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SYG 2000 Introduction to Sociology

Harvard University



  • Explain how you expect this course will help you move forward in your current or future career.
  • Describe and discuss the apparent differences between government and business budget making.
    • Are there any similarities in their profit motives?
    • Provide at least two examples to support your perspective

    • week 2
      Evaluate the relationship between Congress and the President in regards to the budget and discuss two reasons why the presidential duties may conflict with the role of Congress. Justify your response with examples

    • The public budget evolved over time. The Federal Budget, and how it gets made, is a complex, lengthy process that has important implications for Federal, State, and Local agencies. Obviously, funding for each agency is going to affect that agency's budget. Likewise, federal funding for social programs, education, and other programs, such as disaster relief, affects how state and local agencies fund those programs within their own budgets. Choose one federal agency or department from the A-Z Index of U.S. Government Departments and Agencies. Links to an external site.
      Compare the federal budget with the budget of your selected department and note how they are interconnected.In a 3–4 page paper (not including the cover and reference page), address the following:
      1. Prepare a concise history of the public budget. Title this section Public Budget. (Note: This section should not include your selected federal agency or department.)
      2. Examine the federal budget submission process. Title this section Submission Process.
      3. Determine if the budget of your selected department or agency supports the mission of the agency or department. Title this section Mission.
      4. Determine how the budget has affected the policy of the department or agency. Title this section Policy.
      5. Evaluate how the budget of the agency or department has changed over the last five to ten years. Title this section Budget Changes.
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    Explanation & Answer



    Exploring the Connections between Federal and Agency Budgets
    Institution Affiliation


    The budget of the United States, a colossal document that shows how our country will
    spend the money, can have significant effects not just for essential things on a national level but
    also on different groups given the responsibility to do those important tasks. Money given to
    each department affects state and city governments, social programs, and the lives of ordinary
    people overall. This paper examines the complex connection between federal budgets and
    agency goals, focusing on the Department of Education (DoE) as an example study. We will
    look at the past to see how public money plans have changed. We'll study a complicated process
    for getting federal budget approval and how changes in these can affect what DoE does and its
    rules on things like education standards.
    Public Budget
    Keeping track of money coming in and going out started long ago in ancient Egypt. It got
    more popular as countries grew more extensive over time. In the United States, a law from 1921
    (The Budget and Accounting Act) set up budget rules. It made an office called The Bureau of the
    Budget (later changed to the Office of Management and Budget). This required U.S. presidents
    to give their yearly plans every time they were overseen by this body (Moe, Over many years,
    the budget turned into a political fight. It showed what was necessary for all or part of our
    country and their beliefs about winning elections. Lyndon B. Johnson's "Great Society" programs
    made social spending bigger, while Ronald Reagan cared about saving money, which led to
    cutting budgets (Kettl, 2020). Nowadays, budgeting isn't easy as it still brings arguments over
    taxation, help for people in need, and keeping the country safe.
    Submission Process


    The journey of the federal budget starts in departments like the Department of
    Energy. Each group makes its budget request carefully, explaining spending that matches its
    mission and describing the expected money sources. The Office of Management and Budget
    (OMB) looks at these request checks to see if they match the President's overall money plan. The
    President sends the joint budget proposal to Congress, which begins the budget process
    (Gronowicz, 2022). Special groups in Congress look at the plan, holding meetings and
    suggesting changes before they vote on money bills. The last step is making things right again,
    where the House and Senate fix their different versions of budget bills before sending them to the
    President for signing off. This challenging task, often slowed down by political disagreements,
    finally decides how resources are given to every department (Congressional Budget Office,
    The primary mission of DoE is "To promote student achievement and educational equity
    across the Nation," which guides its spending plans. Big money is set aside for schools from
    kindergarten to 12th grade and support programs for students with disabilities. Grants are also
    provided to colleges and universities. But, the DoE's budget is always being watched and often
    becomes used in more considerable money arguments as part of politics. For example, the 2008
    money crisis caused a significant change in Title I grants. These grants help schools with lit...

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