Thesis: Islam is considered more than just a religion, it is seen as a way of life that encompasses politics, economics, and social life.

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In this assignment, you will write an Annotated Bibliography. An Annotated Bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150-200 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited. Creating an annotated bibliography calls for the application of a variety of intellectual skills: concise exposition, succinct analysis, and informed library research. After choosing a topic related to ancient & medieval history and formulating a testable thesis, you will locate and record citations to books, periodicals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic; you will briefly examine and review the actual items. You will then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic. Cite the book, article, or document using MLA style, and write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book or article. Include one or more sentences that (a) evaluate the authority or background of the author, (b) comment on the intended audience, (c) compare or contrast this work with another you have cited, or (d) explain how this work illuminates your bibliography topic.

Your Annotated Bibliography must contain between 15-20 entries, and your entries must conform to MLA standards. In addition, you must choose only scholarly books, article, and documents as your sources; you may NOT use websites for this assignment. This assignment is outlined in detail below, and a sample MLA formatted Annotated Bibliography (from a POS course) is also attached. I highly recommend that you read through each of these documents in their entirety so that you understand the full breadth of this assignment and get a sense of what a completed assignment of this magnitude looks like. Please understand that your finished product should like EXACTLY like the example, except for the fact that you will have between 15-20 entries. This includes the heading that must have your name, the course designation, the topic, the thesis, and then the 15-20 entries that are alphabetized by the author’s last name and that follow all MLA formatting rules. I have also included a link to an MLA formatting guide that will assist you in understanding these rules and guidelines. Please let me know if you have questions.

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ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY NAME: XXXXX XXXXXXXXX COURSE: HST 1310 (Spring 2017) TOPIC: Greek and Roman Culture THESIS: The histories of the ancient Greeks and Romans are closely linked, and as a result they share many similarities, but also many differences, which can be seen through comparison and contrast of their cultures and practices. Bauman, Richard A. Women and politics in ancient Rome. Routledge, 2002. This work details the changes and developments of women’s roles in the ancient Roman government and politics, as well as their legal and social status as the Empire changed. Covering a period of close to four hundred years of Roman history, Bauman’s work is extremely well referenced, with each chapter containing many evidentiary citations that contribute to his exposition. He criticizes other authors and scholars for their lack of supporting evidence, and it is clear that he makes sure to practice as he preaches. However credible the depth of knowledge is, however, this work is also more specific and less far reaching than others cited. Though women and the structure of Roman politics and families play an important part in the path to understanding the culture as a whole, the role and development of women’s rights and responsibilities in legal and political matters is potentially too refined to be of considerable use overall. Blundell, Sue, and Margaret Williamson. The sacred and the feminine in ancient Greece. Psychology Press, 1998. Blundell and Williamson provide a tasteful and insightful foray into the lives of women in ancient Greece, with regards to their social status, their roles as members of families, and their depiction and representation in art and mythology. Within their essay are cited many works, both historical texts that give account of events and legal actions taken, transcripts from courts and speeches, and more modern contemporary analysis. With a wide range of informative sources providing credence to their dissection and diagnosis of the place of women in the lives of the ancient Greeks, it is fair to say that this document is valid and a trustworthy basis of study. However, whether or not it is relevant is less clear - though in truth, women comprise half of any society, in the pursuit of acknowledging differences between overarching cultural constructs between the ancient Greeks and Romans, focusing solely on the place of women in society, and not necessarily the belief systems at the root cause or otherwise, might prove this resource to be less beneficial than some of the others listed. Bradley, Mark. Colour and meaning in ancient Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. This work provides an incredibly interesting, richly detailed and cited look into the ancient Greek view of color, and how it played a role in their art, philosophy and more. An immensely interesting read, Bradley’s analysis provides an enormity of information that, while less helpful when trying to construct an overarching idea of what ancient Roman culture might have looked like, provides an incredibly sophisticated and well reasoned account of some of the finer points of their mentality towards color, and as a result how