jobs. • Development: This activity focuses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual, or that the individual is part of, may partake in the future, and is almost impossible to evaluate.[5] TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACH OF TRAINING AND DEVLOPMENT Traditional Approach – Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in 35 Raheja/Methods Of Training And Development executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing. The modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results.[6] Importance of Training and Development I. Help in addressing employee weaknesses: Most workers have certain weaknesses in their workplace, which hinder them from giving the best services. Training assists in eliminating these weaknesses, by strengthening workers skills. A well organized development program helps employees gain similar skills and knowledge, thus bringing them all to a higher uniform level. This simply means that the whole workforce is reliable, so the company or organization doesn’t have to rely only on specific employees. II. Improvement in workers performance-A properly trained employee becomes more informed about procedures for various tasks. The worker confidence is also boosted by training and development. This confidence comes from the fact that the employee is fully aware of his/her roles and responsibilities. It helps the worker carry out the duties in better way and even find new ideas to incorporate in the daily execution of duty. III. Consistency in duty performanceA well organized training and development program gives the workers constant knowledge and experience. Consistency is very vital when it comes to an organization’s or company’s procedures and policies. This mostly includes administrative procedures and ethics during execution of duty. IV. Ensuring worker satisfaction-Training and development makes the employee also feel satisfied with the role they play in the company or organization. This is driven by the great ability they gain to execute their duties. They feel they belong to the company or the organization that they work for and the only way to reward it is giving the best services they can. V. Increased productivity-Through training and development the employee acquires all the knowledge and skills needed in their day to day tasks. Workers can perform at a faster rate and with efficiency thus increasing overall productivity of the company. They also gain new tactics of overcoming challenges when they face them. VI. Improved quality of services and productsEmployees gain standard methods to use in their tasks. They are also able to maintain uniformity in the output they give. This results with a company that gives satisfying services or goods. VII. Reduced cost-Training and development results with optimal utilization of resources in a company or organization. There is no wastage of resources, which may cause extra expenses. Accidents are also reduced during working. All the machines and resources are used economically, reducing expenditure. VIII. Reduction in supervision-The moment they gain the necessary skills and knowledge, employees will become more confident. They will become self reliant and require only little guidance as they perform their tasks. The supervisor can depend on the employee’s decision to give quality output. This relieves supervisors the burden of constantly having to give directives on what should be done.[7] Difference between Training & Development? Training:- means learning skills and knowledge for doing a particular job and increase skills required for a job. Development:- refers to the growth of an employee in all respect It is most concerned with shaping the attitudes. 1.Training generally imparts specific Development is more general in nature skills to the employees. & aim at overall growth of the executive. 2.Training is concerned with maintaining Development build up & competencies improved current job performance. For future performances. 3.Training is short term perspective. Dev. Is long term perspective. 4.Training is job centered in Nature. Dev. Is career concerned in nature. 5.The role of trainer or supervisor is All dev. is self dev. and the executive very important in training. has to be internally motivated for the same. 6. Training divided into three groups: Development methods are:- Workers or Operative Group – Position Rotation Training - Supervisory Group, Conference - Management Group, Service etc.[8] Training Methods: A. On-the-job Training Methods: 1. Coaching 2. Mentoring 3. Job Rotation 4. Job Instruction Technology 5. Apprenticeship 6. Understudy B. Off-the-Job Training Methods: 1. Lectures and Conferences 2. Vestibule Training 3. Simulation Exercises 4. Sensitivity Training 5. Transactional Training A. On-the-job training Methods: Under these methods new or inexperienced employees learn through observing peers or managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behaviour. These methods do not cost much and are less disruptive as employees are always on the job, training is given on the same machines and experience would be on already approved standards, and above all the trainee is learning while earning. Some of the commonly used methods are: 1. Coaching: Coaching is a one-to-one training. It helps in quickly identifying the weak areas and tries to focus on them. It also offers the benefit of transferring theory learning to practice. The biggest problem is that it perpetrates the existing practices and styles. In India most of the scooter mechanics are trained only through this method. 2. Mentoring: The focus in this training is on the development of attitude. It is used for managerial employees. Mentoring is always done by a senior inside person. It is also one-to- one interaction, like coaching. 3. Job Rotation: It is the process of training employees by rotating them through a series of related jobs. Rotation not only makes a 36 Raheja/Methods Of Training And Development person well acquainted with different jobs, but it also alleviates boredom and allows to develop rapport with a number of people. Rotation must be logical. 4. Job Instructional Technique (JIT): It is a Step by step (structured) on the job training method in which a suitable trainer (a) prepares a trainee with an overview of the job, its purpose, and the results desired, (b) demonstrates the task or the skill to the trainee, (c) allows the trainee to show the demonstration on his or her own, and (d) follows up to provide feedback and help. The trainees are presented the learning material in written or by learning machines through a series called ‘frames’. This method is a valuable tool for all educators (teachers and trainers). It helps us: a. To deliver step-by-step instruction b. To know when the learner has learned c. To be due diligent (in many work-place environments) 5. Apprenticeship: Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a skill. This method of training is in vogue in those trades, crafts and technical fields in which a long period is required for gaining proficiency. The trainees serve as apprentices to experts for long periods. They have to work in direct association with and also under the direct supervision of their masters. The object of such training is to make the trainees all-round craftsmen. It is an expensive method of training. Also, there is no guarantee that the trained worker will continue to work in the same organisation after securing training. The apprentices are paid remuneration according the apprenticeship agreements. 