MBA 450 ISU The Moral Leadership Effects in The Real World Questions

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Business Finance

MBA 450

Illinois State University




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You are required to answer one essay question (see questions below). The requirements for the paper are as follows: o The text for the paper should be about 3 pages (no longer than 3.5 pages). o The margins and font for the text of the paper is 12 pts, times new Roman with 1inch margins. The paper should be double spaced only. o Paper must be in essay format. o References should be provided near the end of the paper as necessary. References can be in any acceptable format such as APA, MLA or endnotes. References are additional to the text limitation. o Tables and exhibits (which are additional to the text limitation) should be at the end of the paper. o Answer each part of question. Be concise, focus on main points, avoid or reduce repetition and summarize where appropriate. Essay Questions Choose 1 of 2 1) a. Using the article, “Moral Person and Moral Manager”, compare and contrast the attributes of a moral manager and a moral person? b. Discuss ethical leadership in the workplace. Include the need for ethical leadership, costs of unethical behavior, types of executive ethical leadership reputations, and methods for improving ethical leadership. Include examples from your work experience and information from the assigned articles in your response. 2) How do responsibility centers affect the degree of decentralization? Why would a company decentralize its operations and what are the risks of decentralization? Include any examples from your work experience, the assigned cases or course material. Moral Person and Moral Manager: How EXECUTIVES DEVELOP A REPUTATION FOR ETHICAL LEADERSHIP Linda Klebe Trevino Laura Pincus Hartman Michael Brown P lato asked, which extreme would you rather be: "an unethical person with a good reputation or an ethical person with a reputation for injustice?" Plato might have added, "or would you rather be perceived as ethically neutral—someone who has no ethical reputation at all?" Plato knew that reputation was important. We now understand that reputation and others' perceptions of you are key to executive ethical leadership. Those others include employees at all levels as well as key external stakeholders. A reputation for ethical leadership rests upon two essential pillars: perceptions of you as both a moral person and a moral manager. The executive as a moral person is characterized in terms of individual traits such as honesty and integrity. As moral manager, the CEO is thought of as the Chief Ethics Officer of the organization, creating a strong ethics message that gets employees' attention and influences their thoughts and behaviors. Both are necessary. To be perceived as an ethical leader, it is not enough to just be an ethical person. An executive ethical leader must also find ways to focus the organization's attention on ethics and values and to infuse the organization with principles that will guide the actions of all employees. An executive's reputation for ethical leadership may be more important now than ever in this new organizational era where more employees are working independently, off site, and without direct supervision. In these organizations, values are the glue that can hold things together, and values must be conveyed from the top of the organization. Also, a single employee who operates outside of the organizational value system can cost This article is based upon the findings of a study initiated by and supported by the Ethics Resource Center Fellows Program. 128 CAUFORNIA MANAGEMENT REVIEW VOL 42, NO. 4 SUMMER 2000 Moral Person and Moral Manager: H o w Executives Develop a Reputation for Ethical Leadership the organization dearly in legal fees and can have a tremendous, sometimes irreversible impact on the organization's image and culture. Moral Person + Moral Manager = A Reputation for Ethical Leadership These ideas about a dual pillar approach to ethical leadership are not brand new. As the opening quotation suggests, the emphasis on reputation goes back to Plato. Chester Barnard addressed the ethical dimension of executive leadership sixty years ago. Barnard spoke about executive responsibility in terms of conforming to a "complex code of morals"' (moral person) as well as creating moral codes for others (moral manager). If Plato and Barnard had this right, why bother revisiting the subject of ethical leadership now? We revisit the subject because, in our 40 structured interviews (20 with senior executives and 20 with corporate ethics officers), we found that many senior executives failed to recognize the importance of others' perceptions and of developing a reputation for ethical leadership. To them, being an ethical person and making good ethical decisions was enough. They spoke proudly about having principles, following the golden rule, taking into account the needs of society, and being fair and caring in their decisions. They assumed that if they were solid ethical beings, followers would automatically know that. They rejected the idea that successful ethical executives are often perceived as ethically neutral. Furthermore, they assumed that good leaders are by definition ethical leaders. One senior executive noted, "I don't think you can distinguish between ethical leadership and leadership. It's just a facet of leadership. The great leaders are ethical, and the lousy ones are not." However, a reputation for ethical leadership can not be taken for granted because most employees in large organizations do not interact with senior executives. They know them only from a distance. Any information they receive about executives gets filtered through multiple layers in the organization, with employees learning only about bare-bones decisions and outcomes, not the personal characteristics of the people behind them. In today's highly competitive' business environment, messages about how financial goals are achieved frequently get lost in the intense focus on the bottom line. We found that just because executives know themselves as good people—honest, caring, and fair— they