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Navigating the Opioid Crisis in Multicultural America Cintia London, Jeynabu Sillah, Renielyz Romero Mount Saint Mary College NUR 5040 (Human Diversity/Transcultural Nursing) Professor: Bernadette O’Halloran Introduction Exploring the Opioid Epidemic Multicultural Focus •Investigating widespread impact and community challenges. •Analyzing disparities in opioid challenges among Hispanic and Caucasian populations •Acknowledging unique communityspecific issues. Public Health Concern Societal Impact & Nationwide Reach •Recognizing the urgent need to address opioid issues, •Emphasizing critical importance for public health. •Considering broader consequences on well-being, •Acknowledging the pervasive nature affecting over 2 million Americans. Complex Nature & Diverse Communities •Understanding multifaceted crisis aspects, recognizing its effect on various societal groups •90% of opioid-related deaths in middleaged individuals. Opioid-Related Deaths Facts & Figure s •Over 70,000 deaths in 2019. Demographic Disparities •Hispanic: +47.7%, Caucasian: +22.4% (2015-2019). Prescription Rates • 51.4 prescriptions per 100 persons in 2018. Unemployment and Opioid Deaths • 75% linked to unemployment. Heroin Use After Prescription Opioids • 80% start with prescription opioids. Naloxone Interventions Treatment Gap •Over 26,000 lives saved. • Only 10% with opioid use disorder get treatment. Illegal Opioid Access • Almost 70% obtain opioids illegally. Middle-Aged Opioid Deaths • 90% occur in individuals aged 25-64. Community Prevention Impact • Comprehensive strategies reduce overdose deaths by 25%. Problem - Mortality Rate Demographic Disparities • Contrasts in opioid-related mortality rates between Hispanic and Caucasian Americans. Statistical Snapshot • Revealing that Hispanic opioid-related mortality rates are 1.5 times higher than their Caucasian counterparts. Socioeconomic Influences • Exploring economic factors contributing to mortality disparities, with 75% of opioid-related deaths linked to unemployment. Health Inequalities • Understanding disparities in overall health outcomes. Community Impact • Considering the effects on local populations. Problem - Mortality Rate Solution - Mortality Rate Tailored Prevention Strategies • Designing initiatives specific to challenges faced by Hispanic and Caucasian communities. Naloxone Distribution • Supporting wider access to naloxone as a life-saving intervention, credited with reversing over 26,000 opioid overdoses. Expanded Treatment Availability • Advocating for increased accessibility to addiction treatment programs. Preventive Measures • Implementing strategies to reduce opioid-related deaths, as 53% of users seek treatment after a nonfatal overdose. Community Support • Building support networks within communities Solution - Mortality Rate Strategies for Solutions- Mortality Public Awareness Promoting understanding of signs of opioid overdose and available interventions. Enhanced Treatment Accessibility Expanding healthcare facilities offering addiction treatment services. Collaborative Partnerships Forming alliances with healthcare providers for comprehensive support. Community Engagement Involving local communities in the fight against opioidrelated challenges. Empowering Individuals Providing resources to empower individuals to seek help, as only 10% of those with opioid use disorder receive treatment. Strategies for Solutions- Mortality Problem Accessibility Diverse Access Pathways • Recognizing various legal and non-legal means to obtain opioids. Prescription Rate Variance • Pointing out differences in opioid prescription rates between Hispanic and Caucasian demographics. Socioeconomic Impact • Understanding how accessibility disparities contribute to health inequalities. Community Health • Examining the broader impact on community wellbeing. Addressing Access Challenges • Identifying key issues related to opioid accessibility, with 80% of heroin users reporting previous misuse of prescription opioids. Problem Accessibility Solution - Accessibility Regulatory Access Controls • Enforcing measures to manage and control opioid accessibility. Prescription Monitoring Strengthening • Advocating for stronger programs to monitor and regulate legal opioid distribution. Community-Based Harm Reduction • Implementing initiatives within communities to address non-legal opioid access. Preventing Illicit Access • Strategies to deter and prevent illegal opioid distribution, as 80% of heroin users report obtaining opioids illegally. Educational Campaigns • Informing communities about the risks of opioid accessibility. This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-NC Solution - Accessibility This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-NC Strategies for SolutionAccessibility Strengthened Regulation Enforcement • Enhancing law enforcement measures to combat illegal opioid distribution. Prescription Oversight • Implementing stricter monitoring and control practices for opioid prescriptions. Community Engagement • Involving local communities to actively participate in deterring and reporting illegal opioid activities. Educational Initiatives • Raising awareness about the consequences of illegal opioid activities. Legal Advocacy • Advocating for legal measures to prevent illicit opioid distribution. Strategies for SolutionAccessibility Strategies for