Senior Writing Project Work

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Question Description

Open the two attached documents and answer to the question h with proper in text citation, APA, reference, and free from Plagiarism. Then follow the below Rubric when writing.

Please first read the question 2 AND attached EXAMPLE FOR Annotated Bibliography WORK DOCUMENT TO ATTEMPT QUESTION 2.

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Gender Issues within the Criminal Justice System annotated bibliography 1 Gender Issues within the Criminal Justice System Annotated Bibliography Name Date School Gender Issues within the Criminal Justice System annotated bibliography 2 Auerhahn, K. (2007). Adjudication outcomes in intimate and non- intimate homicides. Homicide Studies, 11(3), 213-230. This article, using data collected from Philadelphia homicide cases in which the defendant was found guilty between 1995 and 2000, explores the impact of murdering one’s domestic partner in outcomes, which is a relevant issue considering that women are more likely to murder someone with whom they are intimate than strangers. Auerhahn argues that prior studies of this issue have focused on women or intimate partner homicides, but comparing them to homicides involving strangers led to some important findings. She found that men were more likely to receive harsher sentences for murdering domestic partners than strangers, although this was not entirely true for women. Moreover, she found that women were treated better at every stage of the process than men, which contradicts much of the prior research. Bottcher, J. (2001). Social practices of gender: How gender relates to delinquency in the everyday lives of at-risk youth. Criminology, 39(4), 893-931. This article seeks to provide a more comprehensive, and less standardized, view of the impact of gender on delinquency, arguing that the current scholarship provides narrow perspectives on what causes males and females to act criminally. One finding provided by the author is that age is often used to analyze male delinquency but it is often lacking in the observation of females. The author argues that her study supports the idea that socialized gender identity concepts do have some influence on delinquency, although she suggests that this may have as much to do with roles they are assigned, as do significant life events such as death or victimization, but only at certain age intersections. She argues, though, that most theories of crime do not account for gender differences, which limits the understanding of female delinquency, leading to their being viewed in a less sympathetic light in many cases. Chan, W. & Rigakos, G. S. (2002). Risk, crime and gender. The British Journal of Criminology, 42(4), 743-761. This article explores the way that risk is understood in a criminological perspective, and how this serves to exclude women’s experiences in this regard. The authors assert that the way that risk is understood has been universalized, and they contend that this does not take into account the way that factors like gender, race or socioeconomic status may lead to different experiences or perspectives as to what constitutes danger. Looking at risk as a contextual concept brings greater awareness to the specific problems women face in terms of victimization, but the authors argue that these challenges are suppressed because of gender politics, which leads to a lack of recognition for the way that women have become the most at-risk group in most societies. Gender Issues within the Criminal Justice System annotated bibliography 3 Danner, M. J. & Carmody, D. C. (2001). Missing gender in cases of infamous school violence: Investigating research and media explanations. Justice Quarterly, 18(1), 87-114. This article explores the way that reports concerning school violence fail to account for the fact that the overwhelming majority of these acts are committed by males. This, according to the authors, leads to a misapprehension of the motivating factors that lead to this kind of violence. Further, they also argue that media coverage often fails to note the influence of masculinity in these actions, nor do they adequately detail the victimization of girls as the result of bullying in schools and the way that violence by girls are often responses to these male behaviors. Not only do these omissions subject females to higher levels of victimization, but they also lead to the implementation of policies that are not effectively addressing the problems that exist. Feld, B. C. (2009). Violent girls or relabeled status offenders. Crime & Delinquency, 55(2), 241265. This article explores the reasons for the rise in the number of girls appearing in the juvenile justice system. While some have looked to cultural shifts in terms of gender identity, Feld contends that one reason for this increase may be that societies have become less tolerant of acts of violence in general. The author also argues that the deinstitutionalization of status offenders and other shifts in policy within the system may have helped to spur this increase. Feld believes that these changes allow girls with a history of violence or frequent delinquency to be released from juvenile detention centers more often than boys with similar records, which may offer some account of the rise in violent offenses among girls. Felson, R. B. & Pare, P. P. (2007). Gender and the victim’s experience with the criminal justice system. Social Science Research, 37(1), 202-219. This article explores the way that victims perceive police and the courts based on the type of victimization that they endure. The authors found that, in general, those who had been victimized by someone that they knew, regardless of gender, were generally more dissatisfied with the way they were treated by police and the outcomes of their case than if the perpetrator was a stranger, believing that the police were dismissive of them and were too lenient on the offender. Victims of sexual assaults are more likely to be dissatisfied than other victims of violence, although their main objection, according to the authors, is police insensitivity. This has serious implications with regard to gender, according to them, because women are more likely to be victims of sexual assault or to be victimized by someone they know than men. Gender Issues within the Criminal Justice System annotated bibliography 4 Kingsnorth, R. F., & Macintosh, R. C. (2007). Intimate partner violence: The role of suspect gender in prosecutorial decision-making. Justice Quarterly, 24(3), 460-495. This article looks at the outcomes of domestic violence cases involving men and women, using different stages in the