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I have 6 documents for 6 articles. My instructor asked me to read the 6 articles, then write an article summery for each article including two points for each article. Also, the instructor asked me to use like those types of sentences when I start to write the points. Example, One point of the article I figured out that was not obvious is bla bla) or (one key point of view not covered in the article is bla bla) if someone feels like know the requirements, please help. Then, i will provide more information about this assighnment to be clear on what exatly I need.

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Could Miami's rail project be test model that changes mass transit in US? The Guardian Edward Helmore in Miami April 1, 2016 http://www.msn.com/en-us/money/markets/could-miamis-rail-project-be-test-model-thatchanges-mass-transit-in-us/ar-BBqWPc9?li=BBnbfcN&ocid=mailsignout What do you get if you put Hitachi’s Japanese engineers, their counterparts from the Italian rail firm Ansaldo, a schoolgirl choir and the mayor of Miami together in the swamps of Florida? A new metrorail system that Miami’s urban planners hope will bring commuting from the city to its ribbons of suburbs into the 21st century. Suggested from Windows Store But behind the hoopla and celebration surrounding the $375 million project unveiled last week is a serious effort to switch U.S. commuters in a major regional city from overcrowded, inefficient and polluting dependence on cars to a model that resembles the European or Asian adoption of mass transit. Miami, like many other cities across the U.S., is attempting to redress decades of underinvestment in the sector. While cities such as Charlotte, San Diego and Dallas have been successful with the new light rail commuter-moving systems, other cities, including Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D.C., report falling rider numbers despite enormous and costly efforts by transportation officials to entice people out of their cars. There have been other, unsuccessful attempts to build a light rail in Miami and other cities have run into issues with their own plans, but the engineers here are quietly optimistic that any incoming administration will increase infrastructure budgets, some of which would be targeted to mass transit. Hillary Clinton has vowed to increase federal funding by $275 billion over a five-year period, warning “it is not possible to remain economically competitive in a very, very competitive global economy if we don’t have the infrastructure we need”. Here on the border of the Everglades, the gleaming new blue and silver cars look enticing: cleanrunning, silent, with free Wi-Fi and other enticements, but will they help turn the tide against Miami’s congested roadways? The city’s construction boom has caused chaos on its roads. Coupled with fears that rising sea levels could begin to make tidal flooding more frequent, as well as the intermittent threat of hurricanes, have added to the incentive to overhaul its transportation systems. For Hitachi, with part ownership of the Italian manufacturer Ansaldo, is looking for deeper penetration in the U.S. market. Current projects include a driverless system in Honolulu scheduled to open next year. “We believe the rail business in the U.S. is sustainable and growing because many cities have a mass transit system,” noted Kentaro Masai, head of Hitachi global rail. “We’ve already received support from the government, but were optimistic that ridership, especially among young people, will grow. There are challenges but we are optimistic.” © Provided by Guardian News Hitachi’s proposed light rail cars for Miami That optimism is buoyed in part by signs that millennials, facing higher levels of unemployment, lower pay and the likelihood of greater college debts, do not share the same enthusiasm for cars as previous generations. Whereas a car once connoted adulthood, Uber, Zipcar and public transit will now suffice. Only half of millennials get their driver’s licenses at 18. “The new generation is not in love with the car,” says Carlos Gimenez, mayor of Miami-Dade County. “They’re just as happy to get into a railcar or a bus, or be driven round by an Uber. Cars to them are a hassle whereas for us they were a luxury. It’s a different mindset and we’re seeing more and more in this community.” Ridership on Miami’s metrorail system stands at 75,000 daily, says Alice Bravo, director of Miami’s department of transportation and public works. There are no projections for increase in riders, but studies have shown congestion on US 1, which runs into downtown Miami, would be considerably worse without the rail service. “We have ample capacity to grow,” Bravo says,” and we’re contemplating light rail expansion and provide incentives for using the system. ” The problems with adoption date to the 1930s when municipal authorities began digging up commuter rail systems and trolleys as the public adopted cars and buses. The system Miami is considering for direct access to Miami Beach is in fact on the identical path that existed in 1927. Miami is considering a public-private tender for that service. “I think the time is right,” says Charles Scurr, head of the Citizens Transportation trust. “You can’t think of it just being the auto industries against everyone else. Mass transit is what you need to be a successful big city, and that’s what people want. It’s essential for growth.” But there’s a larger question that overhangs Miami: the rise of the oceans. Even in that event, says Gimenez, the Metrolink is largely elevated so there’s no immediate concern. “The problem of rising of water is something we’re going to be dealing with but were not underwater yet,” he says. “And a lot of this talk is of doomsday scenarios which, frankly, I do not believe. We’re going to adapt to the environment like we always have. We’re ahead of it, and anything we do is with any eye to sea