According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of early adulthood is:
a. Initiative versus guild
b. Intimacy versus isolation
c. Industry versus inferiority
d. Identity versus role confusion
Vygotsky saw __________ play as the ideal social context for fostering cognitive development
in early childhood.
Six-month-old Eva drops her teething ring in a fairly rigid way, simply letting go and watching it
with interest. This example demonstrates Piaget’s belief that, at first, schemes are ___________.
a. Awkward and disorganized
c. Sensorimotor action patterns
Behavior modification eliminates undesirable behaviors by what?
a. Exposing children to group therapy
b. Combining conditioning and modeling
c. Having patients talk freely about painful childhood events
d. Improving children’s social settings, such as school and home
The lifespan perspective on human development assumes that development is:
a. Largely the result of heredity
b. Multidimensional and multidirectional
c. Static and stable
d. Continuous, rather than discontinuous
Ecological systems theory views the person as _______.
a. A blossoming flower, and it regards development as a maturational process
b. A computer-like system that actively codes, transforms, and organizes information
c. Developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the
d. A social being influenced primarily by observational learning or adult modeling
Adolescents who reach the formal operational stage of cognitive development ________.
a. No longer require concrete things and events as objects of thought
b. Can only operate on reality
c. Cannot yet come up with general logical rules through internal reflection
d. Cannot “operate on operations”
According to B. F. Skinner, __________ will increase the frequency of a behavior and
__________ will decrease the frequency of a behavior.
a. Punishment; Imitation
b. Modeling; Reinforcement
c. Reinforcement; Punishment
d. Punishment; Reinforcement
Unlike Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky viewed cognitive development as a ________ process.
b. Genetically predictable
c. Socially mediated
According to _________theory, children learn primarily through modeling.
b. Social learning
c. Classical conditioning
d. Operant conditioning
In Piaget’s theory, 8- to 12-month-olds can use ___________to solve simple problems.
a. Reflexive schemes
c. Primary circular reactions
d. Goal-directed behavior
Jennifer, age 45, is a Girl Scout leader. She states that she really enjoys giving to and guiding the
next generation. According to Erikson, Jennifer has developed a sense of what?
Every time baby Gloria nurses, she is placed on a nursing pillow. Gloria’s mom later noticed that
each time Gloria was placed on the pillow, she made sucking movements. In this example,
__________is the conditioned stimulus.
b. Placement on the pillow
d. Breast milk
According to the _________perspective, people move through a series of stages in which they
confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations.
b. Social learning
Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory, information processing, and Vygotsky’s sociocultural
theory all stress what?
a. Unconscious motives and drives
b. Changes in thinking
c. The effects of punishment and reinforcement on behavior
d. Nature over nurture
According to Piaget, thought in middle childhood is far more __________than in early
According to Erikson, when they psychological conflict of late adulthood is resolved negatively,
adults will experience what?
Sydney, when faced with a problem, starts with a hypothesis, deduces testable inferences, and
isolates and combines variables to see which inferences are confirmed. Sydney is in Piaget’s
_________stage of development.
b. Concrete operational
d. Formal operational
According to Piaget, the most obvious change as children move from the sensorimotor to the
preoperational stage is an increase in what?
a. Abstract thought
b. Private speech
c. Representational, or symbolic, activity
d. Logical thought
According to Bandura’s social-cognitive theory, as children grow older they do what?
a. Imitate more than they model
b. Respond more favorably to punishment than reinforcement
c. Become less selective in what they imitate
d. Become more selective in what they imitate
Theories are vital tools for developmental researchers because they do what?
a. Ensure proper use of research procedures
b. Provide organizing frameworks for our observations of people
c. Illustrate the ultimate truth regarding human behavior
d. Do not require scientific verification
According to ecological systems theory, interactions between Marina and her child occur in the
Twenty-two-year-old Daniel is overly dependent on his girlfriend, Missy. Daniel continually
doubts his ability to meet new challenges. Daniel may not have fully mastered the tasks
of _______and________during infancy and childhood.
a. Mistrust; shame
b. Autonomy; mistrust
c. Trust; autonomy
d. Trust; doubt
According to Erikson, a healthy outcome during infancy depends on this.
a. Amount of food offered
b. Amount of oral stimulation offered
c. Channeling of biological drives
d. Quality of caregiving
Jamar understands that a certain amount of liquid or clay remains the same even after its
appearance changes and can organize objects into hierarchies of classes and subclasses.
According to Piaget, Jamar is in the ___________stage of cognitive development.
d. Concrete operational
According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of the preschool years is what?
a. Trust versus mistrust
b. Autonomy versus shame and doubt
c. Initiative versus guilt
d. Industry versus inferiority
Eleven-year-old Leah has developed a sense of competence at a number of useful skills and
tasks. She has a positive but realistic self-concept and takes pride in her accomplishments.
According to Erikson, Leah has what?
a. Yet to encounter the psychological conflict of middle childhood
b. Overcome the conflict of role confusion
c. Developed an ideal self that guides her behavior
d. Positively resolved the psychological conflict of middle childhood
According to Jean Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory,
a. Children’s learning depends on reinforcers, such as rewards from adults
b. Adult teaching is the best way to foster development
c. Children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world
d. Rapid development occurs during sensitive periods
Two-year-old Carmen is trying to fit pieces into a wooden puzzle form. Her father helps Carmen
turn the pieces so they fit snuggly in place. As Carmen’s skill improves, her father steps back,
letting her try on her own. This example best illustrates the concept of what?
c. Sustained attention
d. Novelty preference
Gilles finds it difficult to consider two points of view when presented with the “Heinz dilemma.”
He tends to overlook people’s intentions and, instead, focuses on fear of authority and avoidance
of punishment as reasons for behaving morally. Gilles is at which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral
a. Stage 2: the instrumental purpose orientation
b. Stage 1: the punishment and obedience orientation
c. Stage 3: the “good-boy—good-girl” orientation
d. Stage 4: the social-order-maintaining orientation
In a historic experiment with 11-month-old Albert, what did John Watson demonstrate?
a. Children have an innate, inborn fear of rats.
b. Infants as young as a few months old will repeat a behavior to obtain a desirable reward
c. Children can be conditioned to fear a formerly neutral stimulus
d. Children cannot be conditioned to fear a formerly neutral stimulus
According to Vygotsky, _______is a range of tasks that a child cannot yet handle alone but can
do with the help of more skilled partners.
a. The dynamic systems approach
b. The zone of proximal development
c. Transitive inference
Once formed, what does identity do?
a. Tends to be rigid, which can drastically limit adolescents’ choices
b. Continues to be refined in adulthood as people reevaluate earlier commitments and
c. Remains stable throughout the lifespan
d. Prevents people from questioning their values and priorities
What does Bronfenbrenner’s macrosystem consist of?
a. Third parties that affect the quality of the parent-child relationship
b. Social settings that do not contain the developing person but nevertheless affect
c. Activities and interaction patterns in the individual’s immediate surroundings
d. Cultural values, laws, customs, and resources
What does conservation refer to?
a. Belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and
b. Idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their
outward appearance changes
c. Inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction,
returning to the starting point
d. Failure to distinguish others’ symbolic viewpoints from one’s own
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