should not assume that others see them in the same way. It is so easy to forget that employees do not know you the way you know yourself. If employees do not think of an executive as a clearly ethical or unethical leader, they are likely to think of the leader as being somewhere in between—amoral or ethically neutral. Interestingly, perceptions of ethically neutral leadership do not necessarily arise because the leader fs ethically neutral. In fact, many of the senior executives we spoke with convinced us that it was impossible for them to be ethically CALIFORNIA MANAGEMENT REVIEW VOL 42, NO. 4 SUMMER 2000 129 Moral Person and Moral Manager: H o w Executives Develop a Reputation for Ethical Leadership neutraf in their jobs, given the many value-laden decisions they make every day. Rather, the perception of ethically neutral leadership may exist because the leader has not faced major public ethical challenges that would provide the opportunity to convey his or her values to others. As one executive noted, "They haven't had to make any decisions on the margin . . . once you're faced with [a major public ethical dilemma], you bare your soul and you're one or the other [ethical or unethical]." On the other hand, a reputation for ethically neutral leadership may exist because the leader has not proactively made ethics and values an explicit and evident part of the leadership agenda. Executives must recognize that if they do not develop a reputation for ethical leadership, they will likely be tagged as "ethically neutral." As a result, employees will believe that the bottom line is the only value that should guide their decisions and that the CEO cares more about himself and the short-term financials than about the long-term interests of the organization and its multiple stakeholders. Figure 1 provides a summary of our study's findings. Pillar One: Moral Person Being an ethical person is the substantive basis of ethical leadership. However, in order to develop a reputation for ethical leadership, the leader's challenge is conveying that substance to others. Being viewed as an ethical person means that people think of you as having certain traits, engaging in certain kinds of behaviors, and makitig decisions based upon ethical principles. Furthermore, this substantive ethical core must be autfientic. As one executive put it, "If the person truly doesn't believe the ethical story and preaches it but doesn't feel i t . . . that's going to show through. . . . But, [a true ethical leader] walks in [and] it doesn't take very long if you haven't met him before [you think] there's a [person] with integrity and candor and honesty." Traits Traits are stable personal characteristics, meaning that individuals behave in fairfy predictable ways across time and situations and observers come to describe the individuaf in those terms. Tlie traits that executives most often associate with ethical leadership are honesty, trustworthiness, and integrity. A very broad personal characteristic, integrity was the trait cited most frequently by the executives. Integrity is a holistic attribute that encompasses the other traits of honesty and trustworthiness. One executive said that the average employee would say that the ethical leader is "squeaky clean." They woufd think "I know that if I bring an issue to him or her that I can count on their honesty and integrity on this because I've seen their standards and that one, integrity, is one that's very important to them." Trustworthiness is also important to executives. Trust has to do with consistency, credibility, and predictability in relationships. "You can't build a long-term relationship with a customer if they don't trust you." Finally, honesty, sincerity. 130 CALIFORNIA MANAGEMENT REVIEW V O L 42, NO. 4 SUMMER 2000 Moral Person and Moral Manager: How Executives Develop a Reputation for Ethical Leadership ^BffljJr F I G U R E I . TheTwo Pillars of Ethical Leadership 1 Moral Person Moral Manager Traits Role Modeling Through Visible Action • Integrity • Honesty • Trustworthiness Behaviors • Do the Right Thing Rewards and Discipline • Concern for People • Being Open • Personal Moralrty Decision-Making • Hold to Values • Objective/Fair Communicating About Ethics and Values • Concern for Society • Follow Ethical Decision Rules E 1 and forthrightness are also important. "An ethical leader . . . tends to be rather candid, certain, [and is] very careful to he factual and accurate. . . . An ethical leader does not sugarcoat things . . . he tells it like it is." Behaviors "Your actions speak so loudly, I can't hear what you're saying." That is the sentiment expressed hy one' executive. Although traits are clearly important to ethical leadership, hehaviors are perhaps more so, and these include: "The way you act even when people aren't looking." "People are going to judge you not hy what you say hut hy what you do." "People look at you and understand over time who you are personally as a result of their ohservations." Important hehaviors include "doing the right thing," showing concern for people and treating CALIFORNIA MANAGEMENT REVIEW VOL 42, NO, 4 SUMMER 2000 131 Moral Person and Moral Manager: How Executives Develop a Reputation for Ethical Leadership people right, heing open and communicative, and demonstrating morality in one's personal life. First and foremost, executives said that ethical leaders do the right thing. One retired CEO talked ahout the founder of his firm, a man who "was known for his strong helief that there is only one way to do husiness and that's the right way." Second, executive ethical leaders show concern for people through their actions. They treat people well—with dignity and respect. "I think [the ethical leader] treats everyhody with dignity—meaning everyhody—whether they're at the lowest level or higher levels . . . everyone gets treated with dignity and respect. I've also found that if you treat people with dignity and respect and trust, they almost invariahly will respond in that fashion. It's like raising children. If you really don't trust them, they don't have much to lose hy trying to get away with something. If they feel you trust them, they are going to think long and hard hefore they do something that will