small research paper assignment

timer Asked: Mar 6th, 2018
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Question description

I want someone write about ( promoting the social, emotional, and behavioral development)



literature review


future recommendation ( support with the resource)

no plagiarism

12 or up include with the cover page and the references page

(with at least 10 scientific journal article references)

Tutor Answer

School: UIUC



Promoting the Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Development




Promoting the Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Development
Society requires individuals develop into wholesome beings that add value to the
functions that revolve around itself. Every soul has a position to play in the community. Society
presents us with social, emotional and behavioral development as the path through which people
can reach the peak of the society (Anderson & Adolphs, 2014). However, there is no guarantee
that social, emotional and behavioral development ensures a well-established community.
Uncertain occurrences in the society call for a collective action to promote the social, emotional,
and behavioral developmental objective amongst members of the society to realize the purpose
of existence and shape society today for the generations to come.
The desire to improve living standards among societies of the present 21st century is
implausible. Human beings are social beings, born alone but meant to live for each other. The
process of social development provides a channel through which people undergo social
transformation to fit into the system of the society. Social development seeks to improve the
welfare of a person in the short run and improve the standard of living in the society in the end.
In its entirety, the process of social development entails economic development. Economic
development is a key factor that determines the extent to which societies develop. As social
development improves on the economic state of the society or of persons living in the society, it
indirectly improves the living conditions in the same proportion.
On the other side, poor social development implies poor economic development thereby
poor living standards, and this is social collapse (Whiren, Soderman, Rupiper, & Gregory, 2014).
Further, social development is a reflector of the transformations in the social order within the
society brought about by elements of progressive sociocultural evolution.



Emotional development is a characteristic of people’s feelings either good or bad.
Emotions constitute the unseen part of psychological phenomena that provide a premise upon
which people interact with their unseen world of feelings. A generalist perspective of emotional
development builds on the premise that emotional development gears towards a positive
transformation of people’s feelings. Emotions determine our feelings; our feelings determine our
reactions to the social phenomenon (Midgley, 2013). Emotional development is part of our lives
and plays a very important role in determining the kinds of people we have in the society.
Although it is easy to recognize emotions, defining them is difficult. Emotional regulation is a
prerequisite of emotional development based on the principle of modulation, control, and
maintenance of behavioral or emotional expressions.
Once a child is born, they get into a new world. The child gets into a world of diverse
opinions among different persons. They find themselves in an environment that offers both
positive and negative ideas. Nevertheless, they must survive no matter the state of the
environment. Behavioral development becomes the only tool that shapes interactions with the
environment (Carpendale, & Ulrich, 2014). Behavioral evolution helps us understand the manner
in which the environment develops our own experiences. Further, behavioral development is a
multidimensional concept that is dependent upon longitudinal studies that base their existence on
multiple environmental issues.
Literature Review
Major social development theory is that of Vygotsky. The theoretical perspective holds
that social development is a result of social interaction and the result of socialization is
consciousness and cognition.

Social interaction is in the zone of proximal development and the

knowledgeable other. Social interaction steers cognitive development. The concept of more



knowledgeable other refers to everybody knowledgeable than the children. It is easier for
children to learn from the elderly because they understand their roles better and serve as an
Various theories try explaining the principle concept of theoretical development. The
approaches focus on emotional well-being, development of one’s personality and finding an
identity in the society. Social development theories focus on the level of attachment that people
have with their families and relationships, the interrelations with their peers and moral
obligation. Modern methods of social development include evolutionary theories, learning, and
bio-ecological theories.
Learning theories are theoretical perspectives that emphasize the role that environment
plays in molding the social behavior and personality of individuals. The theoretical perspectives
account for social development using three instruments. The theory talks about classical, operant
conditioning, and observational learning. The ideas of classical conditioning arose from John
Watson and suggested the classical conditioning is one of the best ways in which people can
explain a child’s social development practice. Watson argues that given a group of healthy and
well-informed infants, he can take any of them and mold him/her into any profession he likes. In
other words, the implication is that a health child can learn anything and become a master.
Observational learning points that environment can influence the behaviors of people
regardless of external forces. Observational learning gives children an opportunity to learn
through observation consequences of circumstances (models). Shocking observations are fearful,
and they have a higher long last impact on the lives of children.
Emotional development plays a vital role in shaping up a cognitive response of the
society. Psychologists have since expressed a keen interest in internalizing the concept of