process to evaluate the difference in outcomes. The article found that women were less likely to be charged and twice as likely to avoid prosecution. However, when they inflicted damage that led to hospitalization, women generally received harsher punishments than men, and men who were married to or co-parented with the victim were likely to receive favorable treatment. Women with prior records also received better treatment when compared to their male counterparts. Further, while the severity of the violence was likely to impact outcomes for both men and women in terms of charges and severity of punishment, women who committed the most serious crimes in domestic violence were more likely to have charges reduced. Thus, this article finds that women do receive some preferential treatment, although when they committed more serious acts of violence, they may actually receive some harsher punishment. Lauritsen, J. L. & White, N. A. (2001). Putting violence in its place: The influence of race, ethnicity, gender, and place on the risk for violence. Criminology & Public Policy, 1(1), 23-59. This article examines the way that race and gender lead to vastly different experiences in non-lethal violent victimization in the United States. The authors found that much of the risk for these acts relates to neighborhood environment, which necessarily puts minority groups in greater jeopardy, and the risk for women in these settings is enhanced greatly. The study also reveals that women in general are at greater risk for violence from people they know, while men are at greater risk for stranger violence. This suggests the importance of helping women understand the risks posed by people that they know and increasing the scope of postvictimization services for them, including providing more services directed at men. Manasse, M. E., & Ganem, N. M. (2009). Victimization as a cause of delinquency: The role of depression and gender. Journal of Criminal Justice, 37(4), 371-378. This article builds the case for the impact of victimization on increased delinquency, which aligns with the basic principles of general strain theory. The authors found that victimization led to much higher levels of depression and delinquency, although, interestingly, they found that males with family histories of depression were the group most likely to turn to delinquency. However, the authors also observed that, among females who participated in delinquent behavior, the levels of victimization were statistically higher than for males. This is a significant finding, according to the authors, because it suggests that those at the greatest risk for victimization may also be more likely to act criminally, which may offer some explanation for the rise of female delinquency in recent decades. Gender Issues within the Criminal Justice System annotated bibliography 5 Mazerolle, P., Brame, R., Paternoster, R., Piquero, A., & Dean, C. (2000). Onset age, persistence, and offending versatility: comparisons across gender. Criminology, 38(4), 1143-1172. This article sought to understand the influence of onset age and gender on the types of crimes that were committed by men and women, and the way that the age which they began influenced their activities. One finding of this study was that both men and females exhibited similar levels of versatility in their criminal activities, although they did find that there was a higher correlation between the onset age and the types of crimes females were willing to commit. However, they, like Moffit, found that the persistence of lifelong offender status was far more pronounced among males, although they also determined that both genders had similar behavioral trajectories. Overall, however, the authors found similarities between the age of onset for certain criminal acts that were largely irrespective of gender. McCabe, K.M., Lansing, A.E., Garland, A., & Hough, R. (2002). Gender differences in psychopathology, functional impairment, and familial risk factors among adjudicated delinquency. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(7), 860-867. This article explores the differences between male and female juvenile delinquency through an examination of cases in the San Diego County system. This is an issue of particular interest due to the rapid increase of the presence of girls within the juvenile justice system, according to the authors. The study found that there was a high level of correspondence to abuse and neglect with female delinquency, as well as finding that these girls had more extensive histories of personal or family mental illnesses. While these issues were also evident in male delinquents, this suggests that these may help to explain some of the reasons for female delinquency. Because of this, the authors advocate using their study as a way of understanding how the system can respond to the specific needs of these girls, in order to better curtail the rise of female delinquency. Miller, J. & Decker, S. (2001). Young women and gang violence: Gender, street offending, and violent victimization in gangs. Justice Quarterly, 18(1), 115-140. This article explores the role of gender in the way that gang violence and delinquency occurs, drawing on interviews with women in gangs in St. Louis. The study revealed that many of these gangs members gender identity limited the kinds of crimes in which they were willing to be involved, although gender did play a role in how they went about committing certain crimes. Gender Issues within the Criminal Justice System annotated bibliography 6 The authors suggested that these limited criminal activities were due to both the way that these girls perceived themselves and the way that they were perceived by male gang members. The study also revealed that these girls were at less risk that their male counterparts in gangs, although the authors argue that this may be due to their lower status within gangs, which tended to make them less likely to be targeted, although it also may relate to lowered overall participation of girls or women. Straus, M.A. (2007). Process explaining the concealment and distortion of evidence on gender symmetry in partner violence. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 13(34), 227-232. This article describes the efforts to provide a more comprehensive criminal justice response to domestic violence. Straus argues that, while feminist organizations and other social agencies have helped to enhance the response infrastructure through the creation of shelters for women and rehabilitation treatment for offenders, the emphasis on domestic violence as an act of patriarchal power has limited the understanding of this crime; he argues that this effort has included the suppression of violence by women against men. This has limited the understanding of the reasons why women commit these acts, which, according to the author, actually hampers the efforts of women to overcome their own delinquency, but it also helps to prevent the protection of women from abuse by men. The author concludes by offering seven different methods in which this information is suppressed in order to try to bring about changes that will help protect or reform women. Weir, B. W., O’Brien, K., Bard, R. S., Casciato, C. J., Maher, J. E., Dent, C. W., Dougherty, J. A., & Stark, M. J. (2008). Reducing HIV and partner violence risk among women with criminal justice system involvement: A Randomized controlled trial of two motivational interviewing-based interventions. AIDS and Behavior, 13(3), 509-522. This article discusses the ways that women with a history of incarceration have much higher levels of HIV contraction and victimization from domestic partner violence. Thus, the authors sought to conduct an interview-based intervention for women with these histories, and they followed up to see if this reduced their willingness to engage in risk-increasing activities like needle sharing and unprotected sex. While the results did show reductions in activities that may lead to contraction of HIV, the authors found that these interventions had little impact on the women’s intimate partner relationships. This suggests that other methods of mitigating risks of domestic violence for this group need to be pursued in order to limit the victimization that occurs. Gender Issues within the Criminal Justice System annotated bibliography 7 Wood, J. K. (2005). In whose name? Crime victim policy and the punishing power of protection. NWSA Journal, 17(3), 1-17. This article explores the way that the naming or designation of certain crimes according to the names of victims may actually serve to exclude women of minority origins or who are poor from being perceived as victims. Wood points to legislation such as Megan’s Law and others that create a link between these crimes and white, middle-class girls and women, which leads the public to ignore similar crimes that are perpetrated against blacks or other minority groups. This can lead to the notion that some of the women in these other groups had some level of complicity in their victimization, and this in turn creates misperception about the crimes itself and the way that local, state and federal actors should respond. Gender Issues within the Criminal Justice System annotated bibliography 8 Course 1: Senior Writing Project Write 300 words each with proper in text citation, APA, reference, and free from Plagiarism. Then follow the below Rubric when writing Question 1: What is an annotated bibliography? Discuss about who you have interviewed or will interview and why, where you are finding sources for your project topic (Preventing (USCIS) U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services database from internal Hacking and Improving Fraud Detection). ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… Question 2: Please research and compile 10 Scholarly Resources for use in your Subject Based Criminal Justice Annotated Bibliography related to your specific work environment. The Criminal Justice Annotated Bibliography should be composed of the sources you will use to complete your Paper. This assignment must be completed using the approved guidelines of APA style. PLEASE US THE ATTACHED MICROSOFT DOCUMENT SAMPLES TO DO THE QUESTION PLEASE BE AWARE THAT THERE IS NO INTERVIEW REQUIREMENT, I.E. INTERVIEWS CANNOT BE INCLUDED ON YOUR ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. PLEASE SEE ANNOUNCEMENTS. Additional Expectations: 1. Type and quality of sources: websites and internet sources are NOT encouraged. Please do not use Wikipedia.org,yahoo.com, justanswers.com, ask.com, and other such websites as a source. Also, ensure that you include journal articles in your response as there are a great source of scholarly research. Additionally, do not rely solely on manuals published within your work context: limit your inclusion there {approximately two (2) within the 10 minimum required sources}. That is not a comprehensive response to the topic. Consider other sources. Also, ensure that your sources are not too dated (before the 1990s). Credit cannot be earned for references that are published before the 1990s. Please use more publication (books, journal articles, etc.) and fewer web sources. Note that books are not a great source of research therefore you must not limit your response to books only. Also, newspaper and magazines articles (whether paper copy or online) are NOT acceptable. 2. Interviews: are referenced within the body of your response. They are not listed on your reference list and do not count as sources. Also, please note that your response cannot be based solely on interviews conducted. Again, as you begin to prepare your annotated bibliography please note that personal interviews cannot be included as part of your annotated bibliography. Please refer to APA standards. The entire interview MUST be attached as an appendix to the paper and reference should be made to it in the body of your paper. 3. Format: Please ensure that you are using 6th edition APA style. An annotated bibliography is NOT a paper; instead it is a bibliographical citation with a summary for each reference listed. Also, you must state the importance of the source to your topic. 4. Please note that web definitions MUST NOT be included as a source. Remember that your sources are to be scholarly research/articles on the topic, publications, or books. While it is good to include a definition one from a dictionary, encyclopedia, etc. is not counted as a reference. 5. Please note that a minimum of 10 sources are required for this assignment. An incomplete response will be penalized and graded per the rubric. For instance, if 8 sources are provided you will automatically lose 28 points because the assignment is graded based on 10 sources. 6. Please note that an annotation includes two pieces: 1) the complete APA citation and 2) the annotation (summary of the source identifying the important elements). There are several examples of the required format available: it is expected that students will view and ask for clarification on the assignment prior to submission. As such resubmissions will not be allowed. 7. Be reminded again that late responses will not be accepted. Revisit the late policy. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… Question 3: Write a draft of 10 pages papers for the resear ...
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Tutor Answer