violate that trust." Several of the executives used the military example. "In the military, the troops eat hefore the officers.. . . Leaders take care of their troops. . . . A leader is selfless, a leader shares credit, a leader sees that contrihutors are rewarded." Being open means that the executive is approachahle and a good listener. Employees feel comfortahle sharing had news with the ethical leader. One executive said, "An ethical leader would need to he approachahle so that. . . people would feel comfortahle raising the tough issues . . . and know that they would he listened to." Another put it this way: "In general, the hetter leaders that I've met and know are more than willing to share their experiences of rights and wrongs, successes and failures." These leaders do not kill the messenger who hrings had news. They encourage openness and treat had news as a prohlem to he addressed rather than punished. Finally, personal morality is associated with ethical leadership. We asked explicitly ahout personal morality hecause our interviews with executives took place during the Monica Lewinsky scandal in the Clinton Presidency and the topic was prominent in everyone's mind. When we asked whether personal morality was linked to ethical leadership, most executives answered yes. "You can not he an ethical leader if your personal morality is in question. . . . To he a leader . . . what you do privately reflects on that organization. Secondly, to he a leader you have a greater standard, a greater responsihility than the average person would have to live up to." Decision Making In their decision-making role, executive ethical leaders are thought to hold to a solid set of ethical values and principles. They aim to he objective and fair. They also have a perspective that goes heyond the hottom line to include concerns about the broader society and community. In addition, executives said that ethical leaders rely upon a numher of ethical decision rules such as the golden rule and 132 CALIFORNIA MANAGEMENT REVIEW VOL 42, NO, 4 SUMMER 2000 Moral Person and Moral Manager: How Executives Develop a Reputation for Ethical Leadership the "New York Times Test." The "New York Times Test" says that, when making a decision, ethical leaders should ask themselves whether they would like to see the action they are contemplating on tomorrow morning's front page. This question reflects the ethical leader's sensitivity to community standards. To summarize, the "moral person" pillar of ethical leadership represents the suhstance of ethical leadership and it is an important prerequisite to developing a reputation for ethical leadership hecause leaders hecome associated with their traits, hehaviors, and decisions as long as others know ahout them. With the moral person pillar in place, you should have a reputation for heing an ethical person. You can think of this as the ethical part of the term "ethical leadership." Having a reputation for heing a moral person tells employees what you are likely to do—a good start, hut it does not necessarily tell them what they should do. That requires moral managing—taking the ethics message to the rest of the organization. Many of the executives we interviewed thought that heing an ethical person who does the right thing, treats people well, and makes good decisions was necessary and sufficient for heing an ethical leader. This is not surprising hecause executives know other executives personally. They have served under them, worked with them, and ohserved their hehavior at close hand. Therefore, in their minds, an executive's ethical traits, hehaviors, and decisions are automatically associated with a reputation for ethical leadership. However, some of the executives and even more of the ethics officers noted that heing an ethical person was not enough. To develop a reputation for ethical leadership with employees, leaders must make ethics and values a salient aspect of their leadership agenda so that the message reaches more distant employees. To do this, they must he moral managers as well as moral persons. As one executive expressed it: "Simply put, ethical leadership means doing the right thing, and it means comimunicating so that everyone understands that [the right thing] is going to happen at all t i m e s . . . I think that most of the people I've heen in husiness with adhere to the first hut do less well with the second. And, in my experience, it is something that has to he reinforced constantly . . . the second part is the hardest." Pillar Two: Moral Manager In order to develop a reputation for ethical leadership, a heavy focus on the leadership part of that term is required. The executive's challenge is to make ethics and values stand out from a husiness landscape that is laden with messages ahout heating the competition and achieving quarterly goals and profits. Moral managers recognize the importance of proactively putting ethics at the forefront of their leadership agenda. Like parents who should explicitly share their values with their children, executives need to make the ethical dimension of their leadership explicit and salient to their employees. Executives who fail to do this risk heing perceived as ethically neutral hecause other more pervasive messages ahout financial success take over. One CEO put it this way: "We do CALIFORNIA MANAGEMENT REVIEW V O L 42, NO, 4 SUMMER 2000 133 o *^ Moral Person and Moral Manager: How Executives Develop a Reputation for Ethical Leadership some good things [turn down unethical husiness opportunities, develop people, champion diversity], hut compare the numher of times that we recognize those [ethical] achievements versus how much we recognize financial achievements— it's not close. I mean, I cringe . . . saying that.. . I'm not saying we don't work at these other things, hut. . . the recognition is still very much on financial performance and . . . it's true in almost all organizations . . . And that's what's wrong. That's what's out of kilter." Our study identified a numher of ways moral managers can increase the salience of an ethics and values agenda and develop a reputation for ethical leadership. They serve as a role model for ethical conduct in a way that is visihle to employees. They