Science
GCU Timeline for History of Public Health and Epidemiology Paper

Grand Canyon University

Question Description

Review the Topic Material, "Timeline for the History of Public Health and Epidemiology" (link below), to complete this assignment. Using this resource as an example, create your own timeline in a Word document with significant dates that influenced and changed the health care delivery systems.

  1. Your timeline should begin where the timeline in the topic material above ends (1988).
  2. Your timeline should end with the most current and significant information that you can find. You are required to add a minimum of 10 significant dates to this timeline in order to receive a passing grade.
  3. Provide a detailed description for each significant date and event you add to the timeline.

Use appropriate and scholarly sources in order to complete this assignment successfully, such as peer-reviewed literature and web sources that have .edu, .gov, and .org domain addresses. Wikipedia, and most .com sources are not considered to be of sufficient scholarly rigor.

While APA format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Understanding the Fundamentals of Epidemiology an evolving text ___________ Victor J. Schoenbach, Ph.D. with Wayne D. Rosamond, Ph.D. ___________ Department of Epidemiology School of Public Health University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Fall 2000 Edition © 1999, 2000 Victor J. Schoenbach Unless otherwise indicated, the text and diagrams in this work belong to the copyright owner above. For reprint permission (royalty-free for noncommercial use by nonprofit, accredited, educational organizations), please write to: Victor J. Schoenbach, Ph.D. Department of Epidemiology University of North Carolina School of Public Health Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7400 USA Victor_Schoenbach@unc.edu Permission to reprint material copyrighted by others and used here by their permission must be obtained directly from them. August 1999, 2000 Chapel Hill, North Carolina Preface Introductory epidemiology courses are often referred to as "methods" courses, and many students come to them hoping to learn the methods that have made epidemiology so important. Certainly methods are an essential aspect of the field, and this text covers the usual complement. But especially for the newcomer, the critical need is to learn how epidemiologists think about health and the factors that affect it, and how epidemiologists approach studying them. Very few methods are unique to epidemiology. "Epidemiologic thinking" is its essence. Therefore, for me the central objective of an introductory course has been to explain the concepts and perspectives of the field. For nearly 20 years I have had the privilege of teaching the introductory epidemiology course for epidemiology majors at the University of North Carolina School of Public Health and the special pleasure that derives from teaching students who have sought epidemiology out rather than come to learn it only as a school requirement. I have also had the honor of being entrusted by my colleagues with the responsibility for introducing our students to epidemiologic concepts and methods. Over the years I have written out extensive lecture notes, initially in response to requests from course participants and subsequently to develop my own understanding. Not all course participants have appreciated them, but I have received sufficient positive feedback and expressions of interest from graduates who have gone on to teach their own epidemiology courses that I have decided to recast them as an "evolving text". I use the term "evolving" because I continue to clarify, develop, refine, correct, and, I hope, improve. Regarding it as an evolving text is also my excuse for the fact that the material is not ready for formal publication. Moreover, unlike a published text, this volume does not claim to be authoritative – nor even thoroughly proofread. As an evolving work, its further development has always taken priority over appearance – and, it must be admitted, occasionally also over accuracy.* Although the word processing is nearly all my own, the content is certainly not. Besides the extensive development and exposition of epidemiologic concepts and methods from courses and publications by others, I have had the good fortune to study with and learn from outstanding epidemiologists and biostatisticians, among them the late John Cassel, Gerardo Heiss, Barbara Hulka, Michel Ibrahim, Sherman James, Bert Kaplan, David Kleinbaum, Gary Koch, Lawrence Kupper, Hal Morgenstern, Abdel Omran, the late Ralph Patrick, Dana Quade, David Savitz, Carl Shy, the late Cecil Slome, H.A. Tyroler, and Edward Wagner. * Important errata, as I learn about them, are posted on a site on the World Wide Web (http://www.epidemiolog.net/). _____________________________________________________________________________________________ www.epidemiolog.net, © Victor J. Schoenbach 1999, 2000 rev. 9/26/1999, 8/20/2000, 3/9/2001 1. Epidemiology Definition, functions, and characteristics - 1 My thinking and this text have also greatly benefited from interactions with other colleagues and teachers, co-instructors, teaching assistants, collaborators, associates, research staff, fellows, and students. I must particularly acknowledge the assistance of Charles Poole, who has generously shared his expertise with me through his advanced methods course and frequent consultations. He has even made the ultimate sacrifice – reading this text and sitting through my lectures! The content (errors excepted!) and to some extent the exposition, therefore, represent the knowledge, ideas, examples, and teaching skills of many people, to a much greater extent than the specific attributions, citations and acknowledgements would indicate. Acknowledgements are of greater interest to authors than to readers, and I ask your forgiveness for including several more. I received my own introduction to epidemiology from the late John Cassel - intellectual pioneer, inspiring lecturer, and humanist -- and Bert Kaplan -- quintessential scholar, supporter, and friend, whose colleagueship, breadth of knowledge, depth of wisdom, dedication to the ideals of the academy, and personal warmth have enriched the lives of so many. I would also like to express my gratitude to colleagues, staff, secretaries (especially Pat Taylor, Edna Mackinnon Lennon, and Virginia Reid), students, administrators, and family for inspiration, stimulation, feedback, opportunity, advice, guidance, commitment, counseling, assistance, support, affection, and a good deal more. Enjoy Epidemiology! Victor J. Schoenbach Chapel Hill, North Carolina U.S.A. August 17, 1999 Postscript: After the 20th anniversary edition of EPID 168 ("Fundamentals of epidemiology"), my teaching responsibilities have changed to its sister course, EPID 160 ("Principles of epidemiology"). EPID 160 serves as the basic introductory course for all students, graduate and undergraduate, who are not majoring in epidemiology. Thus its audience is much more diverse in both interests and preparation. Time will tell if I am able to continue to refine the Evolving Text, but if so it will begin to move in the direction of making it more suitable for a general – and international – readership. I have been gratified by the expressions of interest in it in its present form and hope that it will continue to be of use to others. March 9, 2001. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ www.epidemiolog.net, © Victor J. Schoenbach 1999, 2000 rev. 9/26/1999, 8/20/2000, 3/9/2001 1. Epidemiology Definition, functions, and characteristics - 2 Table of Contents Chapter (in Acrobat ®, click on a chapter name to move to that page) Page* Preface................................................................................................................................................ 1 1. Epidemiology — Definition, functions, and characteristics ...................................................... 3 2. An evolving historical perspective ............................................................................................... 17 3. Studying populations - basic demography .................................................................................. 31 Assignment ................................................................................................... 53 Solutions ....................................................................................................... 57 4. The Phenomenon of Disease ....................................................................................................... 59 5. Measuring Disease and Exposure ................................................................................................ 81 Appendix on weighted averages.............................................................. 113 Appendix on logarithms ........................................................................... 115 Assignment ................................................................................................. 117 Solutions ..................................................................................................... 123 6. Standardization of rates and ratios.............................................................................................129 Assignment ................................................................................................. 149 Solutions ..................................................................................................... 153 7. Relating risk factors......................................................................................................................161 Appendix..................................................................................................... 199 Assignment ................................................................................................. 201 Solutions ..................................................................................................... 205 8. Analytic study designs..................................................................................................................209 Assignment ................................................................................................. 257 Solutions ..................................................................................................... 265 9. Causal inference ............................................................................................................................269 10. Sources of error ............................................................................................................................287 Appendices ................................................................................................. 319 Assignment ................................................................................................. 325 Solutions ..................................................................................................... 329 11. Multicausality — Confounding .................................................................................................. 335 Assignment................................................................................................. 373 Solutions ..................................................................................................... 377 12. Multicausality — Effect modification ....................................................................................... 381 Assignment................................................................................................. 413 Solutions ..................................................................................................... 417 13. Multicausality — Analysis approaches ...................................................................................... 423 Assignment (see next chapter) 14. Data analysis and interpretation ................................................................................................. 451 Assignment................................................................................................. 499 Solutions ..................................................................................................... 503 15. Practical aspects of epidemiologic research.............................................................................. 507 16. Data management and data analysis .......................................................................................... 523 17. Epidemiology and public health................................................................................................. 551 18. Overview and Conclusion........................................................................................................... 565 * Note: page numbers do not exactly match the number of the physical page because of unnumbered pages and are not in exact sequence because of chapter revisions or pages inserted from other sources (e.g., published articles for assignments). Index: although no index is available, the Acrobat® Reader has powerful search capabilities (see the Edit Menu). You can search through all chapters at once by viewing the PDF that contains all of the chapters and assignments in a single document. Other epidemiology learning materials and resources, including practice examinations, may be found at www.epidemiolog.net www.epidemiolog.net/ © Victor J. Schoenbach 8/2/1001 Table of contents 1. Epidemiology — Definition, functions, and characteristics Definition, characteristics, uses, varieties, and key aspects of epidemiology* What to tell your family and friends When your family or friends ask what you are studying, and you say “epidemiology”, the response is often something like: “You’re studying what?” “Does that have something to do with skin?” “Uh-huh. And what else are you studying?” How should you reply? One possibility is to give a formal definition (e.g., “The study of the distribution and determinants of health related states and events in populations, and the application of this study to control health problems” [John M. Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology]). Another possible reply is, “Well, some epidemiologists study the skin. But epidemiologists study all kinds of diseases and other aspects of health, also. The root word is ‘epidemic’, rather than ‘epidermis’.” Another reply could be. “Epidemiology is the study of health and disease in populations. It’s a basic science of public health.”, though then be prepared to define “public health”. And, if you’re feeling erudite, you can follow-up with, “’Epidemiology’ comes from the Greek epi (among, upon), demos (people), and logy (study).” Epidemiology in transition? The above should satisfy your friends, but what about yourself? Particularly if you are entering on the pathway to becoming an epidemiologist, do you know where it will lead you? According to Thomas Kuhn (1970:136-7), textbooks “address themselves to an already articulated body of problems, data, and theory, most often to the particular set of paradigms to which the scientific community is committed at the time they are written.…[They] record the stable outcome of past revolutions and thus display the bases of the current normal-scientific tradition”. Raj Bhopal’s review (1997), however, reports that recent epidemiology texts present a diversity of concepts and information, even in regard to the building blocks of epidemiology. Bhopal sees the fundamental question as “whether epidemiology is primarily an applied public health discipline…or primarily a science in which methods and theory dominate over practice and application”. He predicts a lively discussion that will sharpen in the 21st century. Indeed, in the leading commentary in the August 1999 issue of the American Journal of Public Health, three of my colleagues including our department chair seek to differentiate between epidemiology (a “science”) and public health (a “mission”). They argue that the second half of Last’s definition * Dr. Raymond Greenberg wrote the original versions of the chapter subtitles. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ www.epidemiolog.net, © Victor J. Schoenbach 1999, 2000 rev. 3/9/2001, 5/3/2003, 9/25/2003 1. Epidemiology Definition, functions, and characteristics - 3 (application and control) describes “the broader enterprise of public health” rather than epidemiology. Epidemiology “contributes to the rationale for public health policies and services and is important for use in their evaluation”, but “the delivery of those services or the implementation of those policies” is not “part of epidemiology” (Savitz et al., 1999: 1158-1159). Further, “the product of research is information, not, as has been argued, ‘public health action and implementation’ (Atwood et al., 1997: 693).” (Savitz et al.: 1160). The article by David Savitz, Charles Poole, and William Miller might be regarded in part as a response to the charge made in an article by our previous chair, Carl Shy, that academic epidemiology has “failed to develop the scientific methods and the knowledge base to support the fundamental public health mission of preventing disease and promoting health through organized community efforts” (Shy, 1997). In making this charge, Shy builds on the contention in the Institute of Medicine report on The Future of Public Health (Committee for the Study of the Future of Public Health, 1988, which asserted that the U.S. public health system was in “disarray”) that schools of public health are too divorced from public health practice. In that vein, in the editorial that precedes the Savitz et al. commentary, the previous Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and two of his colleagues assert that, “[Epidemiologists] can make their goal journal publication, public interpretation of findings, or public health interventions”, adding that “epidemiology’s full value is achieved only when its contributions are placed in the context of public health action, resulting in a healthier populace.” (Koplan et al., 1999). These contrasting positions are not necessarily in conflict. To say that public health action is required to achieve epidemiology’s full value does not imply that epidemiology or epidemiologists must launch that public health action, nor does appreciation of epidemiologists’ contributions imply that those contributions are epidemiology (as opposed to good works that happen to be done by epidemiologists). But others have explicitly endorsed a diversity of roles for epidemiology. In a 2002 article, Douglas Weed and Pamela Mink provide a succinct and thoughtful discussion of this twenty-year long “remarkable disciplinary rift”, concluding that “Science and policy walk hand-inhand under the umbrella of epidemiology.” (Weed and Mink, 2002: 70). They add that an epidemiologist can be a “full-fledged epidemiologist” whether s/he does etiologic research alone, combines public health practice and policymaking with research, or spends most of her/his time “making the public health system work”. Perhaps influenced by the terrorism attacks of the previous autumn, the ensuing upsurge of concern about preparedness, and Internet dissemination of health information of highly variable reliability, Richard Kaslow in his 2002 Presidential Address to the American College of Epidemiology placed advocacy squarely within the epidemiology profession: “Individual epidemiologists may decline to ‘get involved,’ but I do not believe epidemiology without advocacy is any longer a viable option for the profession collectively. Through the College, our profession can speak with a compelling voice. It is no longer enough to serve the public simply by producing credible data, we must effectively translate those data into clear and balanced messages.” (Kaslow, 2003: 547). But whether we see ourselves first as scientists or first as public health professionals, our work takes place in a societal context, with resources and therefore priorities assigned by political and economic institutions that appear to serve the interests of some people and groups more than of others (Winkelstein, 2000). The research we do and our behavior in our other professional activities _____________________________________________________________________________________________ www.epidemiolog.net, © Victor J. Schoenbach 1999, 2000 rev. 3/9/2001, 5/3/2003, 9/25/2003 1. Epidemiology Definition, functions, and characteristics - 4 inevitably reflect our backgrounds and life experiences, our values and preconceptions, our personal ambitions and responsibilities. In that sense, what is epidemiology and what is not, and who is an epidemiologist and who is not, are determined i ...
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Attached.

Running Head: HISTORY OF PUBLIC HEALTH AND EPIDEMIOLOGY

History of Public Health and Epidemiology
Name:
Institutional Affiliation:

1

HISTORY OF PUBLIC HEALTH AND EPIDEMIOLOGY

2

History of Public Health and Epidemiology
There have been developments in the Public Health sector that have come in handy in the health
development sector. The study of health and populations is epidemiology. The events affect the
communities and the welfare of the people that the health situations change.
2003: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) was first put to focus and then measures to
control put in place. World Health Organization was in the lead to finding the causes and worked
closely with the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and also considered significant
input from affected countries. It was a significant milestone in the curbing of the eff...

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