Critical Thinking

User Generated

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Programming

Advanced Principles of Cyber Security

Description

Project Reports

Complete the following projects from your textbook:

  1. Preventing Corporate Espionage (project 7.1 at the end of chapter 7)
  2. Handling Employees (project 7.2 at the end of chapter 7)
  3. Asset Identification in your Organization (project 7.3 at the end of chapter 7)

Directions:

  • Combined, your report should be 3-4 pages in length, not including the title or reference pages.
  • Be sure to provide citations from your readings and additional research to support your statements.
  • Your paper must follow University academic writing standards and APA style guidelines, as appropriate.
  • You are strongly encouraged to submit all assignments to the Turnitin Originality Check.


    Textbook:
    Easttom, W. C. (2016). Computer security fundamentals (3rd ed.). Indianapolis, IN: Pearson. ISBN: 9780789757463

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Computer Security Fundamentals Chuck Easttom 800 East 96th Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46240 USA Computer Security Fundamentals Associate Publisher David Dusthimer Copyright © 2012 by Pearson All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein. Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and author assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. Nor is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein. ISBN-13: 978-0-7897-4890-4 ISBN-10: 0-7897-4890-8 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data is on file. Acquisitions Editor Betsy Brown Managing Editor Sandra Schroeder Senior Project Editor Tonya Simpson Copy Editor Keith Cline Printed in the United States of America First Printing: December 2011 Trademarks All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Que Publishing cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Warning and Disclaimer Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information provided is on an “as is” basis. The author and the publisher shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book. Bulk Sales Que Publishing offers excellent discounts on this book when ordered in quantity for bulk purchases or special sales. For more information, please contact U.S. Corporate and Government Sales 1-800-382-3419 corpsales@pearsontechgroup.com For sales outside of the U.S., please contact International Sales international@pearson.com Indexer Brad Herriman Proofreader Debbie Williams Technical Editor Dr. Louay Karadsheh Publishing Coordinator Vanessa Evans Book Designer Gary Adair Compositor TnT Design, Inc. Contents at a Glance Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 Introduction to Computer Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 Networks and the Internet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3 Cyber Stalking, Fraud, and Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 4 Denial of Service Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 5 Malware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 6 Techniques Used by Hackers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 7 Industrial Espionage in Cyberspace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 8 Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 9 Computer Security Software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 10 Security Policies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 11 Network Scanning and Vulnerability Scanning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 12 Cyber Terrorism and Information Warfare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 13 Cyber Detective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 14 Introduction to Forensics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 A Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 B Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 iii Table of Contents Introduction 1 Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer Security 2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 How Seriously Should You Take Threats to Network Security?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Identifying Types of Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Malware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Compromising System Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Denial of Service Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Web Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Session Hijacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 DNS Poisoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Assessing the Likelihood of an Attack on Your Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Basic Security Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Hacker Slang. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Professional Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Concepts and Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 How Do Legal Issues Impact Network Security? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Online Security Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 CERT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Microsoft Security Advisor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 F-Secure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 SANS Institute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Test Your Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Chapter 2: Networks and the Internet 22 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Network Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 iv Table of Contents The Physical Connection: Local Networks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Faster Connection Speeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Data Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 How the Internet Works. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 IP Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 CIDR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Uniform Resource Locators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 History of the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Basic Network Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 IPConfig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Ping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Tracert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Other Network Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Advanced Network Communications Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 The OSI Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Media Access Control (MAC) Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Test Your Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Chapter 3: Cyber Stalking, Fraud, and Abuse 48 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 How Internet Fraud Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Investment Offers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Auction Frauds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Identity Theft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Phishing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Cyber Stalking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Laws about Internet Fraud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Protecting Yourself against Cyber Crime. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Protecting against Investment Fraud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Protecting against Identity Theft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Secure Browser Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Table of Contents v Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Test Your Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Chapter Footnotes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Chapter 4: Denial of Service Attacks 72 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Denial of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Illustrating an Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Common Tools Used for DoS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 DoS Weaknesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Specific DoS attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Land Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Test Your Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Chapter 5: Malware 92 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Viruses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 How a Virus Spreads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Recent Virus Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 W32/Netsky-P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Troj/Invo-Zip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 MacDefender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 The Sobig Virus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 The Mimail Virus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 The Bagle Virus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 A Nonvirus Virus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Rules for Avoiding Viruses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Trojan Horses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 The Buffer-Overflow Attack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 The Sasser Virus/Buffer Overflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 vi Table of Contents Spyware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Legal Uses of Spyware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 How Is Spyware Delivered to a Target System? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Obtaining Spyware Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Other Forms of Malware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Rootkit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Malicious Web-Based Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Logic Bombs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Spam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Detecting and Eliminating Viruses and Spyware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Antivirus Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Antispyware Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Test Your Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Chapter 6: Techniques Used by Hackers 116 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Basic Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 The Reconnaissance Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Passive Scanning Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Active Scanning Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Actual Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 SQL Script Injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Cross-Site Scripting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Password Cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Test Your Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Chapter 7: Industrial Espionage in Cyberspace 132 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 What Is Industrial Espionage? