Q1. The Temperance Movement
During the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century, a social movement known
as the temperance movement dedicated its efforts towards discouraging and eliminating alcohol
consumption within the United States. The movement believed that many Americans had fallen
victims to the negative impacts of alcohol use and abuse, ranging from its direct users as well as
affected family members and the greater community. The various effects of alcoholism that were
witnessed during this period included increased crime rates, homelessness and family
disintegration, with some cases leading to divorce and high unemployment rates. As a result of
the group’s movement, alcohol use within the United States was prohibited between the years of
1920 and 1933.
Alcohol addiction or alcoholism is the gravest form of alcohol abuse. It is regarded as a
chronic ailment that is typified by the consumption of alcohol in amounts that interfere with an
individual’s physical and mental capacity, making them unable to function or stop their
dependence on alcohol despite having social and economic responsibilities. Alcohol addiction is
a product of environmental, psychological, as well as genetic factors.
Q2. Connection between Alcohol Use, Crime and Violent Behavior
The relationship between alcohol use, crime and aggressive conduct may be attributed to
a number of factors. For one, the direct effects of alcohol have been known to lead to aggression
by affecting an individual’s brain function and impairing information received and interpreted by
the brain. As such, individuals may misjudge social actions and overreact towards what they may
perceive as a threat. The relationship between the two factors may also be as a function of social
and cultural suppositions, whereby, it is believed that alcohol users will inevitably turn violent.
Children brought up in affected families may be exposed to a great deal of violence and later
imitate this role in their lives. Here, alcoholism may lead to criminal acts such as child and
sexual abuse, as well as battery. The fact that alcoholics are incapable of normal functions makes
them a prime target for robbers and through this, alcohol use influences crime.
Q3. Concerns Related to Tobacco Use
The issues related to the use of tobacco revolve around the fact that it is highly addictive
and that it is known to contain a variety of cancer-causing elements. It has been noted that the
reason tobacco is quite addictive is the nicotine content found in most tobacco products.
Research shows that nicotine triggers reward pathways in the brain giving rise to the sensation of
pleasure. Long-term changes in the brain due to continued nicotine intake results in addiction.
Tobacco is also considered a causative agent for cancer, with research showing that it contains
tar, a viscous brow substance that is widely known for causing lung and throat cancer in a
majority of its users.
Q4. Behavioral Effect of Caffeine
Drowsiness in a person is caused when adenosine produced in the brain bind with
adenosine receptors. However, to these receptors, caffeine closely resembles adenosine. Caffeine
may, therefore, be bound to the adenosine receptors, but since it does not inhibit cell activity as
adenosine would, the individual portrays symptoms of alertness and low fatigue levels. Caffeine
is, in this case, said to improve one’s operation especially in vigilant tasks. It has also been
observed that withdrawal from caffeine is often characterized by a gloomy demeanor depending
on a person’s dependence on the substance.
Q5. Over the Counter Drugs versus Prescription Medication
Prescription medication consists of those that require written instruction from relevant
licensed medical personnel, and that are usually prescribed to nurse a particular health problem.
They are also relatively more powerful than over-the-counter drugs, which can be bought
without a prescription and are often intended for a patient’s self-care. People are often advised
against the use of over-the-counter medication for several reasons. For starters, they influence
the activity of prescribed medication making them either ineffective or stronger. Secondly, they
can mask underlying symptoms of a serious ailment, a situation which can be detrimental to a
person’s health in the long run. Over-the-counter treatments have in some cases been seen to lead
to drug overdose making them less preferable to prescribed medicine.
Q6. The Therapeutic Use of Aspirin
Aspirin is sometimes used as an analgesic agent to relieve pain especially in the case of
headaches and pains. In higher doses, Aspirin may be used in the treatment of inflammatory
ailments such as arthritis and as an antipyretic drug to reduce the occurrence of a fever. Daily
aspirin therapy is also considered to be a way through which the likelihood of a heart attack to
occur can be reduced by interfering with the body’s blood clotting mechanism.