communicate regularly and persuasively with employees ahout ethical standards, principles, and values. Finally, they use the reward system consistently to hold all employees accountahle to ethical standards. Role Modeling through Visible Action Role modeling may seem similar to the "doing the right thing" category ahove. However, role modeling emphasizes visible action and the perceptual and reputational aspects of ethical leadership. Some ethical hehaviors will go completely unnoticed while others will he noticed and will contrihute to a reputation for ethical leadership. Effective moral managers recognize that they live in a fishhowl of sorts and employees are watching them for cues ahout what's important. "You are demonstrating hy your example on and off the joh, in other words, 24 hours a day, seven days a week, you're a model for what you helieve in and the values." In addition, "if you're unethical. . . people pick up on that and assume hecause you're the leader that it's the correct thing to do . . . that not only are you condoning it, hut you're actually setting the example for it." The effective moral manager understands which words and actions are noticed and how they will he interpreted hy others. In some cases, visihle executive action (without any words at all) is enough to send a powerful message. One executive offered the following as an example of the power of executive action. "Some years ago, I was running one of our plants. I had just taken over and they were having some financial trouhles. . . . Most of our management was flying first class. . . . I did not want. . . my first act to he to tell everyhody that they are not gonna fly first class anymore, so I just quit fiying first class. And it wasn't long hefore people noticed it and pretty soon everyhody was flying coach. . . . I never put out a directive, never said a word to anyhody . . . and people noticed it. They got the message. . . . People look to the leader. If the leader cuts corners, they say its okay to cut corners around here. If the leader doesn't cut corners, we must he expected not to do any of that around here." Negative signals can also he sent hy visihle executive action and moral managers must he particularly sensitive to these. For example, what kind of signal does it send when your organization's ethics policy prohihits employees from accepting any kind of gift from a prospective client and then employees see a group of senior executives sitting in a client's hox enjoying a professional 134 CALIFORNIA MANAGEMENT REVIEW VOL 42, NO. 4 SUMMER 2000 Moral Person and Moral Manager: Hov^^ Executives Develop a Reputation for Ethical Leadership foothall or haskethall game? Unless the CEO is wearing a large sign that says "we paid for these tickets," the message is clear. Ethics policies do not apply equally to everyone. It hecomes much easier for an employee to rationalize receiving gifts. According to one interviewee, many executives "wouldn't think twice ahout it hecause you don't intend to do anything wrong." However, employees are generally not aware of your intent. They see the actions and make inferences hased upon them. Communicating about Ethics and Values Many executives are uncomfortahle talking ahout ethics and wonder ahout those who do. In our interviews, some executives expressed concern ahout the leader who talks ahout ethics too much. "I distrust people who talk ahout it all the time. I think the way you do it [ethical leadership] is to demonstrate it in action . . . the more a person sermonizes ahout it, the more worried I am . . . sometimes you have to talk ahout it, hut mostly you don't talk ahout it, you just do things." However, moral managers need to talk ahout ethics and values, not in a sermonizing way, hut in a way that explains the values that guide important decisions and actions. If people do not hear ahout ethics and values from the top, it is not clear to employees that ethics and values are important. You may not feel comfortahle talking ahout ethics if it means discussing the intricacies of Aristotle or Kant. However, talking ahout ethics with your employees does not mean that at all. It means talking ahout the values that are important to you and the organization. It is a hit like teaching children ahout sex. Parents can choose to avoid the uncomfortahle suhject, hoping that their children will learn what they need to know in school; or, they can hring an expert home who knows more than they do ahout the physiology of the human reproductive system. However, what parents really want their children to know ahout and adopt is a set of values the family helieves in such as love, respect, and responsihility. To he most effective, that message must come from parents, in words and in actions. Similarly, the message ahout the values guiding decisions and actions in husiness should come from senior leaders. The Reward System Using rewards and discipline effectively may he the most powerful way to send signals ahout desirahle and undesirahle conduct. That means rewarding those who accomplish their goals hy hehaving in ways that are consistent with stated values. "The most senior executive should reward the junior executive, the manager, the line people who make these [ethical] decisions . . . reinforcement is very important." It also means clearly disciplining employees at all levels when they hreak the rules. A financial industry executive provided the following two examples. "If there's a situation within the corporation of sexual harassment where [the facts are] proven and management is very quick to deal with the wrongdoer . . . that's leadership. To let the rumor mill take over, to allow someone to quietly CALIFORNIA MANAGEMENT REVIEW VOL 42. NO. 4 SUMMER 2000 135 Moral Person and Moral Manager: How Executives Develop a Reputation for Ethical Leadership go away, to resign, is not ethical leadership. It is more difficult, hut you send the message out to the organization hy very visihle, fair, halanced hehavior. That's what you have to do." "If someone has taken money, and they happen to he a 2 5-year employee who has taken two hundred dollars over the weekend and put it hack on Monday, you have to . . . fire that person. [You have to make] sure