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Information as an Asset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Real-World Examples of Industrial Espionage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Table of Contents vii Example 1: VIA Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Example 2: General Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Example 3: Interactive Television Technologies, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Example 4: Bloomberg, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Example 5: Avant Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Industrial Espionage and You . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 How Does Espionage Occur? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Low-Tech Industrial Espionage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Spyware Used in Industrial Espionage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Steganography Used in Industrial Espionage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Phone Taps and Bugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Protecting against Industrial Espionage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Industrial Espionage Act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Spear Phishing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Test Your Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Chapter 8: Encryption 154 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Cryptography Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 History of Encryption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 The Caesar Cipher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Multi-Alphabet Substitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Binary Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Modern Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Single-Key (Symmetric) Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Public Key (Asymmetric) Encryption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Legitimate Versus Fraudulent Encryption Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Digital Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Hashing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Authentication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 viii Table of Contents Encryptions Used in Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Virtual Private Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 PPTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 L2TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 IPsec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Test Your Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Chapter 9: Computer Security Software 178 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Virus Scanners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 How Does a Virus Scanner Work? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Virus-Scanning Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Commercial Antivirus Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Benefits and Limitation of Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Firewall Types and Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 How Firewalls Examine Packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Firewall Configurations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Commercial and Free Firewall Products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Firewall Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Antispyware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Intrusion-Detection Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 IDS Categorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 IDS Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Snort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Honey Pots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Other Preemptive Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Test Your Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Table of Contents ix Chapter 10: Security Policies 200 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 What Is a Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Defining User Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Passwords. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Internet Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Email Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Installing/Uninstalling Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Instant Messaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Desktop Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Final Thoughts on User Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Defining System Administration Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 New Employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Departing Employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Change Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Security Breaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Virus Infection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Denial of Service Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Intrusion by a Hacker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Defining Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Developmental Policies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Standards, Guidelines, and Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Test Your Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Chapter 11: Network Scanning and Vulnerability Scanning 220 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Basics of Assessing a System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Patch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Protect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 x Table of Contents Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Physical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Securing Computer Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Securing an Individual Workstation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Securing a Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Securing a Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Scanning Your Network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 MBSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 NESSUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Getting Professional Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Test Your Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Chapter 12: Cyber Terrorism and Information Warfare 254 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 Actual Cases of Cyber Terrorism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 China Eagle Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Economic Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Military Operations Attacks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 General Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Supervisory Control and Data Acquisitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 Information Warfare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 Propaganda. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 Information Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Disinformation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Actual Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Future Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Positive Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Negative Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Table of Contents xi Defense against Cyber Terrorism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Test Your Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Chapter 13: Cyber Detective 276 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 General Searches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Court Records and Criminal Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 Sex Offender Registries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 Civil Court Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Other Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 Usenet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Test Your Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Chapter 14: Introduction to Forensics 292 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 General Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 Don’t Touch the Suspect Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 Document Trail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Secure the Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 FBI Forensics Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Finding Evidence on the PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Finding Evidence in the Browser. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 Finding Evidence in System Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 Windows Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 Linux Logs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Getting Back Deleted Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 xii Table of Contents Operating System Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 Net Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 Openfiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 Fc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 Netstat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 The Windows Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 Test Your Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 Appendix A: Glossary 306 Appendix B: Resources 312 General Computer Crime and Cyber Terrorism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 General Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Cyber Stalking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Identity Theft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 Port Scanners and Sniffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 Password Crackers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 Countermeasures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 Spyware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 Counter Spyware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 Cyber Investigation Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 General Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 Virus Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Index 316 Table of Contents xiii xiv About the Author Chuck Easttom has been in the IT industry for many years working in all aspects including network administration, software engineering, and IT management. For the past 10 years he has been parttime teaching at colleges and doing corporate training. For the past 7 years, he has also been an independent consultant working with a variety of companies and serving as an expert consultant/witness in various computer cases. Chuck holds more than 28 different IT industry certifications, including the CISSP, ISSAP, Certified Ethical Hacker, Certified Hacking Forensics Investigator, EC Council Certified Security Administrator, and EC Council Certified Instructor. He has served as a subject matter expert for the Computer Technology Industry Association (CompTIA) in the development or revision of four of their certification tests, including the initial creation of their Security+ certification. Most recently he worked with the EC Council to develop their new advanced cryptography course, which he is teaching around the world. In addition to this book, Chuck has authored 12 other titles on topics such as computer security, web development, programming, Linux, and computer crime. Chuck also is a frequent guest speaker for computer groups, discussing computer security. You can reach Chuck at his website www.chuckeasttom.com or by email at chuck@chuckeasttom.com About the Technical Reviewer Dr. Louay Karadsheh has a Doctorate of Management in information technology from Lawrence Technological University, Southfield, MI. He teaches information assurance, operating system, and networking classes. His research interest includes cloud computing, information assurance, knowledge management, and risk management. Dr. Karadsheh has published nine articles in refereed journals and international conference proceedings. He has 21 years of experience in planning, installation, troubleshooting, and designing local area networks and operating systems for small to medium-size sites. Dr. Karadsheh has provided technical edits/reviews for several major publishing companies, including Pearson Education and Cengage Learning, and evaluates the research proposals. He holds A+ and Security Certified Network professional certifications. xv Dedication This book is dedicated to my son AJ, who has been wonderful and supportive in all of my books. Acknowledgments The creation of a book is not a simple process and requires the talents and dedication from many people to make it happen. With this in mind, I would like to thank the folks at Pearson for their commitment to this project. Specifically, I would like to say thanks to Betsy Brown for overseeing the project and keeping things moving. A special thanks to Dayna Isley for outstanding editing and focus. Also, thanks to Dr. Karadsheh, who worked tirelessly technically editing this book and fact checking it. xvi We Want to Hear from You! As the reader of this book, you are our most important critic and commentator. We value your opinion and want to know what we’re doing right, what we could do better, what areas you’d like to see us publish in, and any other words of wisdom you’re willing to pass our way. As an associate publisher for Pearson, I welcome your comments. You can email or write me directly to let me know what you did or didn’t like about this book—as well as what we can do to make our books better. Please note that I cannot help you with technical problems related to the topic of this book. We do have a User Services group, however, where I will forward specific technical questions related to the book. When you write, please be sure to include this book’s title and author as well as your name, email address, and phone number. I will carefully review your comments and share them with the author and editors who worked on the book. Email: feedback@pearsonitcertification.com Mail: David Dusthimer Associate Publisher Pearson Certification 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA Reader Services Visit our website and register this book at www.pearsonitcertification.com/register for convenient access to any updates, downloads, or errata that might be available for this book. 1 Introduction It has been more than 6 years since the publication of the original edition of this book. A great deal has happened in the world of computer security since that time. This edition is updated to include newer information, updated issues, and revised content. The real question is who is this book for. This book is a guide for any computer-savvy person. That means system administrators who are not security experts or anyone who has a working knowledge of computers and wishes to know more about cyber crime and terrorism could find this book useful. However, the core audience will be students who wish to take a first course in security but may not have a thorough background in computer networks. The book is in textbook format, making it ideal for introductory computer security courses that have no specific prerequisites. That lack of prerequisites means that people outside the normal computer science and computer information systems departments could also avail themselves of a course based on this book. This might be of particular interest to law enforcement officers, criminal justice majors, and even business majors with an interest in computer security. As was previously mentioned, this book is intended as an introductory computer security book. In addition to the numerous end notes, the appendices will guide you to a plethora of additional resources. There are also review questions and practice exercises with every chapter. This book is not a cookbook for hackers. You will see exactly how hackers target a system and get information about it. You will also see step-by-step instructions on how to use some password cracking utilities and some network scanning utilities. You will also be given a reasonably in depth explanation of various hacking attacks. However, you won’t see a specific step-by-step recipe for executing an attack. This book assumes that you are a competent computer user. That means you have used a computer at work and at home, are comfortable with email and web browsers, and know what words like RAM and USB mean. For instructors considering this as a textbook, that means that students will have had some basic understanding of PCs, but need not have had formal computer courses. For this reason, there is a chapter on basic networking concepts to get you up to speed. For readers with more knowledge, such as system administrators, you will find some chapters of more use to you than others. Feel free to simply skim any chapter that you feel is too elementary for you. Chapter 1 Introduction to Computer Security Chapter Objectives After reading this chapter and completing the exercises, you will be able to do the following: ■ Identify the top threats to a network: security breaches, denial of service attacks, and malware ■ Assess the likelihood of an attack on your network ■ Define key terms such as cracker, sneaker, firewall, and authentication ■ Compare and contrast perimeter and layered approaches to network security ■ Use online resources to secure your network Introduction It’s hard to find a facet of modern life that does not involve a computer system, at least on some level. Online purchases, debit cards, and automatic bill pay are standard parts of modern life. Some retailers are using computerized automatic checkout. It is even likely that you have taken a class online, and you may even be using this textbook for a class you are currently taking online. You can, in fact, buy this book online. I personally purchase most of the books I read online. Because so much of our business is transacted online, a great deal of personal information is stored in computers. Medical records, tax records, school records, and more are all stored in computer databases. This leads to some very important questions: 1. How is information safeguarded? 2. What are the vulnerabilities to these systems? 3. What steps are taken to ensure that these systems and data are safe? 2 How Seriously Should You Take Threats to Network Security? 3 FYI: Where Is the Internet Going? Recently there have been more expansions to Internet technology and Internet use. Such expansions include increased transmission speeds, a wider use of wireless Internet, and the growing phenomenon of online education. Do you think that we will reach a point where all aspects of our lives have some Internet component? Have we already reached that point? Recent news stories don’t offer encouraging answers to these questions. The media gives a lot of attention to dramatic virus attacks, hackers, and other interesting Internet phenomena. Even the most technically naïve person cannot go more than a few weeks without hearing of some new virus or some hacking incident. In spite of daily horror stories, however, many people (including some law enforcement professionals and trained computer professionals) lack an adequate understanding about the reality of these threats. Clearly the media will focus attention on the most dramatic computer security breaches, not necessarily giving an accurate picture of the most plausible threat scenarios. It is not uncommon to even encounter the occasional system administrator whose knowledge of computer security is inadequate. This chapter outlines current dangers, describes the most common types of attacks on your personal computer and network, teaches you how to speak the lingo of both hackers and security professionals, and outlines the broad strokes of what it takes to secure your computer and your network. In this book, you will learn how to secure both individual computers and entire networks. You will also find out how to secure data transmission, and you will complete an exercise to find out about your region’s laws regarding computer security. Perhaps the most crucial discussion in this chapter is what attacks are commonly attempted and how they are perpetrated. In this first chapter we set the stage for the rest of the book by outlining what exactly the dangers are and introducing you to the terminology used by both network security professionals and hackers. All of these topics are explored more fully in subsequent chapters. How Seriously Should You Take Threats to Network Security? The first step in understanding computer and network security is to formulate a realistic assessment of the threats to those systems. You will need a clear picture of the dangers in order to adequately prepare a defense. There seem to be two extreme attitudes regarding computer security. The first group assumes there is no real threat. Subscribers to this belief feel that there is little real danger to computer systems, and that much of the negative news is simply unwarranted