SolutionAccessibility Conclusive Remarks Key Findings Recap: Identified disparities and challenges related to the opioid crisis. Collaborativ e Action Urged: Emphasizing the pivotal role of collective efforts to address opioid-related challenges. Ongoing Vigilance Stressed: Highlighting the imperative for continuous commitment and vigilance in combating the persistent challenges of the opioid epidemic. Community Mobilization Encouraged: Actively engaging and mobilizing communities to play a vital role in combating the opioid crisis. Societal Well-being Focus: Redirecting efforts towards the broader goal of enhancing overall societal well-being, ensuring a healthier future for all. Conclusive Remarks References • Jones, C. M., Campopiano, M., Baldwin, G., & McCance-Katz, E. (2019). National and state treatment need and capacity for opioid agonist medicationassisted treatment. American journal of public health, 105(8), e55-e63. • McCance-Katz, E. F. (2018). SAMHSA/HHS: an update on the opioid crisis. Rockville: SAMHSA. • Romero, R., Friedman, J. R., Goodman-Meza, D., & Shover, C. L. (2023). US drug overdose mortality rose faster among Hispanics than non-Hispanics from 2010 to 2021. Drug and alcohol dependence, 246, 109859. • Rudd, R. A., Seth, P., David, F., & Scholl, L. (2016). Increases in drug and opioid-involved overdose deaths—United States, 2010–2015. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 65(50 & 51), 1445-1452. • Volkow, N. D., & McLellan, A. T. (2016). Opioid abuse in chronic pain— misconceptions and mitigation strategies. New England Journal of Medicine, 374(13), 1253-1263. References NUR 5040 (Human Diversity/Transcultural Nursing) Case Study Analysis Group Presentation Rubric Topic: Learning Criteria 1. Quality of Content Elements a: Background information b: Two (2) key issues or problems c: Two (2) solutions or recommendations with evidence for each identified key issue/problem d: Specific strategies on how to achieve the recommended solutions in 1c 2. Title Page & References Page per the presentation guidelines 3. Presentation Slides with speaker notes and citations excluding title and references Exemplary 12 Points In-depth, substantial, clear and organized with supporting evidence in all areas of content Accomplished 10 Points Mostly substantial but less in-depth; clear and organized with supporting evidence in most areas of content. Developing 8 Points Minimal depth, clarity, and poor organization with supporting evidence in some areas of content only 3 Points No errors in formatting the Title page and References page. Submitted at least 7 peer-reviewed journal articles. 2 Points 1-3 APA formatting errors in either the Title page or References page and/or submitted 5-6 peer-reviewed journal articles. 4 Points At least 20 slides but some are slightly hard to read and/or speaker notes with citations in most presentation slides. 4 Points Most of the time 1 Point 4 or more APA formatting errors in either the Title page or References page and/or submitted 4 or less peer-reviewed journal articles. 3 Points Less than 20 slides and very difficult to read and/or speaker notes with citations in some of the presentation slides. 3 Points Sometimes 5 Points At least 20 of clear and readable slides. Speaker notes with citations in all presentation slides. 4. Teamwork & Collaboration: Worked very well with group members & contributed ideas extensively prior to the presentation. Facilitated increase in audience participation and engagement during the presentation. (To be graded by group peers. Send via email the names of each group member and their corresponding grade for this criterion only.) TOTAL Score Total points: 25 points Members: Comments: Bdoh: Fall 2019/Spring 2020/Summer 2021 Revised: Fall 2020, Fall 2022, Spring 2024 5 Points All the time Score Navigating the Opioid Crisis in Multicultural America NUR 5040 (Human Diversity/Transcultural Nursing) Professor: Bernadette O’Halloran Introduction Exploring the Opioid Epidemic Multicultural Focus •Investigating widespread impact and community challenges. •Analyzing disparities in opioid challenges among Hispanic and Caucasian populations •Acknowledging unique communityspecific issues. Public Health Concern Societal Impact & Nationwide Reach •Recognizing the urgent need to address opioid issues, •Emphasizing critical importance for public health. •Considering broader consequences on well-being, •Acknowledging the pervasive nature affecting over 2 million Americans. Complex Nature & Diverse Communities •Understanding multifaceted crisis aspects, recognizing its effect on various societal groups •90% of opioid-related deaths in middleaged individuals. Opioid-Related Deaths Facts & Figure s •Over 70,000 deaths in 2019. Demographic Disparities •Hispanic: +47.7%, Caucasian: +22.4% (2015-2019). Prescription Rates • 51.4 prescriptions per 100 persons in 2018. Unemployment and Opioid Deaths • 75% linked to unemployment. Heroin Use After Prescription Opioids • 80% start with prescription opioids. Naloxone Interventions Treatment Gap •Over 26,000 lives saved. • Only 10% with opioid use disorder get treatment. Illegal Opioid Access • Almost 70% obtain opioids illegally. Middle-Aged Opioid Deaths • 90% occur in individuals aged 25-64. Community Prevention Impact • Comprehensive strategies reduce overdose deaths by 25%. Problem - Mortality Rate Demographic Disparities • Contrasts in opioid-related