everyhody understands that Joe took two hundred dollars on Friday and got [fired] . . . [they must also] he assured that I did have a fact hase, and that I did act responsihiy and I do care ahout 25-year people." Another financial industry executive talked ahout how he was socialized early in his career. "When I was signed . . . to train under a tough, hut fair partner of the firm . . . he [said] there are things expected from you . . . hut if you ever make a transaction in a client's account that you can't justify to me was in the hest interest of the customer, you're out. Well that kind of gets your attention." An airline executive said, "we talk ahout honesty and integrity as a core value; we communicate that. But then we hack it up . . . someone can make a mistake. They can run into the side of an airplane with a haggage cart and put a hig dent in i t . . . and we put our arm around them and retrain them. . . . If that same person were to lie to us, they don't get a second chance . . . When it comes to honesty, there is no second chance." The moral manager consistently rewards ethical conduct and disciplines unethical conduct at all levels in the organization, and these actions serve to uphold the standards and rules. The ahove reward system examples represent clear signals that will he noticed and that demonstrate clearly how employees are held accountahle and how the leader hacks up words with actions. In summary, to develop a reputation for ethical leadership, one must he strong on hoth dimensions: moral person and moral manager. The ethical leader has a reputation for heing hoth a suhstantively ethical person and a leader who makes ethics and values a prominent part of the leadership agenda. What Does Ethical Leadership Accomplish? The executives we talked with said that ethical leadership was good for husiness, particularly in the long term, and avoids legal prohlems. "It prohahly determines the amount of money you're spending in lawsuits and with corporate attorneys. . . you save a lot of money in regulatory fees and lawyer fees and settlement fees." They also said that ethical leadership contrihutes to employee commitment, satisfaaion, comfort, and even fun. "People enjoy working for an ethical organization" and it helps the organization attract and retain the hest employees. "If the leadership of the company reflects [ethical] values . . . people will want to work for that company and will want to do well." Finally, employees in an organization led hy an executive ethical leader will imitate the hehavior of their leader and therefore the employees will he more ethical themselves. 136 CALIFORNIA MANAGEMENT REVIEW VOL 42, NO. 4 SUMMER 2000 Moral Person and Moral Manager: H o w Executives Develop a Reputation for Ethical Leadership F I G U R E 2 . Executive Reputation and Ethical Leadership Strong Ethical Leader Hypocritical Leader Moral Manager Weak Unethical Leader ? -^— | Ethically Neutral Leader — • Weak ? Strong Moral Person Next, we combine the two pillars of ethical leadership into a two by two matrix that can help us think about the kinds of reputation an executive can develop (see Figure 2). As noted, the combination of strong moral person and strong moral manager produces a reputation for ethical leadership. However, what happens if the leader falters in one of these areas? The matrix suggests the following possibilities: one may develop a reputation as an unethical leader, a hypocritical leader, or an ethically neutral leader. The Unethical Leader A leader who is perceived to be weak on both dimensions will develop a reputation for unethical leadership. A number of executives we spoke with named Al Dunlap as a prime example of someone with a reputation for unethical executive leadership. Business Week recently published excerpts from John Byrne's book about Dunlap entitled Mean Business.^ The article describes Dunlap as the "no-nonsense executive famous for turning around struggling companies—and sending their shares soaring in the process." However, Dunlap was also known for tirades against employees "which could reach the point of emotional abuse." "He was condescending, belligerent and disrespectful." "At his worst, he became viciously profane, even violent. Executives said he would throw papers or furniture, bang his hands on his desk, and shout so ferociously that a manager's hair would be blown back by the stream of air that rushed from Dunlap's mouth." He used the promise of huge rewards to get "employees to do things they might not otherwise do." In order to make the numbers that Dunlap demanded, creative accounting techniques were employed and "dubious techniques were used to boost sales." He also lied to Wall Street analysts. "Despite the chaos inside the company. Sunbeam's chief kept up a steady drumbeat of optimistic sales and earnings forecasts, promises of tantalizing new products, and assurances that the Dunlap magic was working." In the end, the lies could CALIFORNIA MANAGEMENT REVIEW VOL 42, NO. 4 SUMMER 2000 137 Moral Person and Moral Manager: How Executives Develop a Reputation for Ethical Leadership no longer cover up what was really going on. Wall Street abandoned the company and the board of directors fired Dunlap. Sunbeam was left crippled and the company continues to struggle today. On the moral person dimension, Dunlap was found to be dishonest, he treated people horribly and made decisions based upon the financial bottom line only, disregarding the interests of multiple stakeholders in the process. On the moral manager dimension, his own behavior, communications, and the reward system were used to send a single consistent message. The bottom line was the only thing that mattered. The Hypocritical Leader A leader who is not perceived to be a strong ethical person but who attempts to put ethics and values at the forefront of the leadership agenda is likely to be perceived as a hypocritical leader who "talks the ethics talk" but does not "walk the ethics walk." In such cases, people tend to see the talk only as window dressing. They watch for actions to match the words and if there is a mismatch, the words are dismissed. As suggested above, some executives expressed concern about the leader who talks about ethics too