panic. They often believe taking only minimal security precautions should ensure the safety of their systems. The prevailing sentiment is, if our organization has not been attacked so far, we must be secure. If decision makers subscribe to this point of view, they tend to push a reactive approach to security. They will wait to address security issues until an incident occurs—the proverbial “closing the barn door after the horse has already 4 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Computer Security gotten out.” If you are fortunate, the incident will have only minor impact on your organization and will serve as a much needed wakeup call. If you are unfortunate, then your organization may face serious and possible catastrophic consequences. One major goal of this book is to encourage a proactive approach to security. People who subscribe to the opposite viewpoint overestimate the dangers. They tend to assume that talented, numerous hackers are an imminent threat to your system. They may believe that any teenager with a laptop can traverse highly secure systems at will. Such a worldview makes excellent movie plots, but it is simply unrealistic. The reality is that many people who call themselves hackers are less knowledgeable than they think they are. These people have a low probability of being able to compromise any system that has implemented even moderate security precautions. This does not mean that skillful hackers do not exist, of course. However, they must balance the costs (financial, time) against the rewards (ideological, monetary). “Good” hackers tend to target systems that yield the highest rewards. If a hacker doesn’t perceive your system as beneficial to these goals, he is less likely to expend the resources to compromise your system. It is also important to understand that real intrusions into a network take time and effort. Hacking is not the dramatic process you see in movies. I often teach courses in hacking and penetration testing, and students are usually surprised to find that the process is actually a bit tedious and requires patience. Both extremes of attitudes regarding the dangers to computer systems are inaccurate. It is certainly true that there are people who have the understanding of computer systems and the skills to compromise the security of many, if not most, systems. A number of people who call themselves hackers, though, are not as skilled as they claim to be. They have ascertained a few buzzwords from the Internet and may be convinced of their own digital supremacy, but they are not able to affect any real compromises to even a moderately secure system. The truly talented hacker is no more common than the truly talented concert pianist. Consider how many people take piano lessons at some point in their lives. Now consider how many of those ever truly become virtuosos. The same is true of computer hackers. Keep in mind that even those who do possess the requisite skill need to be motivated to expend the time and effort to compromise your system. A better way to assess the threat level to your system is to weigh the attractiveness of your system to potential intruders against the security measures in place. Keep in mind, too, that the greatest external threat to any system is not hackers, but malware and denial of service attacks. Malware includes viruses, worms, Trojan horses, and logic bombs. And beyond the external attacks, there is the issue of internal problems due to malfeasance or simple ignorance. Identifying Types of Threats Most attacks can be categorized as one of six broad classes: ■ Malware: This is a generic term for software that has a malicious purpose. It includes virus attacks, worms, adware, Trojan horses, and spyware. This is the most prevalent danger to your system. Identifying Types of Threats 5 ■ Security breaches: This group of attacks includes any attempt to gain unauthorized access to your system. This includes cracking passwords, elevating privileges, breaking into a server… all the things you probably associate with the term hacking. ■ Denial of service (DoS) attacks: These are designed to prevent legitimate access to your system. ■ Web attacks: This is any attack that attempts to breach your website. Two of the most common such attacks are SQL injection and cross-site scripting. ■ Session hijacking: These attacks are rather advanced, and involve an attacker attempting to take over a session. ■ DNS poisoning: This type of attack seeks to compromise a DNS server so that users can be redirected to malicious websites, including phishing websites. This section offers a broad description of each type of attack. Later chapters go into greater detail with each specific attack, how it is accomplished, and how to avoid it. Malware Malware is a generic term for software that has a malicious purpose. This section discusses three types of malware: viruses, Trojan horses, and spyware. Trojan horses and viruses are the most widely encountered. According to Symantec (makers of Norton antivirus and other software products), a virus is “a small program that replicates and hides itself inside other programs, usually without your knowledge” (Symantec, 2003). A computer virus is similar to a biological virus; both are designed to replicate and spread. The most common method for spreading a virus is using the victim’s email account to spread the virus to everyone in their address book. Some viruses don’t actually harm the system itself, but all of them cause network slowdowns due to the heavy network traffic caused by the virus replication. The Trojan horse gets its name from an ancient tale. The city of Troy was besieged for an extended period of time. The attackers could not gain entrance, so they constructed a huge wooden horse and one night left it in front of the gates of Troy. The next morning the residents of Troy saw the horse and assumed it to be a gift, so they rolled the wooden horse into the city. Unbeknownst to them, several soldiers where hidden inside the horse. That evening the soldiers left the horse, opened the city gates, and let their fellow attackers into the city. An electronic Trojan horse works the same way, appearing to be benign software but secretly downloading a virus or some other type of malware onto your computer from within. Another category of malware currently on the rise is spyware. Spyware is simply software that literally spies on what you do on your computer. Spyware can be as simple as a cookie—a text file that your browser creates and stores on your hard drive—that a website you have visited downloads to your machine and uses to recognize you when you return to the site. However, that flat file can then be read 6 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Computer Security by the website or by other websites. Any data that the file saves can be retrieved by any website, so your entire Internet browsing history can be tracked. A logic bomb is software that lays dormant until some specific condition is met. That condition is usually a date and time. When the condition is met, then the software does some malicious act such as deleting files, altering system configuration, or perhaps releasing a virus. Another form of spyware, called a key logger, records all of your keystrokes. Some key loggers also take periodic screenshots of your computer. Data is then either stored for later retrieval by the person who installed the key logger or is sent immediately back via email. We will discuss specific types of key loggers later in this book. Compromising System Security Next we will look at attacks that breach your system’s security. This activity is what is commonly referred to as hacking, though that is not the term hackers themselves use. We will delve into appropriate terminology in just a few pages; however, it should be noted at this point that cracking is the appropriate word for intruding into a system without permission, usually with malevolent intent. Any attack that is designed to breach your security, either via some operating system flaw or any other means, can be classified as cracking. Social engineering is a technique for breaching a system’s security by exploiting human nature rather than technology. This was the path that the famous hacker Kevin Mitnick most often used. Social engineering uses standard con techniques to get users to give up the information needed to gain access to a target system (Lemos, 2000). The way this method works is rather simple: The perpetrator gets preliminary information about a target organization and leverages it to obtain additional information from the system’s users. Following is an example of social engineering in action. Armed with the name of a system administrator, you might call someone in the business’s accounting department and claim to be one of the company’s technical support personnel. Mentioning the system administrator’s name would help validate that claim, allowing you to ask questions in an attempt to ascertain more details about the system’s specifications. A savvy intruder might even get the accounting person to say a username and password. As you can see, this method is based on how well the prospective intruder can manipulate people and actually has little to do with computer skills. The growing popularity of wireless networks gave rise to new kinds of attacks. One such activity is wardriving. This type of attack is an offshoot of war-dialing. With war-dialing, a hacker set up a computer to call phone numbers in sequence until another computer answered to try to gain entry to its system. War-driving is much the same concept, applied to locating vulnerable wireless networks. In this scenario, the hacker simply drives around trying to locate wireless networks (Poulsen, 2001). Many people forget that their wireless network signal often extends as much as 100 feet (thus, past walls). At the 2004 DefCon convention for hackers, there was a war-driving contest where contestants drove around the city trying to locate as many vulnerable wireless networks as they could (BlackBeetle, 2004). Assessing the Likelihood of an Attack on Your Network 7 Denial of Service Attacks In a denial of service (DoS), the attacker does not actually access the system. Rather, he or she simply blocks access from legitimate users (CERT, 2003). One common way to do prevent legitimate service is to flood the targeted system with so many false connection requests, that the system cannot respond to legitimate requests. DoS is probably the most common attack on the Web. Web Attacks By their nature, web servers have to allow communications. Oftentimes, websites allow users to interact with the website. Any part of a website that allows for user interaction is also a potential point for attempting a web-based attack. SQL injections involve entering SQL (Structured Query Language) commands into login forms (username and password text fields) in an attempt to