mortality rates between Hispanic and Caucasian Americans. Statistical Snapshot • Revealing that Hispanic opioid-related mortality rates are 1.5 times higher than their Caucasian counterparts. Socioeconomic Influences • Exploring economic factors contributing to mortality disparities, with 75% of opioid-related deaths linked to unemployment. Health Inequalities • Understanding disparities in overall health outcomes. Community Impact • Considering the effects on local populations. Problem - Mortality Rate Solution - Mortality Rate Tailored Prevention Strategies • Designing initiatives specific to challenges faced by Hispanic and Caucasian communities. Naloxone Distribution • Supporting wider access to naloxone as a life-saving intervention, credited with reversing over 26,000 opioid overdoses. Expanded Treatment Availability • Advocating for increased accessibility to addiction treatment programs. Preventive Measures • Implementing strategies to reduce opioid-related deaths, as 53% of users seek treatment after a nonfatal overdose. Community Support • Building support networks within communities Solution - Mortality Rate Strategies for Solutions- Mortality Public Awareness Promoting understanding of signs of opioid overdose and available interventions. Enhanced Treatment Accessibility Expanding healthcare facilities offering addiction treatment services. Collaborative Partnerships Forming alliances with healthcare providers for comprehensive support. Community Engagement Involving local communities in the fight against opioidrelated challenges. Empowering Individuals Providing resources to empower individuals to seek help, as only 10% of those with opioid use disorder receive treatment. Strategies for Solutions- Mortality Problem Accessibility Diverse Access Pathways • Recognizing various legal and non-legal means to obtain opioids. Prescription Rate Variance • Pointing out differences in opioid prescription rates between Hispanic and Caucasian demographics. Socioeconomic Impact • Understanding how accessibility disparities contribute to health inequalities. Community Health • Examining the broader impact on community wellbeing. Addressing Access Challenges • Identifying key issues related to opioid accessibility, with 80% of heroin users reporting previous misuse of prescription opioids. Problem Accessibility Solution - Accessibility Regulatory Access Controls • Enforcing measures to manage and control opioid accessibility. Prescription Monitoring Strengthening • Advocating for stronger programs to monitor and regulate legal opioid distribution. Community-Based Harm Reduction • Implementing initiatives within communities to address non-legal opioid access. Preventing Illicit Access • Strategies to deter and prevent illegal opioid distribution, as 80% of heroin users report obtaining opioids illegally. Educational Campaigns • Informing communities about the risks of opioid accessibility. This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-NC Solution - Accessibility This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-NC Strategies for SolutionAccessibility Strengthened Regulation Enforcement • Enhancing law enforcement measures to combat illegal opioid distribution. Prescription Oversight • Implementing stricter monitoring and control practices for opioid prescriptions. Community Engagement • Involving local communities to actively participate in deterring and reporting illegal opioid activities. Educational Initiatives • Raising awareness about the consequences of illegal opioid activities. Legal Advocacy • Advocating for legal measures to prevent illicit opioid distribution. Strategies for SolutionAccessibility Strategies for SolutionAccessibility Conclusive Remarks Key Findings Recap: Identified disparities and challenges related to the opioid crisis. Collaborativ e Action Urged: Emphasizing the pivotal role of collective efforts to address opioid-related challenges. Ongoing Vigilance Stressed: Highlighting the imperative for continuous commitment and vigilance in combating the persistent challenges of the opioid epidemic. Community Mobilization Encouraged: Actively engaging and mobilizing communities to play a vital role in combating the opioid crisis. Societal Well-being Focus: Redirecting efforts towards the broader goal of enhancing overall societal well-being, ensuring a healthier future for all. Conclusive Remarks References • Jones, C. M., Campopiano, M., Baldwin, G., & McCance-Katz, E. (2019). National and state treatment need and capacity for opioid agonist medicationassisted treatment. American journal of public health, 105(8), e55-e63. • McCance-Katz, E. F. (2018). SAMHSA/HHS: an update on the opioid crisis. Rockville: SAMHSA. • Romero, R., Friedman, J. R., Goodman-Meza, D., & Shover, C. L. (2023). US drug overdose mortality rose faster among Hispanics than non-Hispanics from 2010 to 2021. Drug and alcohol dependence, 246, 109859. • Rudd, R. A., Seth, P., David, F., & Scholl, L. (2016). Increases in drug and opioid-involved overdose deaths—United States, 2010–2015. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 65(50 & 51), 1445-1452. • Volkow, N. D., & McLellan, A. T. (2016). Opioid abuse in chronic pain— misconceptions and mitigation strategies. New England Journal of Medicine, 374(13), 1253-1263. References
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Navigating the Opioid Crisis in
Multicultural America