Q7. Beneficial Purpose of Morphine and Other Opioids
Opioids such as morphine are commonly prescribed by medical practitioners due to their
pain-relieving abilities. Opioids work by binding themselves to opioid receptors within the brain,
gastrointestinal tract and spinal cord thereby inhibiting the transmission of pain messages to the
cells in the brain. Opioids such as transdermal fentanyl have been seen to significantly counter
pain and improve functional disability in the nursing of chronic low back pain.
Q8. Medical Use of Marijuana
Marijuana is one of the most effective therapeutic substances known. Medial Cannabis is
the term given to the physician-prescribed drug that serves as a herbal therapy agent and in most
cases as an antiemetic. Medical Marijuana is known to possess therapeutic abilities for patients
suffering from muscle spasms, chronic pain, nausea, and interlobular pressure in the eyes, as well
as to enhance a person’s metabolic rate. In some cases, it may be used to alleviate anxiety and
depression especially among terminal cancer victims.
Q9. The Treatment Breakthrough for Treating Opioid Dependency Issues with Suboxone
The use of Suboxone in the treatment of opioid dependency within the United States was
approved by the FDA in 2002. It was observed that Suboxone possesses advantageous attributes
over other medication assisted treatment options such as Methadone and Naltrexone. Suboxone
represses cravings and withdrawal symptoms portrayed by opioid dependent persons and prevent
the occurrence of euphoria. Suboxone contains Buprenorphine and naloxone. Buprenorphine
works by producing a relatively milder effect than conventional opioids. It tricks the brain into
believing it is a full opioid thereby suppressing withdrawal cravings and manifestations.
Q10. Should Marijuana Be Legalized for Medical Purposes?
It is my opinion that the prohibition of medical marijuana would be unfounded and
unjust. I believe that it is wrong to deny any individual the right and benefit of receiving
effective treatment using natural substances. There is factual proof advocating for the effects of
marijuana on patient care in addition to the potential opportunities that would arise from this
venture such as employment opportunities and revenue generation. Although critics may argue
that this would set precedence for the excusable abuse of marijuana, regulatory systems can be
put in place to easily manage its use for medical purposes.
Explain the temperance movement in America. Discuss concept for alcohol addiction
The Temperance movement, also termed as the prohibition movement, was a social and
political issue, which took place in the early nineteenth century in the United States. The primary
aim of the movement was to completely end the sale of alcohol at the local, state and national
levels. During this time, alcoholism was a major problem and supporters of the movement
commonly known as teetolalers argued that it was the root cause of various social vices such as
family neglect and spousal abuse. The concept of alcohol addiction, which sparked the
movement, was brought about by a study of Dr Benjamin Rush titled An Inquiry Into the Effects
of Ardent Spirits Upon the Human Body and Mind. It proposed that alcohol addiction was
harmful to both human psychological and physical health.
Discuss the connection between alcohol use, crime and violent behavior
The relationship between alcohol use, crime and violent behavior has been a focus of
many research studies. The excessive consumption of alcohol has been shown to be a significant
factor in precipitating violent behavior. According to estimates from the US department of
justice, the majority of criminal offenders are usually under the influence of alcohol when
committing crimes. Individual and situational characteristics are some of the factors that have
been shown to be key predictors of alcohol-related violence. For example, binge drinking,
especially amongst young people, has been associated with violence and aggression. Alcoholrelated assaults have also been shown to mostly occur during certain times including weekends
and also after 9 pm.
Explain two causes for concern related to smoking tobacco
Smoking related deaths are the leading cause of preventable deaths in the US with
statistics indicating that more than 400,000 deaths are reported annually due to tobacco use.
Smoking has been associated with various health risks including cardiovascular disease and
respiratory complications. Tobacco smokers are at an elevated risk of developing complications
affecting the heart and its related blood vessels. Smoking has been associated with coronary
disease and strokes which are the leading causes of death in the US. Smoking has also been
associated with various respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis and emphysema and has
been shown to be the leading cause of lung cancer.
Caffeine is the most commonly used psychoactive drug; what is the behavioral effect of
The intake of caffeine has been shown to have some behavioral effects on humans even
when consumed in moderate amounts. Caffeine improves cognitive performance, reduces
fatigue, and enhances mental alertness, especially when consumed at low arousal situations..