its influence shaped their art and culture. Like many other fairly abstract concepts during the period of the ancient Greeks and Romans, there existed a belief that color was more than just a pigment or a hue, and that train of thought reaches deep into some of the psychological and philosophical frameworks of the ancient Roman times. While a fascinating and credible source, this should not be used to build the generalist view of the ancient Roman culture, but rather to supplement and connect more broad spectrum concepts and ideas together through its specificity. Bryant, Joseph M. Moral codes and social structure in ancient Greece: A sociology of Greek ethics from Homer to the Epicureans and Stoics. SUNY Press, 1996. Bryant’s writing presents a detailed, but easily digestible history of the development of Greece as a social and political entity. This provides bountiful insight into the cause and effect nature of how ancient Greek culture and society developed, but comes with a significant flaw when compared to other scholarly works that cover the subject. While Bryant’s information seems valid, and many references are made to contemporary analysis of the research that he cites, compared to other historical examinations, it appears as though less deference was given to the primary and secondary historical sources, and more given to peers, contemporaries and more modern analysis. While this does not detract from the valuable information present, such as the historical development of Greece as a world power, and their interactions both inter and intracommunally, it must be noted that the information and assertions made may not be as valid or accurate as others by this nature. Nonetheless, in the vein of discovering the nature and qualities of Greek culture, this source is excellent for providing a vision of how it came to be, and what features and facets comprised the ancient Greek social form. Carcopino, Jerome. Daily Life in Ancient Rome-The People and the City at the Height of the Empire. Read Books Ltd, 2013. Carcopino’s writing details much of the life of the ancient Romans, but it is constrained - for good reason stated within the text - to a very localized period of time in the first and second centuries. For this reason, it is less overarching, but more specific and precise than many of the other texts referenced, but it is not by that nature less valuable. It is well referenced, including myriad primary and secondary sources that shed light into the lives of the ancient Romans during the time frame covered in this essay. This does limit the source’s usefulness when considering the relatively broad nature of the thesis selected, comparing and contrasting two distinct cultures, wherein no amount of information about any given century out of dozens, no matter how detailed, will be as useful as those that deal in more general themes, but that does not rule out this source as being without merit - it simply should not be relied upon without the support of others that cover the same theme, but across a broader stretch of time, to include more of the ancient Roman lifestyle. Edwards, Catharine. Death in ancient Rome. Yale University Press, 2007. Edwards draws heavily from primary and secondary sources, giving heavy historical validity to her research, while simultaneously backing up her own interpretations and assertions by comparing and contrasting them to more contemporary examinations. This analysis of death in the ancient Roman culture provides critical context clues, such as the view of the afterlife, the value of living, Roman virtues, and more, which help to shape an understanding of what life and the culture of the ancient Roman Empire might have been like. If culture is the study of the products of a people’s life, then the study of their views and practices regarding death is equally important to understanding it, and Edwards does a phenomenal job of presenting the information in a credible, yet still digestible format. This source is invaluable for developing a framework understanding of the facets of ancient Roman culture, needed in order to compare it to the ancient Greeks’. Golden, Mark. Sport and society in ancient Greece. Cambridge University Press, 1998. Golden pulls from a variety of historical and analytical sources and accounts of the nature and role of sport, physical contest and athleticism in ancient Greek culture, including the history and tradition of such sports, as well as their significance. He also makes comparisons to other cultures and their sporting practices, diversifying his accounts from not only the often considered athenian and spartan Greeks even as far as to American competitions. From there, he makes assertions and draws conclusions about Greek identity and ideology based on their behavior, which he again defends by drawing upon historical and contemporary sources alike that contribute data to his analysis. Golden discusses not only the types of exercise and games performed by the ancient Greeks, but also examines and analyzes the nature and influence that Greek cultural practice, beliefs and tradition played in these activities - and vice versa. Hawhee, Debra. Bodily arts: Rhetoric and athletics in ancient Greece. University of Texas Press, 2004. In this piece, Hawhee cites and draws upon classical sources and ancient materials, engaging many of the theories and ideologies found in the works of Homer and Aristotle with regard to the Greek culture of athleticism and the ideals of human perfection, but makes note that the reading is designed less for classicists and is designed towards a general audience. This presents the information