Cintia London, Jeynabu Sillah, Renielyz Romero
Mount Saint Mary College
NUR 5040 (Human Diversity/Transcultural Nursing)
Professor: Bernadette O’Halloran

Introduction
Exploring the Opioid Epidemic

Multicultural Focus

•Investigating widespread impact and
community challenges.

•Analyzing disparities in opioid
challenges among Hispanic and
Caucasian populations
•Acknowledging unique communityspecific issues.

Public Health Concern

Societal Impact & Nationwide
Reach

•Recognizing the urgent need to address
opioid issues,
•Emphasizing critical importance for
public health.

•Considering broader consequences on
well-being,
•Acknowledging the pervasive nature
affecting over 2 million Americans.

Complex Nature & Diverse
Communities
•Understanding multifaceted crisis
aspects, recognizing its effect on
various societal groups
•90% of opioid-related deaths in middleaged individuals.

Opioid-Related Deaths

Facts
&
Figure
s

•Over 70,000 deaths in 2019.

Demographic Disparities

•Hispanic: +47.7%, Caucasian: +22.4% (2015-2019).

Prescription Rates

• 51.4 prescriptions per 100 persons in 2018.

Unemployment and
Opioid Deaths

• 75% linked to unemployment.

Heroin Use After
Prescription Opioids

• 80% start with prescription opioids.

Naloxone Interventions
Treatment Gap

•Over 26,000 lives saved.

• Only 10% with opioid use disorder get treatment.

Illegal Opioid Access

• Almost 70% obtain opioids illegally.

Middle-Aged Opioid
Deaths

• 90% occur in individuals aged 25-64.

Community Prevention
Impact

• Comprehensive strategies reduce overdose deaths by 25%.

Problem - Mortality
Rate
Demographic Disparities
• Contrasts in opioid-related mortality rates between Hispanic
and Caucasian Americans.
Statistical Snapshot
• Revealing that Hispanic opioid-related mortality rates are 1.5
times higher than their Caucasian counterparts.
Socioeconomic Influences
• Exploring economic factors contributing to mortality disparities,
with 75% of opioid-related deaths linked to unemployment.

Health Inequalities
• Understanding disparities in overall health outcomes.
Community Impact
• Considering the effects on local populations.

Problem - Mortality
Rate
• The current opioid crisis is one of the most widespread drug
epidemic in the U.S. history.

• It was declared a national public health emergency in 2017.

• There has been a sharp increase in opioid-elated deaths among
minority populations especially following the proliferation of
IMF.

• A sharp increase in opioid-involved overdose deaths has been
experienced in metropolitan areas since 2013..

• Between 2014 and 2017, the mortality rates involving synthetic
opioids increased by 617%.

Solution - Mortality Rate
Tailored Prevention Strategies
• Designing initiatives specific to challenges faced by Hispanic and
Caucasian communities.

Naloxone Distribution
• Supporting wider access to naloxone as a life-saving
intervention, credited with reversing over 26,000 opioid
overdoses.

Expanded Treatment Availability
• Advocating for increased accessibility to addiction treatment
programs.

Preventive Measures
• Implementing strategies to reduce opioid-related deaths, as
53% of users seek treatment after a nonfatal overdose.

Community Support
• Building support networks within communities

Solution - Mortality Rate
Primary prevention

Preventing substance use disorder is
the fist phase in addressing
overdoses. Design effective
prevention programs and encourage
safe prescribing practices.

Harm reduction

Advocating for the reduction of stigma
associated with overuse/misuse of
opioids. Advocating for improved
availability to life-saving interventions.

Evidence-based treatment

Employ a collaborative approach
among distinct stakeholders to ensue
ease of accessibility to high-quality
treatment options.

Recovery support

Explore different types of recovery
services. The objective is to achieve
better long-term outcomes.

Strategies for Solutions- Mortality
Public
Awareness

Promoting understanding of signs of opioid overdose
and available interventions.

Enhanced
Treatment
Accessibility

Expanding healthcare facilities offering addiction
treatment services.

Collaborative
Partnerships

Forming alliances with healthcare providers for
comprehensive support.

Community
Engagement

Involving local communities in the fight against opioidrelated challenges.

Empowering
Individuals

Providing resources to empower individuals to seek
help, as only 10% of those with opioid use disorder
receive treatment.

Strategies for Solutions- Mortality
Culturally tailored prevention and
education

Developing culturally sensitive education
campaigns, tailored to the specific norms
and values of the largely affected minority
groups.

Increased access to culturally
competent treatment services

Ensuring that practitioners can effectively
address the unique needs of Hispanics
and Caucasian population.

Addressing socioeconomic factors

Implementing policies and strategies that
mitigates the underlying factors to this
worrisome trend such as unemployment.

Regulation and enforcement

Implementation of stricter regulations for
opioid prescription practices.

Problem Accessibility
Diverse Access Pathways
• Recognizing various legal and non-legal means to
obtain opioids.

Prescription Rate Variance
• Pointing out differences in opioid prescription
rates between Hispanic and Caucasian
demographics.