Various studies have also demonstrated the relationship between caffeine intake and sustained
attention in the performance of prolonged tasks. Caffeine improves the performance in simple
tasks that require a sustained form of response especially when an individual’s level of mental
alertness is reduced. The withdrawal of caffeine has also been associated with certain behavioral
aspects such as negative moods.
Distinguish over the counter versus prescription drugs, list two reasons for prescription
Prescriptions drugs are prescribed by a doctor, bought in pharmacies and are intended to
be used by only one person. On the other hand, over the counter drugs do not require a doctor’s
prescription and can be bought off-the-shelf in stores. Over the counter drugs are suitable for
mild, occasional symptoms such as antihistamine medications. On the other hand, prescription
drugs are used for severe medical complications for example powerful allergy medications.
Prescription medications are beneficial over OTC drugs especially when it comes to managing
risks associated with medicine use. This is because doctors prescribing the drugs have an
accurate understanding of the best approaches to be used in tacking various symptoms. This
helps in reducing chances that the prescribed drugs:
• may cause additional problems,
• may not work as well as expected
• may produce harmful interactions with other medications.
What is the therapeutic use of aspirin?
The use of aspirin has been associated with various therapeutic effects. For example, it
provides pain relief from headaches, gastric distension, muscle cramps and also skin irritation. It
can also be used to treat inflammatory complications such as arthritis. Aspirin has also been used
to prevent strokes and heart attacks both in individuals who have been diagnosed with heart
problems and also as a preventative measure for patients with known cardiovascular diseases.
Explain the beneficial purpose of morphine and other opioids
Opioids are chemicals which produce pharmacological effects which resemble those of
morphine or any other opiates. Opioids can be used to provide relief from acute pain for example
post-surgery pains and also chronic pains associated with terminal conditions such as cancer.
They have also been effective in providing pain relief from certain degenerative conditions such
as rheumatoid arthritis. Recent clinical trials have also shown the effectiveness of opioids in the
treatment of non-malignant pain including post-herpetic neuralgia and back pains.
What is the medical use for marijuana?
Marijuana contains active chemicals known as cannabinoids, which provide various
therapeutic effects and are also useful in treating several illnesses. Medical marijuana can be
consumed in a variety of ways including smoking, pill ingestions and also in the form of food
such as chocolate bars and cookies. The two main cannabinoids, which are beneficial in medical
marijuana, are cannabidiol and THC. Cannabidiol acts as a non-psychoactive drug and can be
used in controlling epileptic seizures and also providing relief from inflammation and pain. THC
is useful in reducing nausea and in stimulating appetite. Medical marijuana has also been shown
to treat glaucoma.
Explain the treatment breakthrough for treating opioid with Suboxone
Suboxone is a drug which is used in the treatment of opiate addiction. It contains a
combination of Buprenorphine, which is an opioid medication, and naloxone, which reverses the
effects of other narcotic medications. In October 2002, Bunenorphine received FDA approval for
the treatment of opiate addiction after a clinical breakthrough that showed the effectiveness of
the drug in treating opiate withdrawal symptoms. Bunenorphine has both opiate and anti-oipate
properties. When the drug is administered to patients having opiate withdrawal symptoms, it
eliminates the symptoms within an hour. This is in contrast to past withdrawal cycles which took
up to 6 days and involved severe abdominal cramping and profuse sweating. Buprenorphine’s
opiate properties enable it to be substituted for previous opiate medications.
Should marijuana be legalized for medical purposes? Please give your opinion
The debate on whether medical marijuana should be legalized continues to linger on even
today. Personally, I am of the view that marijuana should be legalized for medical purposes.
Scientific and medical research dating back thousands of years demonstrate the beneficial
medicinal properties of it. Modern day studies have also come to the same conclusion and have
proved that medical marijuana provides pain relief for patients, especially those undergoing
chemotherapy. Those opposed to the use of medical marijuana often neglect the main conditions
for its use, namely that conditions for its use are to be left in the hands of regulated healthcare
professionals who will prevent the abuse of the drug. Most of the health risks associated with
marijuana are primarily due to the smoke produced and not the active cannabinoids which are
very beneficial to humans.
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