SYG 2000 SMUM Sociology Smartphones and Social Networking Questions

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SYG 2000

Saint Marys University of Minnesota

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1(A).Which agent of socialization do you believe is most powerful through the life course?( B)Do you think this might change over time and why?

2. Reflecting on the lecture notes and videos on the development and presentation of self, how does new technology, like smartphones and social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram affect the presentation of self?

What do you think the consequences of technology-mediated interaction on how we are socialized in the future – could this contribute to the sense of alienation or anomie, or might this benefit our society? 


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SOC101M2.1 Understanding Culture and Socialization Culture and Communication The Self Agents of Socialization Lesson 1 of 4 Understanding Culture and Socialization Culture is everything about a society’s way of life. It refers to all elements of culture, both material and symbolic, or nonmaterial. It includes a society’s real and ideal cultures. Culture is essential to a society’s stability and development because it serves as a lens for viewing the world. Most individuals don’t think about the elements of their culture because they are a “natural” way of life. Culture is passed down from generation to generation and is ingrained in every element of your daily life. It dictates how you dress, what you eat, the type of entertainment you enjoy and your beliefs about what is right and what is wrong. It includes all of your values and beliefs. Culture in the Family Context De ning Culture Culture can be divided into two main categories: material culture and symbolic culture. Material culture refers to all of the objects associated with a culture. This includes any physical object to which a society attaches signi cant meaning. For example, in the United States families that do not have at least one television, one computer and one smart phone in their home may be viewed as odd. These pieces of technological equipment are signi cant to the American culture. They are viewed as a necessary source of information, education, communication and entertainment. Symbolic culture, or nonmaterial culture refers to the ideas that are associated with a society. It includes the way you behave and the things you place value in. For example, The US has a market-based economy. This means that Americans expect to nd a price tag on every item that is available for purchase. Negotiating a value of an item (bargaining) is not part of our nonmaterial culture. YOUTUBE Symbols, Values & Norms: Crash Course Sociology #10 Symbols, Values & Norms: Crash Course Sociology #10 What exactly is culture? This week we're going to try to answer that, and explain the di erence between material and non-material culture. We'll look at thr... VIEW ON YOUTUBE  Lesson 2 of 4 Culture and Communication Lady Justice Communication is one of the most important elements of symbolic culture. It includes language, signs and gestures. Signs are a common form of communication, especially in a modern society. They can include elements of the written language but this is not necessary to have a shared meaning. Gestures are the elements of body language to which we attach social meaning. Gestures are interpreted dependent upon the context, time and location. Di erent cultures can also attach di erent meanings to the identical gesture. Gestures must always be interpreted from the culture in which they are displayed. Language is the most signi cant means of transmitting culture. Language includes all aspects of communication; written, spoken and body movement. Every society has a common language that is shaped by the society. However, the language may also shape the society. The SapirWhorf Hypothesis suggests that language develops within society but that is also frames the way that you view and experience society. Values & Social Control Culture is a complex system of values (what a society considers good and desirable) and beliefs (what a society holds to be true). Your values and beliefs guide your expectations for behavior. These rules and expectations for behavior are known as norms. Norms can be divided into three basic categories: Folkways, Mores and Taboos. Folkways are loosely enforced and include your customs for social interactions. For example, the expectation that you will not pick your nose in public is a folkway. Mores are norms that carry a large amount of moral signi cance. They are closely related to the core values of the group. Many mores are actually laws. Laws refer to those mores that are written down in a legal code for behavior. They can include those that are lightly sanctioned, such as a parking violation that nets a ticket, or heavily sanctioned, such as a life sentence for taking a life. Taboos are the strongest form of norm. They are so morally engrained in our culture that the mere thought of violating them causes revulsion. How do you feel when you consider the act of cannibalism? You might experience physical discomfort, such as nausea, when you think about this topic. Cultural Variations Every society has a dominant culture. This refers to the values and norms of the most powerful group within a society. The US is viewed as multicultural due to the diversity of racial, ethnic, national and linguistic backgrounds of the individuals that live within the country. Despite this, the dominant culture expects conformity from residents. This conformity includes the way you dress and speak and the use of the English language. Cultural Exchange. North American teenagers interacting with Costa Rican school children on a cultural exchange trip. Subcultures and Counter Cultures often develop within a society. A subculture is a group that has distinctive values and norms that set it apart from the dominant culture. However, the subculture remains consistent with the major values of the dominant culture. An example of a subculture