Socioeconomic Impact

• Understanding how accessibility disparities
contribute to health inequalities.

Community Health
• Examining the broader impact on community wellbeing.

Addressing Access Challenges
• Identifying key issues related to opioid
accessibility, with 80% of heroin users reporting
previous misuse of prescription opioids.

Problem Accessibility
Regulatory measures
• Prescription drug monitoring programs.
• Reregulating pharmaceutical marketing.
• Prescriber education, including on alternative pain
management options.
• Law enforcement.

Public Health Initiatives
• Education and awareness campaigns.
• Addressing stigma related to opioid addiction.
• Implementing programs to facilitate safe disposal
of unused prescription opioids.
• Promoting non-opioid pain management
alternatives.

Community-Based Interventions
• Establishing pee support programs and recovery
communities.
• Implementing collaborative care models that
provides comprehensive healthcare services.
• Community outreach programs.

Solution - Accessibility
Regulatory Access
Controls

• Enforcing measures to manage and control opioid
accessibility.

Prescription
Monitoring
Strengthening

• Advocating for stronger programs to monitor and
regulate legal opioid distribution.

Community-Based
Harm Reduction

• Implementing initiatives within communities to
address non-legal opioid access.

Preventing Illicit
Access

• Strategies to deter and prevent illegal opioid
distribution, as 80% of heroin users report
obtaining opioids illegally.

Educational
Campaigns

• Informing communities about the risks of opioid
accessibility.

This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-NC

Solution - Accessibility
Regulatory Access
Control

• This could involve implementing stricter regulations
regarding prescribing and dispensing of opioid
medications.
• Implementing electronic prescribing systems.

Prescription
Monitoring
Strengthening

• Enhancing prescription drug monitoring programs
(PDMPs), achieved through integrating them with
electronic health records and pharmacy databases.

Community-Based
Harm Reduction

• Establishing community outreach and education
programs to raise awareness, for instance, about
harm reduction strategies, prevention strategies
and the available resources.

Preventing Illicit
Access

• Strengthening law enforcement efforts to disrupt
illicit opioid supply chains and trafficking networks.

Educational
Campaigns

• Launching education campaigns to increase
awareness on attributes like the risks associated
with abuse, addiction and overdose of opioids.

This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-NC

Strategies for SolutionAccessibility
Strengthened Regulation Enforcement
• Enhancing law enforcement measures to combat illegal opioid
distribution.

Prescription Oversight
• Implementing stricter monitoring and control practices for opioid
prescriptions.

Community Engagement
• Involving local communities to actively participate in deterring and
reporting illegal opioid activities.

Educational Initiatives
• Raising awareness about the consequences of illegal opioid
activities.

Legal Advocacy
• Advocating for legal measures to prevent illicit opioid distribution.

Strategies for SolutionAccessibility
Prescriber Education and Guidelines

Develop and implement prescribing
guidelines and clinical pathways to
promote effective opioid prescription.

Patient Education and Informed
Consent

Ensuring users understand risk factors
to opioid use, for example, addiction and
dependence.

Prescription Monitoring Programs

Enhance the integration and
interoperability of prescription monitoring
programs with t he other available
healthcare systems like electronic health
records.

Improving Remote Access

It could involve the use of telehealth and
telemedicine services.

Strategies for SolutionAccessibility
Peer-Led Support Networks

The aim is to provide mutual support
and encouragement in navigating the
challenges of recovery.

Incentive-Based Approaches

Providing rewards to promote
adherence to treatment plans and
participation in harm reduction activities.

Conclusive
Remarks

Key Findings
Recap:

Identified disparities and challenges related to
the opioid crisis.

Collaborativ
e Action
Urged:

Emphasizing the pivotal role of collective efforts
to address opioid-related challenges.

Ongoing
Vigilance
Stressed:

Highlighting the imperative for continuous
commitment and vigilance in combating the
persistent challenges of the opioid epidemic.

Community
Mobilization
Encouraged:

Actively engaging and mobilizing communities
to play a vital role in combating the opioid
crisis.

Societal
Well-being
Focus:

Redirecting efforts towards the broader goal of
enhancing overall societal well-being, ensuring
a healthier future for all.

Conclusive
Remarks



Both Caucasian and Hispanic communities are differentially impacted by the opioid crisis as can
be evidenced by the associated high prevalence and mortality rates.



Collaboration among distinct stakeholders is key in implementing comprehensive solutions.



The importance of technology cannot be overemphasized.



Community mobilization is instrumental in mitigating the challenge.



A focus on societal well-being is essential to prioritize public health, equity, and social justice in
addressing the opioid crisis.

References



Jones, C. M., Campopiano, M., Baldwin, G., & McCance-Katz, E. (2019).
National and state treatment need and capacity for opioid agonist medicationassisted treatment. American journal of public health, 105(8), e55-e63.