trick the server into executing those commands. The most common purpose is to force the server to log the attacker on, even though the attacker does not have a legitimate username and password. While SQL injection is just one type of web attack, it is the most common. Session Hijacking Session hijacking can be rather complex to perform. For that reason, it is not a very common form of attack. Simply put, the attacker monitors an authenticated session between the client machine and the server, and takes that session over. We will explore specific methods of how this is done later in this book. DNS Poisoning Most of your communication on the Internet will involve DNS, or Domain Name Service. DNS is what translates the domain names you and I understand (like www.ChuckEasttom.com) into IP addresses that computers and routers understand. DNS poisoning uses one of several techniques to compromise that process and redirect traffic to an illicit site, often for the purpose of stealing personal information. Assessing the Likelihood of an Attack on Your Network How likely are these attacks? What are the real dangers facing you as an individual or your organization? What are the most likely attacks, and what are your vulnerabilities? Let’s take a look at what threats are out there and which ones are the most likely to cause you or your organization problems. At one time, the most likely threat to individuals and large organizations was the computer virus. And it is still true that in any given month, several new virus outbreaks will be documented. This situation means that new viruses are being created all the time—and old ones are still out there. However, there are other very common attacks, such as spyware. Spyware is fast becoming as big a problem, even bigger than viruses. 8 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Computer Security After viruses, the most common attack is unauthorized usage of computer systems. Unauthorized usage includes everything from DoS attacks to outright intrusion of your system. It also includes internal employees misusing system resources. A recent survey by the Computer Security Institute of 223 computer professionals showed over $445 million in losses due to computer security breaches. In 75% of the cases, an Internet connection was the point of attack, while 33% of the professionals cited the location as their internal systems. A rather astonishing 78% of those surveyed detected employee abuse of systems/Internet (Computer Security Institute, 2002). This statistic means that in any organization, one of the chief dangers might be its own employees. A 2007 study by Jeffery Johnson and Zolt Ugray, of Utah State University, showed similar problems. Basic Security Terminology Before you embark on the rest of this chapter and this book, it is important to know some basic terminology. The security and hacking terms in this section are merely an introduction to computer security terminology, but they are an excellent starting point to help you prepare for learning more about computer security. Additional terms will be introduced throughout the text and listed in the Glossary at the end of this book. The world of computer security takes its vocabulary from both the professional security community and the hacker community. Hacker Slang You probably have heard the term hacker used in movies and in news broadcasts. Most people use it to describe any person who breaks into a computer system. In the hacking community, however, a hacker is an expert on a particular system or systems, a person who simply wants to learn more about the system. Hackers feel that looking at a system’s flaws is the best way to learn about that system. For example, someone well versed in the Linux operating system who works to understand that system by learning its weaknesses and flaws would be a hacker. This process does often mean seeing if a flaw can be exploited to gain access to a system. This “exploiting” part of the process is where hackers differentiate themselves into three groups: ■ A white hat hacker, upon finding some flaw in a system, will report the flaw to the vendor of that system. For example, if they were to discover some flaw in Red Hat Linux, they would then email the Red Hat company (probably anonymously) and explain exactly what the flaw is and how it was exploited. White hat hackers are often hired specifically by companies to do penetration tests. The EC Council even has a certification test for white hat hackers, the Certified Ethical Hacker test. ■ A black hat hacker is the person normally depicted in the media. Once she gains access to a system, her goal is to cause some type of harm. She might steal data, erase files, or deface websites. Black hat hackers are sometimes referred to as crackers. Basic Security Terminology ■ 9 A gray hat hacker is normally a law-abiding citizen, but in some cases will venture into illegal activities. Regardless of how hackers view themselves, intruding on any system is illegal. This means that technically speaking all hackers, regardless of the color of the metaphorical hat they may wear, are in violation of the law. However, many people feel that white hat hackers actually perform a service by finding flaws and informing vendors before those flaws are exploited by less ethically inclined individuals. Script Kiddies A hacker is an expert in a given system, as with any profession it includes its share of frauds. So what is the term for someone who calls himself or herself a hacker but lacks the expertise? The most common term for this sort of person is script kiddy (Raymond, 1993). The name comes from the fact that the Internet is full of utilities and scripts that one can download to perform some hacking tasks. Many of these tools have an easy-to-use graphical user interface that allows someone with very little if any skill to operate the tool. A classic example is the Low Earth Orbit Ion Cannon tool for executing a DoS attack. Someone who downloads such a tool without really understanding the target system is considered a script kiddy. A significant number of the people you are likely to encounter who call themselves hackers are, in reality, mere script kiddies. Ethical Hacking: Sneakers When and why would someone give permission to another party to hack his system? The most common answer is in order to assess system vulnerabilities. This employee, commonly called a sneaker, legally breaks into a system in order to assess security deficiencies, such as portrayed in the 1992 film Sneakers, starring Robert Redford, Dan Aykroyd, and Sidney Poitier. More and more companies are soliciting the services of such individuals or firms to assess their vulnerabilities. Anyone hired to assess the vulnerabilities of a system should be both technically proficient and ethical. Run a criminal background check, and avoid those people with problem pasts. There are plenty of legitimate security professionals available who know and understand hacker skills but have never committed security crimes. If you take the argument that hiring convicted hackers means hiring talented people to its logical conclusion, you could surmise that obviously the person in question is not as good a hacker as they would like to think, because they were caught. Most importantly, giving a person with a criminal background access to your systems is on par with hiring a person with multiple DWI convictions to be your driver. In both cases, you are inviting problems and perhaps assuming significant civil liabilities. Also some review of their qualifications is clearly in order. Just as there are people who claim to be highly skilled hackers yet are not, there are those who will claim to be skilled sneakers yet lack the skills truly needed. You would not want to inadvertently hire a script kiddy who thinks she is a sneaker. Such a person might then pronounce your system quite sound when, in fact, it was simply a lack of skills that prevented the script kiddy from successfully breaching your security. Later in this book, in 10 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Computer Security Chapter 11, “Network Scanning and Vulnerability Scanning,” we discuss the basics of assessing a target system. In Chapter 11 we also discuss the qualifications you should seek in any consultant you might hire for this purpose. Phreaking One specialty type of hacking involves breaking into telephone systems. This subspecialty of hacking is referred to as phreaking. The New Hacker’s Dictionary actually defines phreaking as “the action of using mischievous and mostly illegal ways in order to not pay for some sort of telecommunications bill, order, transfer, or other service” (Raymond, 2003). Phreaking requires a rather significant knowledge of telecommunications, and many phreakers have some professional experience working for a phone company or other telecommunications business. Often this type of activity is dependent upon specific technology required to compromise phone systems, more than simply knowing certain techniques. Professional Terms Most hacker terminology, as you may have noticed, is concerned with the activity (phreaking) or the person performing the activity (sneaker). In contrast, security professional terminology describes defensive barrier devices, procedures, and policies. This is quite logical because hacking is an offensive activity centered on attackers and attack methodologies, whereas security is a defensive activity concerning itself with defensive barriers and procedures. Security Devices The most basic security device is the firewall. A firewall is a barrier between a network and the outside world. Sometimes a firewall takes the form of a standalone server, sometimes a router, and sometimes software running on a machine. Whatever its physical form, a firewall filters traffic entering and exiting the network. A proxy server is often used with a firewall to hide the internal network’s IP address and present a single IP address (its own) to the outside world. Firewalls and proxy servers guard the perimeter by analyzing traffic (at least inbound and in many cases outbound as well) and blocking traffic that has been disallowed by the administrator. These two safeguards are often augmented by an intrusion-detection system (IDS). An IDS simply monitors traffic, looking for suspicious activity that might indicate an attempted intrusion. Security Activities In addition to devices, we have activities. Authentication is the most basic security activity. It is merely the process of determining if the credentials given by a user or another system (such as a username and password) are authorized to access the network resource in question. When you log in with your username and password, the system will attempt to authenticate that username and password. If it is authenticated, you will be granted access. Concepts and Approaches 11 Another crucial safeguard is auditing, which