much. In terms of the leader's reputation for ethical leadership, communicating about ethics and values, without the actions to match, is probably worse than doing nothing at all because talk without action places a spotlight on the issue that would not otherwise be there. As a result, employees become cynical and distrust everything the leader says. They also figure that they too can ignore ethical standards if they perceive that the leader does so. The Ethically Neutral Leader This category generated a lot of comment. Half of the executives rejected it out of hand. The other half recognized its existence and almost all of the twenty corporate ethics officers we talked with readily acknowledged it. On the moral person dimension, it is most appropriate to say that this person is perceived to be not clearly unethical, but also not strongly ethical. Consider what people say about ethically neutral leaders. In terms of traits, the ethically neutral leader is seen as more self-centered than other-centered. In terms of behaviors, ethically neutral leaders are less open to input from others and they care less about people. They are less compassionate. In terms of decision making, ethically neutral executive leaders are thought to have a narrower yiew than do ethical leaders. They focus on financial ends more than the means that are of interest to ethical leaders. They also are more likely to base decisions upon the short-term bottom line and they are less concerned with leaving the organization or the world a better place for the future. Interestingly, much of the emphasis seems to be on what the ethically neutral leader is not (not open to input, not caring, not focused on means, not concerned with leaving a legacy). This is important because it means that to perceive ethical leadership, followers need evidence of positive ethical traits, behaviors, and decision processes. Lack of 138 CALIFORNIA MANAGEMENT REVIEW VOL 42, NO. 4 SUMMER 2000 Moral Person and Moral Manager: H o w Executives Develop a Reputation for Ethical Leadership awareness of these positive characteristics leads to the perception that the leader is ethically neutral. Clearly, employees must be aware of these positive attributes in order for them to infer the existence of ethical leadership. When asked to talk about ethically neutral leaders, people said virtually nothing about moral managing (role modeling, communicating, the reward system). Given that employees make sense of the messages they do get, the ethically neutral leader's focus on the short-term bottom line gets employees' attention by default. If that is what the leader is focusing on, it must be the only thing that is important. One executive said, "Ethics hasn't been on the scorecard for what's important here . . . It's kind of like quality. Quality is something that we slipped away from and someone had to say, 'It's important.' Maybe the same is true of ethics... we need a Deming . . . to remind us of how important it is." Perhaps the most important outcome of ethically neutral leadership is that employees then think that ethics is not particularly important to the leader, "So they're left deciding on their own what's important in a particular situation." This means that they are acting without clear guidance about the ethics and values of the organization. The leader has not demonstrated it, has not thought through it, has not given an example of it, has not talked about it, and has not discussed it in an open forum. Cultivating a Reputation for Ethical Leadership Given the importance of ethical leadership, we offer the following practical steps executives can take to cultivate a reputation for ethical leadership. Share Your Values: Who You Are as an Ethical Person "Ethical leadership is not easy . . . the temptations and the rewards for unethical behavior are great. So, ethical leadership requires a discipline, a mental and personal discipline that is not easy to come by." Some senior executives arrive in their leadership positions with all of the necessary cognitive and emotional tools to be an active ethical leader. Part of the reason many of them ascend to senior leadership positions is because they have a reputation for integrity, for treating people well and for doing the right thing. They have likely had a lifetime of personal and work-related mentors and experiences that have molded and reinforced their values. By the time they reach the executive level, these values are so solid, that when challenged, the leader holds to them without question. On the other hand, senior executive positions have a way of challenging your values in ways you may not have been challenged before. If you think that this aspect of your leadership needs work, devote energy to developing this side of yourself. Read books. Attend workshops and seminars with other senior executives who share your concerns. Work with a personal coach. Talk with your spiritual advisor about how your values can be applied in yojir work. CALIFORNIA MANAGEMENT REVIEW VOL 42, NO. 4 SUMMER 2000 139 Moral Person and Moral Manager: H o w Executives Develop a Reputation for Ethical Leadership It then becomes particularly important to share this side of yourself. Find out what employees know about you and how they think of you in ethical leadership terms. You may be a strong ethical person, but your employees may have no way of knowing that. Most people do not have an accurate view of how others see them, especially when it comes to ethics. Surveys consistently find that most people think of themselves as above average and more ethical than their peers. However, the only way to honestly assess where you stand in terms of others' perceptions is to ask for candid input. A leader should "always have someone who can tell the emperor that he has no clothes." So, ask those closest to you. You can also survey your employees to find out how much they know about you as an ethical leader. Be open to what you learn and do not be surprised if employees say they simply do not know. For example, if you have not been outspoken on ethics and values issues, or you have not managed a highly public crisis that provided an opportunity for employees to learn about your values, you may be surprised