McCance-Katz, E. F. (2018). SAMHSA/HHS: an update on the opioid
crisis. Rockville: SAMHSA.



Romero, R., Friedman, J. R., Goodman-Meza, D., & Shover, C. L. (2023). US
drug overdose mortality rose faster among Hispanics than non-Hispanics from
2010 to 2021. Drug and alcohol dependence, 246, 109859.



Rudd, R. A., Seth, P., David, F., & Scholl, L. (2016). Increases in drug and
opioid-involved overdose deaths—United States, 2010–2015. Morbidity and
mortality weekly report, 65(50 & 51), 1445-1452.



Volkow, N. D., & McLellan, A. T. (2016). Opioid abuse in chronic pain—
misconceptions and mitigation strategies. New England Journal of
Medicine, 374(13), 1253-1263.

References







Cano, M., & Gelpí-Acosta, C. (2022). Variation in US drug overdose mortality
within and between Hispanic/Latine subgroups: A disaggregation of national
data. SSM - Mental Health, 2,
100095. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmmh.2022.100095
Chau, V., Huang, L. N., & Moore, R. H. (2020). The Opioid Crisis and the
Hispanic/Latino Population: an Urgent Issue. Rockville, MD. Substance Abuse and
Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Behavioral Health Equity.
Jalali, M. S., Botticelli, M., Hwang, R. C., Koh, H. K., & McHugh, R. K. (2020). The
opioid crisis: A contextual, social-ecological framework. Health Research Policy
and Systems, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12961-020-00596-8

Valdez, A., Cepeda, A., Frankeberger, J., & Nowotny, K. M. (2022).
undefined. Drug and Alcohol Dependence Reports, 2,
100029. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dadr.2022.100029

Attached

THE OPIOID CRISIS AND THE
HISPANIC/LATINO POPULATION:
AN URGENT ISSUE

THE OPIOID CRISIS AND THE
HISPANIC/LATINO POPULATION:
AN URGENT ISSUE

THE OPIOID CRISIS AND THE
HISPANIC/LATINO POPULATION:
AN URGENT ISSUE

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
Office of Behavioral Health Equity

Table of Contents

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................... 1
i.Purpose of the Issue Brief ............................................................................................................................. 1
ii.Sources of Information ................................................................................................................................ 1
Contextual Issues Related to Opioid Misuse and OUD in Hispanic/Latino Communities........................ 2
i. Highlights of the National Data ………..................................................................................................... 2
ii.Pain Management ………………………………….................................................................................. 4
iii.Sociocultural Factors Associated with Accessing Services ..................................................................... 5
Strategies to Address Opioid Misuse and OUD in Hispanic/Latino Communities .................................... 9
i.Standard Treatment ....................................................................................................................................... 9
ii. Community-Informed Strategies to Address Opioid Misuse and OUD in
Hispanic/Latino Communities ..................................................................................................................... 10
Moving Forward .................................................................................................................................................. 18
Glossary ................................................................................................................................................................. 19
Resources ............................................................................................................................................................... 20
References .............................................................................................................................................................. 21

Acknowledgments
The Opioid Crisis and the Hispanic/Latino Population: An Urgent Issue was prepared for the Substance
Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services (HHS) by SAMHSA’s Office of Behavioral Health Equity. Victoria Chau, MPH, PhD served as the
lead author.
Disclaimer
The views, opinions, and content of this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect
the views, opinions, or policies of SAMHSA. The listing of non-federal resources in this document is not
comprehensive, and inclusion does not constitute endorsement by SAMHSA.
Public Domain Notice
All material appearing in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied
without permission from SAMHSA. Citation of the source is appreciated. However, this publication
may not be reproduced or distributed for a fee without the specific, written authorization of the Office of
Communications, SAMHSA.
Electronic Access and Copies of Publication
This publication may be downloaded or ordered at www.store.samhsa.gov or by calling SAMHSA at
1-877-SAMHSA-7 (1-877-726-4727).
Recommended Citation
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: The pioid risis and the Hispanic Latino
opulation n rgent Issue. Publication No. PEP20-05-02-002. Office of Behavioral Health Equity.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2020.
Originating Office
Office of Behavioral Health Equity, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 5600
Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857. Publication No. PEP20-05-02-002. Published 2020
Nondiscrimination Notice
SAMHSA complies with applicable Federal civil rights laws and does not discriminate on the basis of race,
color, national origin, age, disability, or sex. SAMHSA cumple con las leyes federales de derecho aplicables
y no discrimina por motivos de raza, color, nacionalidad, edad, discapacidad o sexo.
Publication o. PEP - - eleased

icardo Cru
P Boston ni ersity chool o
edicine Boston edical enter ro ect
m owered ommunities or a ealthier ation
nitiati e

Additional
Acknowledgments
This publication was developed with significant
contribution from national and community experts
and federal staff. We would also like to acknowledge
communities across the country that are doing critical
work at the local level to address the opioid crisis in
Hispanic/Latino communities.