emotional development and its effects on the functions of the society. Emotion is a spontaneous
perceptual state triggered by another factor other than conscious effort – the nervous system
sparking an emotional feeling that is either negative or positive. Most scholars subscribe to the
perception that emotional development points to the regulation of the extent of emotional
arousal. Further, the scholars argue that emotional development serves to control and maintain
people’s emotional expressions.
Some theories attempt to explain the whole idea revolving around emotional
development. Some of these emotional theories include theories of evolution, cognitive
appraisal theories, cannon-bard theory and James-Lange theories. Social constructive and
differential emotions theories build on emotional modulation by focusing on emotional
development in varied paths. For this research, this paper makes a comparison of the two
theories and their role in promoting emotional development.
Differential Emotions Theoretical Perspective
The differential emotions theoretical perspective postulates the existence of nine to
eleven emotions networked with the central nervous system of human beings. The theory argues
that the emotions thrive under the influence of neuro-physical progress. The differential
emotions theoretical view holds that the basic emotions intertwined into the central nervous
system and automated biological response mechanisms that wait to respond to given forms of
stimuli dependent upon the kinds of expressions of happiness or sadness that people display on
their faces on different occasions. Each of the aforementioned basic emotions comprises
definitive neural substrates, neuro-muscular feedbacks from the expression on the face and
associates themselves with particular types of feeling.



After reading this theoretical perspective, other scholars later hypothesized that processes
that take place in the central nervous system activating and regulating feelings are a
characteristic of a neurochemical constituent. Further, the differential theoretical perspective
ascertains that the independence of social norms and the cognitive system triggers natural
processes that bring about emotions. The theory also holds that at birth, children possess
emotions of disgust, fear, surprise, sadness, anger, and interest by default arguing that the
emotions are self-reliant. They do not depend on cognitive function and are identifiable by the
expressions display on the face. The differential emotion theoretical perspective also
hypothesizes that emotions such as anger, sadness, joy, and surprise develop and are common
among infants aged four months. The theory also observes that infants aged seven to nine months
express fear on their faces. The perspective sums up these infant emotions as primary (basic)
because they surface within the first year of a person’s life as a child.
The differential emotion theoretical perspective holds that emotional development is a
characteristic of infancy and that it continues until later years of people’s lives. This kind of
development is independent of interpretive processes and is instead a component of direct view.
The theory argues that the presence of cognitive abilities triggers activation of emotion bringing
about cognitive appraisal, imagery, semantic processing, comparisons, and inferences. Emotional
modulation is an important function that protects an individual against emotional stress and
unacceptable behavior. Emotional modulation achieves control through initiation, motivation,
and organization of behavior.
The differential perspective also argues that an emotional modular system is selfregulating though sometimes it is dependent upon cognitive structures. The downfall of this
theoretical perspective is in its failure to explain the logic behind the ability of children to



regulate their emotions and reason other emotional acquisition in other children fails. The
differential theoretical perspective identifies three distinct forces that enhance emotional
development upon birth to one year after birth. The first force involves self-monitor responses
that trigger the ability to monitor behavior. Another force is the emergence of emotions as a
social interaction function and the last force concerns withdrawal to novelty and uncertainty as
an approach towards basic motivational continua. The differential theoretical perspective also
proposes that at birth children show interest and disgust. The period of birth is one of smiles and
anger as two distinct emotions resulting from social interactions.
Social Constructivist Theoretical Perspective
The social constructivist theoretical perspective is a direct opposite of the differential
emotion theoretical view. It emphasizes social roles and builds up a process of emotions as
forces that impact on societal values, thoughts, and postulations. The theory argues that social
norms determine the emotional development among people in a society. The social constructive
theory as the name suggests equates emotions to social roles that define the kinds of people that
we have in the society. Individuals have a responsibility to explain the social roles that shape the
kinds of people that they become. The theoretical perspective holds that whatever happens to us
is an emotion and whatever we do is not an emotion.
Proponents of social constructive theory hold that emotional knowledge is a symbolic
representation. Emotions are transformative social roles that gain definition from cultural
consciousness. The norms comprising the social roles are elements of psychological and
cognitive structures that provide the premise for structured responses and keeping watch over
behaviors. They proponents further believe that it is social recognition that shapes emotions that
affect people in the society. In other words, the social roles are the basis that defines the kind of