peachblack
School: UIUC

Attached.

Running head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Annotated bibliography
Name
Course
Institution
Professor
Date

1

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

2

Annotated bibliography
Question One
An annotated bibliography gives a summary of the different sources of information used
in performing research related to a given topic. The annotated bibliography gives the reader an
overview of the various sources of information thus making it easy to understand each of the
concepts and arguments presented. The evaluation of every source in an annotated bibliography
gives a clear picture of the arguments presented based on the different sources of information.
Therefore, when using the annotated bibliography, the reader has a better opportunity of
understanding what they expect in the paper and ways through which the information aligns with
the topic of discussion. The application of the annotated bibliography gives direction on what to
expect from the reading based on the claims from other sources.
The US Citizenship and Immigration Services databases have become threatened due to
identity theft, hacking, and fraud. After interviewing an employee from the department, there
was the need to gather information from secondary sources on the reason behind securing the
databases based on the impact that the insecurities would have on the immigrants and the
citizens.
Question Two: Annotated bibliography
Acquisti, A., & Gross, R. (2009, June). Social Insecurity: The Unintended Consequences of
Identity Fraud Prevention Policies. In WEIS.
According to the article, there is the need to implement identity theft prevention
strategies. The use of technology has led to most of the challenges affecting different groups of

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

3

people. In this case, hacking and identity theft have challenged ...

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