El Centro amily ealth Espanola, NM
lorida nstitute for Community Studies nc. Tampa, FL
uminosity eha ioral ealth Ser ices Boston, MA
Pro ect ospitality Staten Island, NY
argarita Alegria Ph Harvard Medical School,
Disparities Research Unit/Massachusetts General
Hospital
Sc Hartford HealthCare Hartford

uliet ui PA S U.S. Department of Health and
man ervices O ice o inority ealth
inda . Calle as Ph University o o th lorida
ollege o ehavioral and omm nity ciences
bis S. Carrion Psy National Hispanic and Latino
ental ealth echnology rans er enter
ortheast and aribbean ddiction echnology
Transfer Center, Institute of Research, Education, and
Services in Addiction (IRESA) Universidad Central del
Caribe, Puerto Rico
ichard Cer antes Ph Behavioral Assessment, Inc.
ocio Chang Psy University o
Center

rene algas agu
Ph Harvard Medical School,
Disparities esearch nit/Massachusetts General
Hospital
aniel . allardo P Substance Abuse and Mental
Health Services Administration, National Mental
ealth and bstance Use olicy Laboratory
erlinda alle os Somer ille P u stance
ental ealth er ices dministration

Amistades nc. Tucson, AZ

os A ocar
Hospital

iguel A. Cru eliciano Ph
S National Hispanic and
Latino ental ealth echnology rans er enter
Institute of Research, Education, and Services in
Addiction (IRESA) Universidad Central del Caribe,
Puerto Rico

onnectic t ealth

ichael Chaple Ph Northeast and Caribbean
ddiction echnology rans er enter
Sonsiere Cobb Sou a
A U.S. Department of Health
and man ervices O ce o inority ealth

elena . ansen
of Medicine

Ph

e

use and

ork University chool

a ine enry S
A National Latino Behavioral
Health Association
Eric o ada A C CA C Boston Medical Center Project
RECOVER (Empowered Communities for a Healthier
Nation Initiative)
Pierluigi ancini Ph
AC National Latino Behavioral
Health Association/National Hispanic and Latino
revention echnology rans er enter and
ational ispanic and Latino ddiction echnology
rans er Center; founder of CETPA
. oc y omero Ph
red Sando al
Association

S

omero

ssociates

PA National Latino Behavioral Health

elisa . rbina Ser Familia, Buford, GA
Stacey illiams U.S. Department of Health and Human
ervices O ice o inority ealth
ffice of Beha ioral ealth
ictoria Chau Ph

P

ar e ahme uang Ph
oslyn olliday oore

S

uity

Introduction

T

he current opioid crisis is one of the most
widespread drug epidemics in U.S. history
for all racial and ethnic groups. In 2017, it
was declared a national public health emergency,
with 47,600 reported deaths from opioid-related
overdoses, which accounted for the majority of
overdose drug deaths.(1) In 2018, overall drug
overdose deaths declined in the U.S. by 4.1 percent
compared to 2017.(2) However, opioid overdose
deaths and misuse continued to occur in significant
numbers.(2) In 2018, 10.3 million people misused
opioids, including prescription opioids and heroin,
and two million had an opioid use disorder
(OUD .(3) With approximately 130 people dying
each day due to an opioid-related overdose,(4) this
epidemic has garnered nation-wide attention,
generated significant federal and state funding
opportunities for prevention, treatment, and
recovery and shaped the priorities of many local
communities.
Recently, a demographic shift has been observed in
the epidemic with dramatic increases in opioid
misuse and overdose deaths among Hispanic/
Latino*, African American, and American Indian/
Alaska Native populations. As Hispanic/Latinos are
one of the fastest growing minority populations—
expected to comprise nearly 30 percent of the U.S.
population by 2060(5)—it becomes imperative
to understand the unique sociocultural factors that
influence drug use and access to prevention,
treatment and recovery in this population.
*In this issue brief, the term Hispanic/Latino is used as an
umbrella term to include those who identify as “Hispanic,”
“Latino,” and/or “Latinx” in the U.S. This typically includes
individuals with ancestral origins from Latin America and/or
Spain. When data are reported, terminology in the original
data source is used.

As society moves away from criminalizing drug use
behavior to understanding it as a preventable,
treatable chronic health condition, this public health
approach needs to be inclusive of and tailored to
diverse and historically underserved communities.
Understanding the public health strategies to
outreach and engage the Hispanic/Latino population
is a critical step in addressing this epidemic.
B
As Congress, federal agencies, state and county
health and behavioral health departments, and
community stakeholders mobilize to address the
opioid epidemic, what is happening within the
Hispanic/Latino communities? This issue brief aims
to convey a snapshot of how this population is
impacted. Specifically, it will:
a Provide recent data on the prevalence of opioid
misuse and opioid overdose death rates in the
Hispanic/Latino population in the U.S.;
b Discuss contextual factors that impact the
opioid epidemic in these communities, including
challenges to accessing early intervention and
treatment;
c Highlight innovative outreach and engagement
strategies that have the potential to connect
individuals with evidence-based prevention,
treatment, and recovery, and;
d Illustrate the importance of ongoing
community voice and leadership in the
development and implementation of solutions to
this public health crisis.