might be Cosplayers, typically young adults who dress up as their favorite fantasy or science ction characters and attend media themed conventions. A counter culture is a movement that stands in opposition to the dominant culture. This culture openly rejects the dominant values and norms and may actively oppose them. Examples of this are the anti-war movement, Civil Rights movement and Equal Rights movement of the 1960s and 1970s. These movements resulted in cultural wars, clashes within society that led to major social changes. Cultural Change As the previous example illustrates, culture can change. In fact, all cultures change with time, though the change is usually slow and may not be the result of a cultural war. One of the strongest contributors to social change is technological advance. Young people today can easily communicate with young people from all over the world. Multiplayer video games encourage international game play. Social media allows for interactions on a variety of levels. This creates Cultural Di usion and Cultural Leveling. Cultural di usion happens when elements of one culture are transmitted to another culture. Cultural leveling refers to the process of cultures becoming more similar to one another as they lose the elements that once made them distinct. The widespread use of technology and the ease of access to other cultural groups is contributing to the development of what might be called a global culture. Sociologist Everett Rogers (1962) developed a model of the di usion of innovations. As consumers gradually adopt a new innovation, the item grows toward a market share of 100 percent, or complete saturation within a society. (Graph courtesy of Tungsten/Wikimedia Commons) Take a look at the line above. What you are seeing are lines showing the relationship between the stage of adoption [MD1] of a new idea or technology in society. What this shows us is that innovations must be widely adopted in order to survive. The innovators are those individuals who are willing to take a chance on a new idea or trend. Early adopters include opinion leaders who might in uence the adoption of an innovation by others- such as hospitals or schools, the early and late majority. Laggards are those who do not have in uence in the society. These people might include the elderly and/or those in a lower socioeconomic status. Below, you have a chart of those who are not “online” according to a 2018 survey of U.S. adults by the Pew Research Center. What does the di usion model tell us about the use of the internet in our society? The internet was adopted by enough people and organizations and those who did not keep up are unique and further disadvantaged as culture is driven by the interests of opinion leaders. Can you think of other innovations that excluded one or multiple groups of people? Can you think of an innovation that failed to di use the way the internet did? The Process of Socialization YOUTUBE Socialization: Crash Course Sociology #14 Socialization: Crash Course Sociology #14 Last week we introduced the idea of socialization and today we're talking a little more about how it works, including an introduction to ve main types of s... VIEW ON YOUTUBE  Culture is passed from generation to generation through the process of socialization. This is the way that you learn and internalize the values and beliefs of your culture. It is the way you become a functioning member of your society. There is much discussion over the role of Nature vs Nurture in behavioral science, though sociology leans heavily on the nurture side of the debate. The nature argument suggests that there is a biological component to most of social behavior. For example, the majority of violent criminals are male. The biological explanation for this is that higher levels of testosterone lead to more aggressive behaviors. Sociologists argue that males get more social rewards for aggressive behavior. This is the nurture side of the argument. It argues that aggressive behavior is learned and part of the way people are nurtured more than it is part of their biology. Most scientists agree that both nature and nurture play a part in behavior. Lesson 3 of 4 The Self Theory De nition Example Psychoanalysis Freud’s theory on the unconscious mind (id, ego, superego) underlies human behavior. Personality is developed through psychosexual stages Guardians instill a conscience (superego) in a child through rules that govern instincts (id) until the child develops the ability to self-govern (ego). Mirror Image? The development of the self, your understanding of who you are as an individual and within the social setting, is dependent upon socialization. Freud identi ed three elements of the personality. The Id is the nature part of the personality. It is the biological drive and instinctive response of the personality. Freud considered the id to be the ‘sel sh’ part of the personality, concerned only with meeting personal desires and needs. The superego is the socialized part of the personality. It is the combination of the conscience and the ego-ideal. It controls the id and encourages socially and morally appropriate behavior. The ego mediates between the sel sh desires and the social controls. Freud was not a sociologist, but his theory is important to the development of social psychological theory, especially that of George Mead. The Looking Glass Self Theory De nition Cooley’s theory of the self is based on our perception of how Looking Glass Self others see us and the sense of self we develop based on those perceptions. Example Parents and signi cant others serve as a re ection to children who develop a sense of self based on their evaluations Like Freud, Charles Cooley argued that the self develops within the social context. His theory of the Looking Glass Self argued that people use others in society as a mirror. You imagine how you look to others and how others judge you. These thoughts are reinforced through the language and gestures that are seen in others. These reactions get interpreted and those interpretations cause feelings that in uence the sense of self. For