to learn that employees do not know much about this aspect of your leadership. They may even see you as "neutral" on the ethics dimension. Talk to your communications people and your ethics officer, if you have one, about how you might successfully convey your values to employees on a regular basis. Figure out a way to open the lines of two-way communication on ethics and values issues. Ask employees to share the ethical dilemmas they face and to let you know what kind of guidance they would like from you. Assume the Role of Moral ManagerChief Ethics Officer of Your Organization "Ethical leadership means that the person, the leader, who is exercising that leadership is well-grounded in a set of values and beliefs that we would view as being ethical. However, in a leadership sense . . . it means that the leader sets an example because ethical leadership doesn't just mean that leader, it means the entire organization. If there isn't an observed ethical leadership at the top, you won't find it in the organization." As noted, moral management requires overt action on the part of the executive to serve as a role model for ethical behavior in highly visible ways, to communicate about ethics and values, and to use the reward system to hold people accountable. James Burke, former CEO of Johnson & Johnson provides an excellent example of highly visible action that gets everyone's attention. Soon after Burke assumed the presidency of Johnson & Johnson, he brought together 28 senior managers to challenge the age-old corporate credo. He asked them to talk about whether they could really live by the document that had been hanging on corporate walls for years. "If we can't live by this document then it's an act of pretension and we ought to tear it off the walls, get rid of it. If we can live with it but want to change it that's okay too, if we can agree on what the changes should be. And, we could also leave it the way it is." According to Burke, people "stayed up all night screaming at each other." When they were done, they had updated the credo. They then took it to J&J sites around the 140 CALIFORNIA MANAGEMENT REVIEW VOL 42, NO. 4 SUMMER 2000 Moral Person and Moral Manager: H o w Executives Develop a Reputation for Ethical Leadership world, released a revised credo in 1979, and committed the organization to it. Less than three years later, the Tylenol poisoning occurred and lots of folks were waiting to see whether management would live up to the credo values. As every student of business ethics and corporate crisis management knows, they did, and the case is now held up as a premier example of good business ethics. Burke does not take credit for J&J's success in handling the corporate crisis. He attributes the success to the value system that had been articulated. However, clearly he was responsible for guiding the organization through the values articulation process and for making the credo prominent in the corporate culture and consciousness. As another executive put it, "all the written statements in the world won't achieve ethics in an organization unless the leader is perceived as being very serious and committed." Following the Tylenol crisis, in 1985 Burke launched the credo survey process. All employees were surveyed regarding the company's performance with respect to the credo. Based upon the results, managers held feedback and problem-solving sessions with their employees and developed action plans to address problems. The survey process continues today on a biannual schedule under Burke's successor, Ralph Larsen, and remains a valuable way to keep attention focused on the credo and the values it represents. To better integrate the Credo into the reward system, Larsen instigated a "standards of leadership" program which holds leaders at all levels accountable to the credo values. "At the important succession planning meetings, when upward mobility in the company is discussed, 'Credo Values' is first on the agenda. 'Business Results' is next in line. The following behaviors associated with Credo values are noted: 'Behaving with honesty and integrity. Treating others with dignity and respect. Applying Credo values. Using Credo survey results to improve business. Balancing the interests of all constituents. Managing for the long term.'"' Finally, violations of Credo policy are handled swiftly and clearly. In one incident that involved infiltration of a competitor's sales meeting. President Larsen wrote the following to his management, "Our behavior should deeply embarrass everyone associated with Johnson & Johnson. Our investigation revealed that certain employees had engaged in improper activities that violated our policies. These actions were wrong and we took steps, immediately, to discipline those involved and guard against a recurrence of this kind of activity."" Conclusion Being an ethical leader requires developing a reputation for ethical leadership. Developing a reputation for ethical leadership depends upon how others perceive the leader on two dimensions: as a moral person and as a moral manager. Being a moral person encompasses who you are, what you do, and what you decide as well as making sure that others know about this dimension of you as a person. Being a moral manager involves being a role model for ethical CALIFORNIA MANAGEMENT REVIEW VOL 42, NO. 4 SUMMER 2000 141 Moral Person and Moral Manager: Hov\^ Executives Develop a Reputation for Ethical Leadership conduct, communicating regularly about ethics and values, and using the reward system to hold everyone accountable to the values and standards. Ethical leadership pays dividends in employee pride, commitment, and loyalty—all particularly important in a full employment economy in which good companies strive to find and keep the best people. Notes 1. C. Barnard, Functions of the Executive (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1938andl968), p. 279. 2. J.A. Byrne, "Chainsaw," Business Week, October 18, 1999, pp. 128-149. 3. L. Foster, Robert Wood Johnson (State College, PA: Lillian Press, 1999), pp. 645-646. 4. Ibid., p. 646. 142 CALIFORNIA MANAGEMENT REVIEW VOL 42, NO. 4 SUMMER 2000
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Moral Person vs. Moral Manager (Q1A):