This issue brief includes information compiled from
a variety of sources, including interviews with key
informants, federal data, and the peer-reviewed
research and policy literature. Key informants were
selected for their expertise and current work to
reduce opioid misuse in Hispanic/Latino
communities. They represented a range of roles—
including community leader, person with lived

THE OPIOID CRISIS AND THE HISPANIC/LATINO POPULATION: AN URGENT ISSUE

PAGE 1

experience, peer recovery coach, peer recovery
supervisor, executive director and staff of
community-based programs, evaluator, researcher,
internist, addiction psychiatrist, clinical
psychologist, physician, social worker, nurse, and
advocate. Key informants were from geographically
diverse areas and represented various types of
institutions, e.g., university, professional behavioral
health association, hospital, health clinic, and
community-based organizations (CBOs).
Unique to this brief is the compilation of issues and
strategies conveyed by people living or working in
Hispanic/Latino communities and addressing
opioid misuse and substance use disorder SUD ,
and include many who identify as Hispanic/Latino.
Their direct statements, indicated by italics and
quotation marks, are interspersed throughout the
document. The information they shared represents
a snapshot of what is happening in selected
Hispanic/Latino communities struggling with
opioid misuse, and is not a full comprehensive
picture of this population across the country.

Contextual
Issues Related
To Opioid Misuse
And OUD In
Hispanic/Latino
Communities
G LG

O

O

LD

National and state opioid estimates and rates are from
the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services
Administration (SAMHSA) National Survey on Drug

PAGE 2

Use and Health SDUH , the National Institute
on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Monitoring the Future
Survey (MTF),(7, 8) and the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC) National Vital
Statistics System(9) and Youth Risk Behavior Survey
(YRBS).(10) In the figures and tables below, most
recently available data are shown.
Opioid misuse.(3) According to the SAMHSA
NSDUH, the opioid misuse (heroin use and
prescription opioid misuse) rate among Hispanic/
Latinos is similar to the national population rate,
about 4 percent. In 2018, 1.7 million Hispanic/
Latinos and 10.3 million people nationally, aged 12
and older, were estimated to have engaged in opioid
misuse in the past year.
Opioid and other substance use and misuse among
Hispanic/Latino youth. National data from multiple
sources specific to high school aged youth indicate
that Hispanic youth are using drugs at rates that are
equivalent or higher compared to their racial/ethnic
peers. In 2017, the CDC YRBS reported that high
school Hispanic youth had the highest prevalence of
select illicit drug use (16.1 percent) and prescription
opioid misuse (15.1 percent) compared to the total
high school youth population (14.0 percent for both)
and other race/ethnicities.(11) Similarly, NIDA’s 2018
MTF indicates that in general, Hispanic eighth
graders had the highest levels of substance misuse
across all substances compared to Whites and
African Americans.(7, 8) In general, a higher
percentage of Hispanic eighth and tenth grade youth
reported opioid (heroin and prescription) misuse in
the past year than Whites and African Americans
(Table 1).(7, 8)
Opioid-related overdose death rates and deaths
involving selected drugs by race/ethnicity. The
opioid-related overdose death rate for the national
population has risen from 2.9 deaths per 100,000
people in 1999(12) to 14.9 per 100,000 in 2017(1)—with
a large increase in overdose deaths involving
synthetic opioids other than methadone (synthetic
opioids, i.e., fentanyl, fentanyl analogs, and
tramadol) from 2013 to 2017.(1) In 2017, among
Hispanics the opioid-related overdose death rate

THE OPIOID CRISIS AND THE HISPANIC/LATINO POPULATION: AN URGENT ISSUE

was 6.8 deaths per 100,000 people, and was
significantly lower compared to non-Hispanic
Whites, Blacks, and American Indian/Alaska Natives
(Table 2). (13)
Overdose deaths involving synthetic opioids (other
than methadone). Data suggest that illicitly

manufactured synthetic opioids are heavily
contributing to current drug overdose deaths in the
U.S.(2) The sharp increase in overdose deaths
involving synthetic opioids in recent years is
alarming and data show that the mixing of synthetic
opioids with other drugs occur across populations.
Synthetic opioids are affecting opioid death

THE OPIOID CRISIS AND THE HISPANIC/LATINO POPULATION: AN URGENT ISSUE

PAGE 3

rates among Hispanics. , ,
n
, synthetic
opioids accounted for nearly
percent of the
opioid-related overdose deaths and
percent of the
total ...


Anonymous
Very useful material for studying!

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