example, imagine a college classroom that meets at 8:00 a.m. The professor shows up and begins her Monday morning lecture. She notices that half the class is dozing o . She has di culty engaging them in class discussions. According to Cooley’s theory, she can have several interpretations of this behavior but either can in uence her perceptions of herself as a professor. If she sees the tired students and interprets their behavior as boredom, she may believe “I am not a good professor”. If she interprets their behavior as Monday morning recovery from weekend activities and lack of sleep, then she will not make it part of her self-perception. Mind, Self, and Society Theory De nition Example Mind, Self, and Society Mead’s theory states that the self develops over three stages (preparatory, play and game); they take the roles of others until they understand the generalized other and can see themselves as others do. Children gain a sense of self though imitation, play and games where they learn to take on the perspectives of others. George Herbert Mead’s theory of the self is more closely related to Freud’s theory because he places self within the context of stages of development. The Preparatory Stage takes place in very early childhood. Until a child is about three years old, Mead argued that they have little sense of self. They learn social actions through mimicking. Around the age of three, they enter the play stage. This is when they take on the role of a signi cant other in their play. For example, they might pretend to be a mommy, daddy, doctor or dancer. They begin to learn the social expectations for behaviors during this early play. The game stage begins in early childhood, around the time that children begin school. They begin to engage in organized games with established rules. This requires them to take on the perspective of the generalized other. This means that they have to know and understand the rules and the expected behaviors of the group. Dramaturgy Theory De nition Example Dramaturgy Go man’s theory of the presentation of self where we are like actors on a stage whose performance aid in impression management. We alter our performance based on setting, coding our performance to relate a constructed version of ourselves. Erving Go man’s theory, called Dramaturgy, is based on the Thomas Theorem. The Thomas Theorem states that things perceived as real are real in their consequences. Go man examined and explained how interactions are built. He focused on the expressions of behavior and the de nitions of situations. Go man argued that individuals approach interactions as if they are actors on a stage. They have front or frontstage behaviors. Think of this as center stage in a play. It is the setting that establishes the context of the action. They also have a personal front. The personal front is the impression that they want to make on others. Finally, there are backstage behaviors. Think of this as the place that you rehearse your roles. Think of a couple going on their rst date. The front for this date might be a nice restaurant. Each actor has a personal front. This is the impression that they want to make on their date. He might talk about his prowess at sports or his success at his job. Athletic ability and success are qualities that are valued in men. She might order healthy food and eat lightly. She might be careful to laugh at his jokes or pretend that she doesn’t much on a topic that he introduces. Passivity and delicate eating habits are valued in women. Together, they are socially constructing the perfect date night. Lesson 4 of 4 Agents of Socialization Each social institution plays a part in the socialization process and is therefore an Agent of Socialization. However, four institutions play special roles in assuming this responsibility: Family, Schools, Peers and the Media. Family has perhaps the most important role because they are responsible for molding the young child into a responsible member of society. They teach values and beliefs and frame your understanding and acceptance of social norms. They guide your views of gender, politics, success, race, education and religion. Taking exams Schools reinforce, and perhaps correct, what the family has started. Children learn the skills necessary to be part of the labor market but they also learn a hidden curriculum. This hidden curriculum includes being punctual, organized, disciplined, and obedient. It also includes neatness, competition and hard work. Peers reinforce independence and connection to the social group at large. As peers become more important, the family in uence becomes less important. Finally, the media reinforces all of society’s values and norms. It establishes expectations for beauty, success and interactions. For example, pick a show that focuses on a family and you will see acceptable and unacceptable behaviors for families in society. Characters get positive and negative sanctions for their behaviors which send the message to viewers about the acceptability of behaviors in the social order. Young people using smartphones. [Photograph]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica ImageQuest. The Internet and Socialization The role of the internet (social media, smart phones, on demand entertainment) has been debated by sociologists as it plays a role in the socialization of children and adults. Early theories of Alienation and Anomie from Marx and Durkheim, respectively, are concerned with how the industrialization and our relationship to technology lent to an estrangement from our fellow humans. Later, sociologist Georg Simmel wrote about the loss of primary relationships and familial bonds to those goal oriented, secondary groups formed in the workplace. TED Sorry: we can't play video on this browser. Please make sure it's up to date and that Flash 11.1 or higher is installed. Load this talk on ted.com Sherry Turkle: Connected, but alone? As we expect more from technology, do we expect less from each other? Sherry Turkle studies how our devices and online personas are rede ning human connection and communication -- and asks us to think