in a more digestible method for those who might be less familiar with the intricacies of ancient Greek civilization, making it an excellent source to use when writing on this topic. That being said, this source is an in depth and comprehensive presentation of information surrounding the Greek idea of human physiology, strength, beauty and athleticism that was prominent during their day and can still be seen in their art and recorded philosophies. This source can be compared to Golden’s work, which covers more of the materialistic, societal involvements of the Greek athletic culture, whereas Hawhee’s work covers a more ideological sector, but both are compatible and form a foundation of knowledge with regards to the topic they share. Kaster, Robert. Emotion, restraint, and community in ancient Rome. Oxford University Press, 2005. Kaster presents a rather colloquial and pleasantly digestible foray into the state and relation of emotion and sense of “Roman identity” that was such a key factor in Rome’s history; the chivalry and unity and pride of each Roman citizen was a major contributor to the success and growth of the Empire. Though written much more to a casual audience, and containing less technical language and specific information, and the topic may seem vague and somewhat unrelated to the general topic, this writing provides incredible insight into the nature of the Roman citizens, their mindset, thoughts and perspectives of their own culture as it is presented to them, rather than an outsider’s perspective. This work is a useful source of information, but as a standalone might be rather underwhelming when considering the whole of ancient Roman culture. Lloyd, Geoffrey Ernest Richard. Science, folklore and ideology: studies in the life sciences in ancient Greece. CUP Archive, 1983. Lloyd pulls from a variety of historical and analytical sources, such as the works of Plato and Pliny as well as contemporary scholars, to build and account for information regarding the developments of ancient Greek science, math and ideology. As the ancient Greeks mixed their mythology and belief systems with the science of observation and philosophy of reason, so too does Lloyd divest his writing into examination and analysis of the various aspects that form the “life sciences” of the ancient Greek culture. In the context of examining, comparing and contrasting the ancient Greek and ancient Roman cultures and ideologies, this analysis is useful as it provides a comprehensive and structured presentation of the ancient Greek state of mind and understanding of the world, while remaining credible and accurate to the source material that Lloyd draws his conclusions from. Mikalson, Jon D. Ancient Greek Religion. Vol. 9. John Wiley & Sons, 2009. Mikalson’s writings discuss the religion and mythology of the ancient Greeks as it developed alongside their civilization, both the content of the stories and mythos as well as the context, the worshipers, cults and practices that accompanied these systems of beliefs. While full of citations both of modern analysis and ancient works, and complete with recommendations for further readings on each topic covered, Mikalson is the first to admit in his writing that covering the entirety of ancient Greek religion in one publication would be impossible, and that this piece should be intended as an introduction or primer. This text provides a large amount of relevant information to the topic of religion, which itself is an ideology and plays a very large part in the development and sustenance of culture, making it an ideal candidate to credit when researching a topic such as the one chosen. Pearson, Lionel Ignacius Cusack. Popular ethics in ancient Greece. Stanford University Press, 1962. Pearson provides, in this example, an abnormal, that is to say unusual in the scope and direction that it takes, insight into the culture of the ancient Athenian Greeks, namely of the fifth century. Unlike other sources cited here, and many of the published studies of ancient Greek philosophy and ethics, Pearson’s analysis isn’t directed towards the philosophers and scholars, the innovative thinkers of the time. Instead, the examination is a broad spectrum consideration of the ethics of the entire grecian population. Because of this, and because of the rather speculative nature of the pursuit, Pearson may prove to be less reliably factual than other sources that consider more widely written of and researchable facets of philosophy; the area covered within this writing, by its nature, makes more leaps and assumptions than others do, but still provides valuable, if less ironclad, insight into the behavior, culture and thought processes of the ancient Greeks. Porter, James I. The origins of aesthetic thought in ancient Greece: matter, sensation, and experience. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Porter provides an indepth analysis and examination of ancient Greek aesthetics, a manner of thinking and a philosophical construct regarding the nature of the physical world as it appeals to the human senses, through the lense of piles of historical evidence and the works of many ancients relevant to the topic. The coverage provided within is incredibly detailed and extensive, and while constrained namely to the conversation of the aesthetic, its developments, facets, factors that impacted it and that it impacted, Porter grounds his analysis in the context of ancient Greek civilization, and demonstrates frequently how the ideas of the time shaped the aesthetic mindset, and vice versa. This examination and presentation demonstrates a perfect example of the thesis directive, that by examining the cultural and ideological facets of the ancient Greeks, we can gain insight into their similarities and differences. Raaflaub, Kurt A., Josiah Ober, and Robert Wallace. Origins of democracy in ancient Greece. Univ of California Press, 2007. This collective work delves into the rich and storied history of democracy, and its evolution across western civilization, with its origins in the ancient Greek civilization. This source, despite its intense and detailed depiction of democracy as a whole, and the fact that it touches both the state of democratic government variants as they existed in Greek and Roman history, does not lend itself well to the study of the comparison and contrast of the two societies. This source, while insightful, well sourced and researched, and though informative as to the formative process that democracy as a governing ideology underwent, it does focus far more on democracy itself as a construct than on the influences that it had in the Greek culture, and how it affected the Greek way of life, despite it being rooted there. The focus is more on the politics and philosophies that shaped the style of government and the facets of the government itself than it could be, making it a less ideal source to draw from than others. Toner, Jerry P. Leisure and ancient Rome. John Wiley & Sons, 2013. Toner’s writings on the leisure practices and activities in ancient Rome provide a comprehensive, digestible framework for any understanding of ancient Roman culture. Providing a broad spectrum overview, yet still retaining all pertinent information to the history, formation and results of the development of ancient Roman culture make this work an excellent starting point for delving into the study of ancient Roman culture. Though less intensely cited and referenced than some of the other works listed, Toner’s examination provides credible sources for its information and inferences, but isn’t bogged down by a constant cross examination of its own derivations, making it a much easier read than others. This work provides an easy to read, yet valuable and fundamental look at the life of the ancient Romans, and even provides some comparison to that of the ancient Greeks within the text itself, making it supremely useful in this case.
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Annotated Bibliography
Asad, Talal. Genealogies of religion: Discipline and reasons of power in Christianity and
Islam. JHU Press, 2009. This work is based on the debate between the relationship formed by
Christianity and Islam in shaping worldly issues. The author uses scholarly historical data
and the existing empirical information on Islam and Christianity to make a stand on
emphasizing the purpose of Islam to our daily lives. Christianity and Islamic religion are
the path towards a good life in this universe. In the realm of religion these two social
aspects shapes human life and therefore are termed as a way of living rather than religion.
However the writer emphasizes on the role taken by Islamic religion in comparison to
Christianity. He terms Islamic as more influential in human beings daily matters in
comparison to Christianity. The credibility of the work is based on the acquisition of
citations from scholarly recognized sources such as journals and books written by ancient
Islamic scholars. The author acknowledges the wisdom of profet Mohammed and Jesus
in their teachings and ministry to human beings.
Azzam, Leila, Aisha Gouverneur, and Mary Hampson Minifie. LIfe of the prophet
Muhammed. Moureeshy, 2015.
This work is written to commemorate the life of Prophet Mohammed from the beginning
of his ministry to the end. Based on the author's research, Mohammed was sent by Allah
to bring hope and teach human beings how to live a good life. Through his teachings and
life he discovered Islam and provided teachings and guidance to Muslims on how to live
a good life. Therefore in this case Islam is seen and termed by the author as a way of life
rather than a religion. The author uses written records from Islamic religion and
academically recognized references such as journals and books to make a stand on the
teachings of Mohammed. The overall theme in this work is Mohammed's teachings and
Peaceful life. Based on these themes the author presents occasions and passages from
Mohamed's teachings on how to live a better and devoted life on earth as commanded by
Allah.

Surname 2
Bashier, Zakaria. War and Peace in the Life of the Prophet Muhammad. Kube Publishing
Ltd, 2015.
This work is centered on the existing example of a commitment and human life that
Prophet Mohammed lived. Muhammad lived a life of difficulties and his teachings were
centered on our daily lives. The author cites from various books and scholarly articles in
order to support the evidence and arguments of the work. Apart from this aspect, the
author acknowledges the used examples through in text citation and mentioning of the
authors name in every cited area. The author compares Islam with Christianity by relating
the lives of the two most influential and popular being in the two religions. The argument
of Islam as a way of life is centered on the example that Mohammed lived a life of
normal human beings despite being Allah's prophet. In this argument, the main idea is to
influence human beings to live a life of simplicity just like Mohamed and Jesus and
follow the rules that are assigned by God or Allah. In conclusion the author describes
Islam as a way of life just like Christianity and not as a religion.
Bielefeldt, Heiner. "Muslim voices in the human ...


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