6. Understudy: In this method, a superior gives training to a subordinate as his understudy like an assistant to a manager or director (in a film). The subordinate learns through experience and observation by participating in handling day to day problems. Basic purpose is to prepare subordinate for assuming the full responsibilities and duties. B. Off-the-job Training Methods: Off-the-job training methods are conducted in separate from the job environment, study material is supplied, there is full concentration on learning rather than performing, and there is freedom of expression. Important methods include: 1. Lectures and Conferences: Lectures and conferences are the traditional and direct method of instruction. Every training programme starts with lecture and conference. It’s a verbal presentation for a large audience. However, the lectures have to be motivating and creating interest among trainees. The speaker must have considerable depth in the subject. In the colleges and universities, lectures and seminars are the most common methods used for training. 2. Vestibule Training: Vestibule Training is a term for near-the-job training, as it offers access to something new (learning). In vestibule training, the workers are trained in a prototype environment on specific jobs in a special part of the plant. An attempt is made to create working condition similar to the actual workshop conditions. After training workers in such condition, the trained workers may be put on similar jobs in the actual workshop. This enables the workers to secure training in the best methods to work and to get rid of initial nervousness. During the Second World War II, this method was used to train a large number of workers in a short period of time. It may also be used as a preliminary to on-the job training. Duration ranges from few days to few weeks. It prevents trainees to commit costly mistakes on the actual machines. 3. Simulation Exercises: Simulation is any artificial environment exactly similar to the actual situation. There are four basic simulation techniques used for imparting training: management games, case study, role playing, and in-basket training. (a) Management Games: Properly designed games help to ingrain thinking habits, analytical, logical and reasoning capabilities, importance of team work, time management, to make decisions lacking complete information, communication and leadership capabilities. Use of management games can encourage novel, innovative mechanisms for coping with stress. Management games orient a candidate with practical applicability of the subject. These games help to appreciate management concepts in a practical way. Different games are used for training general managers and the middle management and functional heads – executive Games and functional heads. (b) Case Study: Case studies are complex examples which give an insight into the context of a problem as well as illustrating the main point. Case Studies are trainee centered activities based on topics that demonstrate theoretical concepts in an applied setting. A case study allows the application of theoretical concepts to be demonstrated, thus bridging the gap between theory and practice, encourage active learning, provides an opportunity for the development of key skills such as communication, group working and problem solving, and increases the trainees” enjoyment of the topic and hence their desire to learn. (c) Role Playing: Each trainee takes the role of a person affected by an issue and studies the impacts of the issues on human life and/or the effects of human activities on the world around us from the perspective of that person. It emphasizes the “real- world” side of science and challenges students to deal with complex problems with no single “right” answer and to use a variety of skills beyond those employed in a typical research project. In particular, role-playing presents the student a valuable opportunity to learn not just the course content, but other perspectives on it. The steps involved in role playing include defining objectives, choose context & roles, introducing the exercise, trainee preparation/research, the role-play, concluding discussion, and assessment. Types of role play may be multiple role play, single role play, role rotation, and spontaneous role play. (d) In-basket training: In-basket exercise, also known as in-tray training, consists of a set of business papers which may include e-mail SMSs, reports, memos, and other items. Now the trainer is asked to prioritize the decisions to be made immediately and the ones that can be delayed. 4. Sensitivity Training: Sensitivity training is also known as laboratory or T-group training. This training is about making people understand about themselves and others reasonably, which is done by developing in them social sensitivity and behavioral flexibility. It is ability of an individual to sense what others feel and think from their own point of view. 37 Raheja/Methods Of Training And Development It reveals information about his or her own personal qualities, concerns, emotional issues, and things that he or she has in common with other members of the group. It is the ability to behave suitably in light of understanding. A group’s trainer refrains from acting as a group leader or lecturer, attempting instead to clarify the group processes using incidents as examples to clarify general points or provide feedback. The group action, overall, is the goal as well as the process. Sensitivity training Program comprises three steps (see Figure 1) Fig2 Adult: It is a collection of reality testing, rational behaviour, decision making, etc. A person in this ego state verifies, updates the reaction which she has received from the other two states. It is a shift from the taught and felt concepts to tested concepts. All of us show behaviour from one ego state which is responded to by the other person from any of these three states.[9] Principles / concepts of training 1) Training tends to be most responsive when trainees feel the need to learn 2) Learning is more effective when reinforcement given inform of rewards and punishments 3) In the long run awards are better than punishments when behavioral change is desired 4) Rewards are better when immediate results after training are expected 5) Reinforcement has a positive correlation with size of reward 6) Negative reinforcement may have a disruptive effect 7) Participation and discussion are a must when a trainee is expected to change attitudes, values and social beliefs 8) Feedback to the trainee on how he is performing after training is important 9) Practice makes perfect. New skills & behavioral norms are facilitated through practice and repetition 10) Meaningful training material through which the trainee understands the general principles is better than asking them to memorize few isolated steps[10] The 25 Most Popular Apprenticeships According to the U.S. Department of Labor apprenticeship database, the occupations listed below had the highest numbers of apprentices in 2001. These findings are approximate because the database includes only about 70% of registered apprenticeship programs—and none of the unregistered ones • Boilermaker • Bricklayer (construction) • Carpenter • Construction craft laborer • Cook (any industry) • Cook (hotel and restaurant) • Correction officer • Electrician • Electrician (aircraft) • Electrician (maintenance) • Electronics mechanic Fig 1 5. Transactional Analysis: It provides trainees with a realistic and useful method for analyzing and understanding the behavior of others. In every social interaction, there is a motivation provided by one person and a reaction to that motivation given by another person. This motivation reaction relationship between two persons is known as a transaction. Transactional analysis can be done by the ego (system of feelings accompanied by a related set of behaviors states of an individual). Child: It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of behavior ...
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