deeply about the new kinds of connection we want to have. VIEW ON TED  The new frontier of research on the continued deterioration of human connection focuses on loneliness. In 2017, the UK appointed the world’s rst “Minister of Loneliness.” In 2021, Japan appointed their own minister of loneliness to combat the social problem, noting a high spike in suicide rates. Some have turned to technology to solve the issue of isolation by creating friends and even romantic partners in the form of arti cial technology. These programs can be trained through use to respond to users’ wants and perhaps social needs. Currently, the divide discussed in research include the screens mediate much of our communication, create new channels for the dissemination of information and allow us to alter and modify the presentation of our self. This begs the question- is this second self we develop online genuine? Is the communication we have online in tweets and texts substantial enough to replace the face to face interaction people require? The internet and media allow for us to observe and learn just as the other agents of socialization. And whether one is a digital native (born into society with access to technology) or digital immigrant (a person born or brought up before a widespread use of digital technology), the reach of media and social media can be challenging to quantify. The impacts of social media are experienced by those who are not using any platform. From our consumption of goods, language, trends and even shapes beliefs about health and politics beliefs, the internet has proved powerful in shaping our culture TED Sorry: we can't play video on this browser. Please make sure it's up to date and that Flash 11.1 or higher is installed. Load this talk on ted.com Tristan Harris: How a handful of tech companies control billions of minds every day A handful of people working at a handful of tech companies steer the thoughts of billions of people every day, says design thinker Tristan Harris. From Facebook noti cations to Snapstreaks to YouTube autoplays, they're all competing for one thing: your attention. VIEW ON TED  Social Status and Social Roles As you move through the socialization process you develop your social status and your social roles. Status refers to your place in a given social hierarchy. It can be ascribed (present at birth like race or sex), or achieved (earned over time like education or occupation). It can be embodied (part of your physical self, such as beauty or a disability). Your status in uences the way others view and interact with you. Your master status is the status that overrides all others. All elements of your status combined are your status set. For example, an individual could have the ascribed statuses of white female and the achieved statuses of doctor and professor. She might have the embodied statuses of needing a wheelchair and being exceptionally beautiful. It is possible, that others will rst classify her as needing the wheelchair or being very beautiful so that the embodied status becomes her master status. The master status can contribute to or be the result of stereotyping, the expectations for behavior that are driven by status and not individual behaviors. You have a role set just as you have a status set. The role set is the expectations for behaviors that accompany your status. For example, you may be a spouse, a parent, an employee and a student. We often have role strain and role con ict when our role set is this complex. How do you manage the expectations of all of your roles? This is known as role con ict. The needs of the roles con ict with one another forcing the individual to choose an action that will fail at least one of the roles. Role strain occurs when there are contradictory expectations within a role. Role exit occurs when we leave a role.  The readings and videos from this module have introduced you to a variety of theoretical approaches to understanding culture and the process of socialization. The following activities will give you the opportunity to apply some of these theoretical approaches and test your knowledge of the basic concepts. KNO W L E DG E C HE C K The American ag is a material object that denotes the United States of America; however, there are certain connotations that many associate with the ag, like bravery and freedom. In this example, what are bravery and freedom? Symbols Language Material Culture Nonmaterial Culture SUBMIT Mary works full-time at an o ce downtown while her young children stay at a neighbor’s house. She’s just learned that the childcare provider is leaving the country. Mary has succumbed to pressure to volunteer at her church, plus her ailing mother-in-law will be moving in with her next month. Which of the following is likely to occur as Mary tries to balance her existing and new responsibilities? Role Con ict Self-ful lling Prophecy Status Con ict Status Strain SUBMIT Socialization, as a sociological term, describes: How people interact during social situations How people learn societal norms, beliefs, and values A person’s internal mental state when in a group setting The di erence between introverts and extroverts SUBMIT
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Agents of Socialization

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Institution
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Agents of Socialization
Q1.
The influential groups that form a person’s values, beliefs, norms, and behaviors are
known as agents of socialization. These associations are vital in helping individuals create their
identity and navigate interacting with society’s expectations throughout life (CrashCourse,
2017a). I believe that during a person’s lifetime, the family is the primary and most potent
socialization agent, greatly influencing that person’s identity, values, and customs. Our
personalities are shaped by our families, which also affect our worldview, emotional and
cognitive growth, and self-esteem. In addition to offering emotional support, they serve as
critical cultural mento...


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