is the process of reviewing logs, records, and procedures to determine if these items meet standards. This activity will be mentioned in many places throughout this book and will be a definite focus in a few chapters. The security and hacking terms that we have just covered are only an introduction to computer security terminology, but they provide an excellent starting point that will help you prepare for learning more about computer security. Additional terms will be introduced throughout the text as needed and compiled in the Glossary at the end of the book. Concepts and Approaches The approach you take toward security influences all subsequent security decisions and sets the tone for the entire organization’s network security infrastructure. Before we delve into various network security paradigms, let us take a moment to examine a few concepts that should permeate your entire thinking about security. The first concept is the CIA triangle. This does not refer to clandestine operating involving the Central Intelligence Agency; rather it is a reference to the three pillars of security: confidentiality, integrity, and availability. When you are thinking about security, your thought processes should always be guided by these three principles. First and foremost, are you keeping the data confidential? Does your approach help guarantee the integrity of data? And does your approach still make the data readily available to authorized users? Another important concept to keep in mind is least privileges. This literally means that each user or service running on your network should have the least number of privileges/access required to do their job. No one should be granted access to anything unless it is absolutely required for their job. In military and intelligence circles this is referred to as “need to know.” Network security paradigms can be classified by either the scope of security measures taken (perimeter, layered) or how proactive the system is. In a perimeter security approach, the bulk of security efforts are focused on the perimeter of the network. This focus might include firewalls, proxy servers, password policies, or any technology or procedure to make unauthorized access of the network less likely. Little or no effort is put into securing the systems within the network. In this approach the perimeter is secured, but the various systems within that perimeter are often vulnerable. There are additional issues regarding perimeter security that include physical security. That can include fences, closed-circuit TV, guards, locks, and so on, depending on the security needs of your organization. The perimeter approach is clearly flawed, so why do some companies use it? A small organization might use the perimeter approach if they have budget constraints or inexperienced network administrators. A perimeter method might be adequate for small organizations that do not store sensitive data, but it rarely works in a larger corporate setting. 12 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Computer Security A layered security approach is one in which not only is the perimeter secured, but individual systems within the network are also secured. All servers, workstations, routers, and hubs within the network are secure. One way to accomplish this is to divide the network into segments and secure each segment as if it were a separate network, so if the perimeter security is compromised, not all the internal systems are affected. This is the preferred method whenever possible. You should also measure your security approach by how proactive/reactive it is. This is done by gauging how much of the system’s security infrastructure and policies is dedicated to preventive measures and how much of the security system is designed to respond to attack. A passive security approach takes few or no steps to prevent an attack. A dynamic or proactive defense is one in which steps are taken to prevent attacks before they occur. One example of this defense is the use of intrusion-detection systems (IDS), which work to detect attempts to circumvent security measures. These systems can tell a system administrator that an attempt to breach security has been made, even if that attempt is not successful. IDS can also be used to detect various techniques intruders use to assess a target system, thus alerting a network administrator to the potential for an attempted breach before the attempt is even initiated. In the real world, network security is usually not completely in one paradigm or another; it is usually a hybrid approach. Networks generally include elements of both security paradigms. The two categories also combine. One can have a network that is predominantly passive but layered, or one that is primarily perimeter but proactive. It can be helpful to consider approaches to computer security along a Cartesian coordinate system, as illustrated in Figure 1.1, with the x axis representing the level of passive-active approaches and the y axis depicting the range from perimeter to layered defense. FIGURE 1.1 The security approach guide. The most desirable hybrid approach is a layered paradigm that is dynamic, which is the upper-right quadrant of the figure. How Do Legal Issues Impact Network Security? 13 How Do Legal Issues Impact Network Security? An increasing number of legal issues affect how one approaches computer security. If your organization is a publicly traded company, a government agency, or does business with either one, there may be legal constraints regarding your network security. Even if your network is not legally bound to these security guidelines, it’s useful to understand the various laws impacting computer security. You may choose to apply them to your own security standards. One of the oldest pieces of legislation in the United States that affects computer security is the Computer Security Act of 1987 (100th Congress, 1987). It requires government agencies to identify sensitive systems, conduct computer security training, and develop computer security plans. This law was a vague mandate ordering federal agencies in the United States to establish security measures, but did not specify any standards. This legislation established a legal mandate to enact specific standards, paving the way for future guidelines and regulations. It also helped define terms, such as what information is considered “sensitive.” This quote is found in the legislation itself: The term ‘sensitive information’ means any information, the loss, misuse, or unauthorized access to or modification of which could adversely affect the national interest or the conduct of Federal programs, or the privacy to which individuals are entitled under section 552a of title 5, United States Code (the Privacy Act), but which has not been specifically authorized under criteria established by an Executive order or an Act of Congress to be kept secret in the interest of national defense or foreign policy. (100th Congress, 1987) This definition of the word sensitive should be kept in mind because it is not just social security information or medical history that must be secured. When considering what information needs to be secure, simply ask this question: Would the unauthorized access or modification of this information adversely affect your organization? If the answer is yes, then you must consider that information sensitive and in need of security precautions. Another more specific federal law that applied to mandated security for government systems is OMB Circular A-130 (specifically, Appendix III). This document required that federal agencies establish security programs containing specified elements. It also described requirements for developing standards for computer systems and for records held by government agencies. Most states have specific laws regarding computer security, such as legislation like the Computer Crimes Act of Florida, the Computer Crime Act of Alabama, and the Computer Crimes Act of Oklahoma. If you’re responsible for network security, you might find yourself part of a criminal investigation. This could be an investigation into a hacking incident or employee misuse of computer resources. A list of computer crime laws (organized by state) can be found at http://law.findlaw.com/state-laws/computer-crimes/. 14 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Computer Security CAUTION Privacy Laws It is also critical to keep in mind that any law that governs privacy (such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, HIPAA) also has a direct impact on computer security. If your system is compromised, and thus data that is covered under any privacy statute is compromised, you may need to prove that you exercised due diligence in protecting that data. If it can be shown that you did not take proper precautions, you might be found civilly liable. Online Security Resources As you read this book, and when you move out into the professional world, you will have frequent need for additional security resources. Appendix B includes a more complete list of resources, but this section highlights a few of the most important ones you may find useful now. CERT The Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT, www.cert.org) is sponsored by Carnegie-Mellon University. CERT was the first computer incident-response team, and it is still one of the most respected in the industry. Anyone interested in network security should visit the site routinely. On the website you will find a wealth of documentation, including guidelines for security policies, cuttingedge security research, and more. Microsoft Security Advisor Because so many computers today run Microsoft operating systems, another good resource is the Microsoft Security Advisor website: www.microsoft.com/security/default.mspx. This site is a portal to all Microsoft security information, tools, and updates. If you use any Microsoft software, then it is advised that you visit this website regularly. F-Secure The F-Secure corporation maintains a website at www.f-secure.com. This site is, among other things, a repository for detailed information on virus outbreaks. Here you will not only find notifications about a particular virus but you will also find detailed information about the virus. This information includes how the virus spreads, ways to recognize the virus, and frequently, specific tools for cleaning an infected system of a particular virus. SANS Institute The SANS Institute website (www.sans.org) is a vast repository of security-related documentation. On this site you will find detailed documentation on virtually every aspect of computer security you can imagine. The SANS Institute also sponsors a number of security research projects and publishes information about those projects on their website. Test Your Skills 15 Summary Network security is a complex and constantly evolving field. Practitioners must stay on top of new threats and solutions and be proactive in assessing risk and protecting their networks. The first step to understanding network security is to become acquainted with the actual threats posed to a network. Without a realistic idea of what threats might affect your systems, you will be unable to effectively protect them. It is also critical that you acquire a basic understanding of the terminology used by both security professionals and those who would seek to compromise your security. Test Your Skills MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. One extreme viewpoint about computer security is what? A. The federal government will handle security. B. Microsoft will handle security. C. There are no imminent dangers to your system. D. There is no danger if you use Linux. 