The Middle Ages

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In approx. 200 - 250 words address the following: What was humanism, and what effect did it have on philosophy, education, and attitudes toward politics?

In approx. 200 - 250 words address the following: What were Martin Luther's main disagreements with the Roman Catholic Church, and what political, economic, and social conditions helped help explain why the movement he began spread so quickly across Europe?

In approx. 200 - 250 words address the following: What measures did the Roman Catholic Church take to reform itself and to combat Protestantism in the sixteenth century?

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The Middle Ages
Humanism is a concept that can be traced to Petrarch, who is regarded as the founder of
Italian Renaissance Humanism. He championed for the fallacy that Middle Ages were a period
of darkness, cluelessness about classical antiquity, and encouraged the pursuit of classic
manuscripts. Humanism, by definition, was an intellectual and literary movement. It was
characterized by reverence of man and the reintroduction of classical antiquities. Humanist’s
portrayal of the Middle Ages was that of dark barbaric times that were sandwiched between
Greek and Roman classical times and their age with the reemergence of classics (Spielvogel
253). Humanism deemphasized the role that God played in history and instead took the
perspective of objectivity and pragmatism when examining the occurrence of historical events as
opposed to looking at them from a historical pers...

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