emotional course people take. The roles determine when, what to feel, the where and the how of
the emotion. Social constructive view further holds that emotions are dynamic depending on the
interaction between individuals and their environments. The proponents of the theory also
believed in two forces shaping emotional development – the force of cultural context and the
force of societal context.
Unlike the differential emotional perspective that was concerned with emotional
development, social constructive theorists had their focus on social cognitive development
emphasizing that emotional modular is dependent on specific levels of psychological processes
and the interaction among people and their environment. For instance, the emotional
development of infant was reliant on systemic adjustments regulating their association with
nearby persons and their goal activity.
Emotions brought about regular effects upon the interaction that people had with their
environment as they progress from one developmental stage to another. Social constructive
theorists criticize their differential emotion counterparts for their narrow view on facial
expressions as the determinant of the emotions among individuals and groups of people. Social
constructive theorists thus proposed two views about facial expressions. In the first analysis, the
theorists claimed that facial expressions provide too narrow a scope of the understanding of a
child. They also argue facial expression constitute only part of the emotional behavior that
people express.
The social constructive studies revealed that differential emotions could not match facial
cues. There was no compelling evidence relating facial expressions to emotions. Further, the
theorists believed that facial expression was a limited perspective of relating emotional
development. The emphasis of structural theorists was reliant on the functional development of




emotions arguing that although infants might possess emotional expressions at birth, it takes
progressive development to organize their functions.
Biological Perspective
Biological perspective is an element of behavioral development that states that the
environment in which people find themselves contributes to somebody’s character. This view of
behavioral developments considers the behaviors of people in the line of biological aspects. The
theory seeks to find out the effects of selective biological factors upon the behavioral
development of a person. According to this perspective, human genetic composition affects the
child’s behavior. For example, if a child is born to an intelligent family, there is a possibility the
child will grow to take after the family.
Developmental Perspective
Developmental perspective holds on the premise that human beings are in constant
development in their entire life. According to this model, a child’s behavior grows and adjusts in
the course of time. The primary interest of the theoretical perspective is on cognitive, social
development and moral powers. Researchers spend their time making environmental
observations to identify the kind of behaviors that come along as the child grows.
Social Learning Model
The social learning model is a powerful theoretical perspective explaining the behavioral
process in children and adults alike. This theory overshadows the perception that the process of
behavioral development depends on reinforcement. Social learning perspective holds that it is
easier for human beings to learn from each other through observation in a concept best described
as the observational modeling. The model describes some behaviors that are common children.
Further, the social learning theory holds that it is easier for children to learn from the activities



that other people perform. People form part of the learning environment to children directly
affecting their thought process and behavior.
Ecological Model
The ecological model explains arguing that the immediate environment shapes the human
behavior. The focus of the theory is on the interrelations between human beings and their
environment focusing on the effects they have on each other. The ecological theoretical
perspective explains the interdependent relationship between the behavior and their environment.
Applied Behavior Analysis Model
Applied behavior model of analysis is another important theoretical perspective that
affects behavioral development. The theory support dynamics in behavior. Applied behavior
analysis rejects theoretical views and focuses on observable relationships between human
behavior and the immediate environment. This theoretical perspective examines ways in which
people can accustom themselves with the new behaviors that they encounter.
There are two major approaches to studying social development. Part one focuses on the
meaning and content. Meaning and content involve five approaches, territorial, participatory,
gender, environment, and the partnership approach. Part two deals with objectives, their
importance, and challenges. It deals with objectives and important, the challenges and solutions
necessary for success.
In territorial approach, social development has a limitation regarding a geographic
position, cultural ethics, economic and social changes. The participatory approach influences
people by restoring their power. The gender approach to social development defines
socioeconomic and cultural roles of both men and women. This approach is systemic among all



approaches in the discourse. The environmental approach works towards improving living
standards of people in the society. Is it important to remember that social development concerns
with the wellbeing of all people in the society?
The role of modular emotions amongst children is still developing. Emotional regulation
supports cognitive functions among people facilitating language development. The goal at the
end of the day is to achieve wholesome growth and to improve the well-being of the society.
Language developments as an emotional function enable people to engage in their daily tasks
while at the same time adjust to adapt the conditions in their environment. Interactions between
parents and their children are a key player towards children’s early life. These interactions
determine the kind of emotional regulations the children c...

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