2. Before you can formulate a defense for a network you need what? A. Appropriate security certifications B. A clear picture of the dangers to be defended against C. To finish this textbook D. The help of an outside consultant 3. Which of the following is not one of the three major classes of threats? A. Attempts to intrude on the system B. Online auction fraud C. Denial of service attacks D. A computer virus 4. What is a computer virus? A. Any program that is downloaded to your system without your permission B. Any program that self-replicates C. Any program that causes harm to your system D. Any program that can change your Windows Registry 16 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Computer Security 5. What is spyware? A. Any software that monitors your system B. Only software that logs keystrokes C. Any software used to gather intelligence D. Only software that monitors what websites you visit 6. What is a sneaker? A. A person who hacks a system without being caught B. A person who hacks a system by faking a legitimate password C. A person who hacks a system to test its vulnerabilities D. A person who is an amateur hacker 7. What is the term for hacking a phone system? A. Telco-hacking B. Hacking C. Cracking D. Phreaking 8. What is malware? A. Software that has some malicious purpose B. Software that is not functioning properly C. Software that damages your system D. Software that is not properly configured for your system 9. What is war-driving? A. Driving and seeking a computer job B. Driving while using a wireless connection to hack C. Driving looking for wireless networks to hack D. Driving and seeking rival hackers 10. When a hacking technique uses persuasion and deception to get a person to provide informa- tion to help them compromise security, this is referred to as what? A. Social engineering B. Conning C. Human intel D. Soft hacking Test Your Skills 17 11. What is the most common threat on the Internet? A. Auction fraud B. Hackers C. Computer viruses D. Illegal software 12. What are the three approaches to security? A. Perimeter, layered, hybrid B. High security, medium security, low security C. Internal, external, and hybrid D. Perimeter, complete, none 13. An intrusion-detection system is an example of which of the following? A. Proactive security B. Perimeter security C. Hybrid security D. Good security practices 14. Which of the following is the most basic security activity? A. Authentication B. Firewalls C. Password protection D. Auditing 15. The most desirable approach to security is one that is which of the following? A. Perimeter and dynamic B. Layered and dynamic C. Perimeter and static D. Layered and static 16. According to a recent survey of 223 computer professionals prepared by the Computer Secu- rity Institute, which of the following was cited as an issue by more of the respondents? A. Internal systems B. Employee abuse C. Routers D. Internet connection 18 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Computer Security 17. Which of the following type of privacy law affects computer security? A. Any state privacy law B. Any privacy law applicable to your organization C. Any privacy law D. Any federal privacy law 18. The first computer incident-response team is affiliated with what university? A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology B. Carnegie-Mellon University C. Harvard University D. California Technical University 19. Which of the following is the best definition of the term sensitive information? A. Any information that has impact on national security B. Any information that is worth more than $1,000 C. Any information that if accessed by unauthorized personnel could damage your organi- zation in any way D. Any information that is protected by any privacy laws 20. Which of the following is a major resource for detailed information on a computer virus? A. The MIT Virus Library B. The Microsoft Virus Library C. The F-Secure Virus Library D. The National Virus Repository EXERCISES EXERCISE 1.1: How Many Virus Attacks Have Occurred This Month? 1. Using some website resource, such as www.f-secure.com, look up recent computer virus outbreaks. 2. How many virus outbreaks have occurred in the past 7 days? 3. Write down how many outbreaks there have been in the past 30 days, 90 days, and 1 year. 4. Are virus attacks increasing in frequency? Test Your Skills 19 EXERCISE 1.2: Learning about Cookies as Spyware 1. Get an idea of what kind of information cookies store. You might find the following websites helpful: http://computercops.biz/article3911.html www.ctc-solutions.co.uk/internet_security_2.html www.howstuffworks.com/cookie1.htm 2. Write a brief essay explaining in what way cookies can invade privacy. EXERCISE 1.3: Hacker Terminology 1. Use the Hacker’s Dictionary at www.hackersdictionary.com/html/index.html to define the fol- lowing hacker terms: A. Alpha geek B. Grok C. Red Book D. Wank EXERCISE 1.4: Using Security Resources 1. Using one of the preferred web resources listed in this chapter, find three policy or procedure documents from that resource. 2. List the documents you selected. 3. Write a brief essay explaining why those particular documents are important to your organiza- tion’s security. EXERCISE 1.5: Learning About the Law 1. Using the Web, journals, books, or other resources, find out if your state or territory has any laws specific to computer security. You might find the following websites helpful: www.usdoj.gov/criminal/cybercrime/cclaws.html www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/hackers/blame/crimelaws.html www.ncsl.org/programs/lis/cip/viruslaws.htm www.cybercrime.gov/ 2. List three laws that you find, with a brief description of each. The list can be a simple one, noting the pertinent laws in your region. Describe each one with one or two sentences. 20 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Computer Security PROJECTS PROJECT 1.1: Learning About a Virus 1. Using web resources from Appendix B and sites such as www.f-secure.com, find a virus that has been released in the past 6 months. 2. Research how the virus spread and the damage it caused. 3. Write a brief (half to one page) paper on this virus. Explain how the virus worked, how it spread, and any other essential information you can find. PROJECT 1.2: Considering the Law (a group project) Write a description of a computer law that you would like to have passed, along with specifications as to its implementation, enforcement, and justification. PROJECT 1.3: Recommending Security 1. Using the Web, journals, or books, locate security recommendations from any reputable source, such as the SANS Institute. Any of the sites mentioned in the “Online Security Resources” section of this chapter would be a good choice. 2. List five of those recommendations. 3. Explain why you agree or disagree with each one. Case Study In this case study we will consider a network administrator for a small, family-oriented video store. The store is not part of a chain of stores and has a very limited security budget. It has five machines for employees to use to check out movies and one server on which to keep centralized records. That server is in the manager’s office. The administrator takes the following security precautions: 1. Each machine is upgraded to Windows XP, with the personal firewall turned on. 2. Antivirus software was installed on all machines. 3. A tape backup is added to the server, and tapes are kept in a file cabinet in the manager’s office. 4. Internet access to employee machines is removed. Now consider these questions: 1. What did these actions accomplish? 2. What additional actions might you recommend? This page intentionally left blank Chapter 2 Networks and the Internet Chapter Objectives After reading this chapter and completing the exercises, you will be able to do the following: ■ Identify each of the major protocols used in network communication (for example, FTP and Telnet), and what use you can make of each ■ Understand the various connection methods and speeds used on networks ■ Compare and contrast a hub and switch ■ Identify what a router is and its use ■ Understand how data is transmitted over a network ■ Explain how the Internet works and the use of IP addresses and URLs ■ Recount a brief history of the Internet ■ Use network utilities such as these: ping, IPConfig, and tracert ■ Describe the OSI model of network communication and the use of MAC addresses Introduction To be able to manage network security, you will need knowledge about how computer networks operate. Those readers who already have a strong working knowledge of network operations may choose to skim this chapter, or perhaps give it a quick read as a review. For other readers new to computer networking, studying this chapter will give you a basic introduction to how networks and the Internet work, including a history of the Internet. This understanding of networks and the Internet will be crucial to your comprehension of later topics presented in this book. We will begin by examining the basic technologies, protocols, and methods used for networks and the Internet to communicate. Then we will take a look at the history of the Internet. This information forms 22 Network Basics 23 the background knowledge you will need to understand various cyber attacks, and how they are defended against. In the exercises at the end of the chapter, you will be able to practice using some protective methods, such as IPConfig, tracert, and ping. Network Basics Getting two or more computers to communicate and transmit data is a process that is simple in concept but complex in application. Consider all the factors involved. First you will need to physically connect the computers. This connection (although sometimes accomplished by infrared light) usually requires either a cable that plugs into your computer or wireless connection. The cable then is plugged either directly to another computer, or is plugged into a device that will, in turn, connect to several other computers. Of course, wireless communication is being used with more frequency, and wireless connecting, obviously, doesn’t require a cable. However, even