Discusses the distinctions between a person with morals and a moral manager in the
context of ethical leadership.

A moral person embodies qualities like justice, honesty, integrity, reliability, and
appreciation for others, making decisions based on personal moral standards.

In contrast, a moral manager, in a professional role, focuses on influencing the
organizational environment by communicating, modeling, rewarding, and disciplining
ethical behavior.

Both share characteristics like fairness, honesty, and integrity, but differ in application
and scope.

Importance of Moral Management (Q1B):

Moral management is crucial for preventing unethical behavior, maintaining financial
health, preserving reputation, and fostering a positive work environment.

Potential repercussions of unethical behavior include legal expenses, damaged
reputation, loss of customers, and low employee morale.

Four categories of corporate ethical leadership credibility are outlined: Ethical Leader,
Hypocritical Leader, Unethical Leader, and Morally Neutral Leader.

Strong ethical leadership reduces the likelihood of unethical behavior and contributes to
a positive work environment, while a lack of moral authority can lead to negative

Executive Responsibility for Ethical Leadership:

Executives must prioritize ethical behavior and engage in managerial practices that build
a moral work environment.

Strategies include holding employees accountable, adopting a code of ethics, providing
ethics training, and reinforcing values of integrity.

Executives play a key role in developing and upholding a positive organizational culture,
fostering a sense of connection among stakeholders and staff members.


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The piece titled "Moral Person & Moral Manager" discusses th...

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