wireless communication relies on a physical device to transmit the data. There is a card in most modern computers called a network interface card, or NIC. If the connection is through a cable, the part of the NIC that is external to the computer has a connection slot that looks like a telephone jack, only slightly bigger. Wireless networks also use a NIC; but rather than having a slot for a cable to connect to, the wireless network simply uses radio signals to transmit to a nearby wireless router or hub. Wireless routers, hubs, and NICs must have an antenna to transmit and receive signals. These devices are connective devices that will be explained in detail later in this chapter The Physical Connection: Local Networks As mentioned, cables are one of the ways that computers are connected to each other. The cable connection used with traditional NICs (meaning not wireless) is an RJ-45 connection. (RJ is short for Registered Jack—which is an international industry standard.) In contrast to the computer’s RJ-45 jacks, standard telephone lines use RJ-11 jacks. The biggest difference between jacks involves the number of wires in the connector, also called the terminator. Phone lines have four wires, whereas RJ-45 connectors have eight. If you look on the back of most computers or the connection area of a laptop, you will probably find two ports that, at first glance, look like phone jacks. One of the two ports is probably for a traditional modem and accepts a standard RJ-11 jack. The other port is larger and accepts an RJ-45 jack. Not all computers come with a NIC, but most modern computers do. This standard connector jack must be on the end of the cable. The cable used in most networks today is a Category 5 cable—abbreviated as Cat 5 cable. (Note that Cat 6 cable is becoming more prevalent with high-speed networks.) Table 2.1 summarizes the various categories of cable and their uses. 24 CHAPTER 2 TABLE 2.1 Networks and the Internet Cable Types and Uses Category Specifications Uses 1 Low-speed analog (less than 1MHz) Telephone, doorbell 2 Analog line (less than 10MHz) Telephone 3 Up to 16MHz or 100 Mbps (megabits per second) Voice transmissions 4 Up to 20MHz/100Mbps Data lines, Ethernet networks 5 100 MHz/100Mbps Most common type of network cable 6 1000 Mbps Very high-speed networks 7 100 GBPS The latest and fastest The type of cable used in connecting computers is also often referred to as unshielded twisted-pair cable (UTP). In UTP, the wires in the cable are in pairs, twisted together without any additional shielding. As you can see in Table 2.1, each subsequent category of cable is somewhat faster and more robust than the last. It should be noted that although Cat 4 can be used for networks, it almost never is used for that purpose, as it is simply slower, less reliable, and an older technology. You will usually see Cat 5 cable and, increasingly, Cat 6. You should note that we are focusing on UTP because that is what is found most often. There are other types of cable such as shielded twisted pair (STP), but they are not nearly as common as UTP. FYI: Cable Speed Category 6 cable is for the new Gigabit Ethernet. Cat 5 cable works at speeds of up to 100Mbps, whereas Cat 6 works at 1000Mbps. Cat 6 is widely available and has been for several years. However, for Cat 6 to truly function properly, you need hubs/switches, and NICs that also transmit at gigabit speeds; thus, the spread of gigabit Ethernet has been much slower than many analysts expected. We will discuss hubs, switches, NICs, and other hardware in more detail later in this chapter. As shown in Table 2.1, a key specification is speed, measured in mbps, or megabits per second. You are probably already aware that ultimately everything in the computer is stored in a binary format—namely, in the form of a 1 or a 0. These units are called bits. It takes 8 bits, which equals 1 byte, to represent a single character such as a letter, number, or carriage return. Remember that the data specification for each cable is the maximum that the cable can handle. A Cat 5 cable can transmit up to 100 mega (million) bits per second. This is known as the bandwidth of the cable. If multiple users are on a network, all sending data, that traffic uses up bandwidth rather quickly. Any pictures transmitted also use a lot of bandwidth. Simple scanned-in photos can easily reach 2 megabytes (2 million bytes, or 16 million bits) or much more. And streaming media, such as video, is perhaps the most demanding on bandwidth. If you simply want to connect two computers to each other, you can have the cable go directly from one computer to the other. You would have to use a crossover cable, but you could connect two computers directly. But what do you do if you wish to connect more than one computer? What if you have 100 Network Basics 25 computers that you need to connect on a network? There are three devices that can help you to accomplish this task: the hub, the switch, and the router. These each use Cat 5 or Cat 6 cable with RJ-45 connectors and are explained in the following sections. The Hub The simplest connection device is the hub. A hub is a small box-shaped electronic device into which you can plug network cables. It will have four or more (commonly up to 24) RJ-45 jacks, each called a port. A hub can connect as many computers as it has ports. (For example, an 8-port hub can connect eight computers.) You can also connect one hub to another; this strategy is referred to as “stacking” hubs. Hubs are quite inexpensive and simple to set up; just plug in the cable. However, hubs have a downside. If you send a packet (a unit of data transmission) from one computer to another, a copy of that packet is actually sent out from every port on the hub. All these copies leads to a lot of unnecessary network traffic. This occurs because the hub, being a very simple device, has no way of knowing where a packet is supposed to go. Therefore, it simply sends copies of the packet out all of its ports. While you may go to your favorite electronic store and buy something called a “hub,” true hubs no longer exist. What you are really getting is a switch, which we will discuss next. Repeater A repeater is a device used to boost signal. Basically if your cable needs to go further than the maximum length (which is 100 meters for UTP), then you need a repeater. There are two types of repeater: amplifier and signal. Amplifier repeaters simply boost the entire signal they receive, including any noise. Signal repeaters regenerate the signal, and thus don’t rebroadcast any noise. The Switch The next connection device option is the switch. A switch is basically an intelligent hub; it works and looks exactly like a hub, with one significant difference. When a switch receives a packet, it will send that packet only out the port for the computer to which it needs to go. A switch is essentially a hub that is able to determine where a packet is being sent. How this determination is made is explained in the “Data Transmission” section. The Router Finally, if you wish to connect two or more networks together, you use a router. A router is similar in concept to a hub or switch, as it does relay packets; but it is far more sophisticated. You can program most routers and control how they relay packets. Most routers have interfaces allowing you to configure them. The more robust routers also offer more programming possibilities. The specifics of how you program the router are different from vendor to vendor, and there are entire books written specifically on just programming routers. It is not possible to cover specific router programming techniques in this book; however, you should be aware that most routers are programmable allowing you to change how they route traffic. Also, unlike using a hub or switch, the two networks connected by a router are still separate networks. 26 CHAPTER 2 Networks and the Internet Faster Connection Speeds The explanation above covers the connections between computers on a local network, but surely there are faster connection methods? Well, there are; in fact, your Internet service provider or the company for which you work probably has a much faster connection to the Internet. Table 2.2 summarizes the most common high-speed connection types and their speeds. TABLE 2.2 Internet Connection Types Connection Type Speed Details DS0 64Kbps Standard phone line. ISDN 128Kbps Two DS0 lines working together to provide a high-speed data connection. T1 1.54Mbps Twenty-four DS0 lines working as one. Twenty-three carry data, and one carries information about the other lines. This type of connection has become common for schools and businesses. T3 43.2Mbps 672 DS0 lines working together. This method is the equivalent of 28 T1 lines. OC3 155Mbps All OC lines are optical and do not use traditional phone lines. OC3 lines are quite fast and very expensive. They are often found at telecommunications companies. OC12 622Mbps The equivalent of 336 T1 lines, or 8,064 phone lines. OC48 2.5Gbps The equivalent of four OC12 lines. It is common to find T1 connection lines in many locations. A cable modem can sometimes achieve speeds comparable to a T1 line. Note that cable modems were not listed on the chart, simply because their actual speeds vary greatly depending on a variety of circumstances including how many people in your immediate vicinity are using the same cable modem provider. You are not likely to encoun...
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Running Head: CORPORATE ESPIONAGE, CT

Corporate Espionage, CT
Name
Curse
Tutor
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CORPORATE ESPIONAGE, CT

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7.1 Preventing Corporate Espionage

The guidelines on general computer security and corporate espionage are different and
similar to various extents. The guidelines are similar in terms of always employing network
security such as firewalls to help with the protection from the network intrusion of organizations
as well as individual networks. When it comes to the detection of new threats, software and
antispyware are employed. Accessibility to organization's data is only given to those people who
are trusted and when needed to be able to perform their jobs. This guideline is the same as that of
general computer security. They are required to sign agreements of non-disclosure. When using a
wireless network, it is important to ensure that security is assured when it comes to the settings
on the router. This applies in the case of the general computer security only. The corporate
espionage case does not focus much on this seeing that the organization is considered as a whole
as opposed to having every employee having their network secured (Loshin, 2013). General
computer security requires that the individual computer user on their user past including fi...


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