level rise and sustainability.” Could Miami's rail project be test model that changes mass transit in US? The Guardian Edward Helmore in Miami April 1, 2016 http://www.msn.com/en-us/money/markets/could-miamis-rail-project-be-test-model-thatchanges-mass-transit-in-us/ar-BBqWPc9?li=BBnbfcN&ocid=mailsignout What do you get if you put Hitachi’s Japanese engineers, their counterparts from the Italian rail firm Ansaldo, a schoolgirl choir and the mayor of Miami together in the swamps of Florida? A new metrorail system that Miami’s urban planners hope will bring commuting from the city to its ribbons of suburbs into the 21st century. Suggested from Windows Store But behind the hoopla and celebration surrounding the $375 million project unveiled last week is a serious effort to switch U.S. commuters in a major regional city from overcrowded, inefficient and polluting dependence on cars to a model that resembles the European or Asian adoption of mass transit. Miami, like many other cities across the U.S., is attempting to redress decades of underinvestment in the sector. While cities such as Charlotte, San Diego and Dallas have been successful with the new light rail commuter-moving systems, other cities, including Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D.C., report falling rider numbers despite enormous and costly efforts by transportation officials to entice people out of their cars. There have been other, unsuccessful attempts to build a light rail in Miami and other cities have run into issues with their own plans, but the engineers here are quietly optimistic that any incoming administration will increase infrastructure budgets, some of which would be targeted to mass transit. Hillary Clinton has vowed to increase federal funding by $275 billion over a five-year period, warning “it is not possible to remain economically competitive in a very, very competitive global economy if we don’t have the infrastructure we need”. Here on the border of the Everglades, the gleaming new blue and silver cars look enticing: cleanrunning, silent, with free Wi-Fi and other enticements, but will they help turn the tide against Miami’s congested roadways? The city’s construction boom has caused chaos on its roads. Coupled with fears that rising sea levels could begin to make tidal flooding more frequent, as well as the intermittent threat of hurricanes, have added to the incentive to overhaul its transportation systems. For Hitachi, with part ownership of the Italian manufacturer Ansaldo, is looking for deeper penetration in the U.S. market. Current projects include a driverless system in Honolulu scheduled to open next year. “We believe the rail business in the U.S. is sustainable and growing because many cities have a mass transit system,” noted Kentaro Masai, head of Hitachi global rail. “We’ve already received support from the government, but were optimistic that ridership, especially among young people, will grow. There are challenges but we are optimistic.” © Provided by Guardian News Hitachi’s proposed light rail cars for Miami That optimism is buoyed in part by signs that millennials, facing higher levels of unemployment, lower pay and the likelihood of greater college debts, do not share the same enthusiasm for cars as previous generations. Whereas a car once connoted adulthood, Uber, Zipcar and public transit will now suffice. Only half of millennials get their driver’s licenses at 18. “The new generation is not in love with the car,” says Carlos Gimenez, mayor of Miami-Dade County. “They’re just as happy to get into a railcar or a bus, or be driven round by an Uber. Cars to them are a hassle whereas for us they were a luxury. It’s a different mindset and we’re seeing more and more in this community.” Ridership on Miami’s metrorail system stands at 75,000 daily, says Alice Bravo, director of Miami’s department of transportation and public works. There are no projections for increase in riders, but studies have shown congestion on US 1, which runs into downtown Miami, would be considerably worse without the rail service. “We have ample capacity to grow,” Bravo says,” and we’re contemplating light rail expansion and provide incentives for using the system. ” The problems with adoption date to the 1930s when municipal authorities began digging up commuter rail systems and trolleys as the public adopted cars and buses. The system Miami is considering for direct access to Miami Beach is in fact on the identical path that existed in 1927. Miami is considering a public-private tender for that service. “I think the time is right,” says Charles Scurr, head of the Citizens Transportation trust. “You can’t think of it just being the auto industries against everyone else. Mass transit is what you need to be a successful big city, and that’s what people want. It’s essential for growth.” But there’s a larger question that overhangs Miami: the rise of the oceans. Even in that event, says Gimenez, the Metrolink is largely elevated so there’s no immediate concern. “The problem of rising of water is something we’re going to be dealing with but were not underwater yet,” he says. “And a lot of this talk is of doomsday scenarios which, frankly, I do not believe. We’re going to adapt to the environment like we always have. We’re ahead of it, and anything we do is with any eye to sea level rise and sustainability.” How Design Can Help Build a 'Transit Culture' Transit "branding," from a system's logos to its stations, can have a real impact on riders. • • • • Eric Jaffe @e_jaffe Mar 14, 2014 http://www.citylab.com/commute/2014/03/how-design-can-help-build-transitculture/8633/ • • • stevecadman/Flickr Earlier this month the transit agency serving metropolitan Rochester, New York, announced a million-dollar "rebranding" effort. That means everything from a new logo to new uniforms — all aimed at changing the public perception "that buses are only for people who have no other option," the Democrat and Chronicle reports. The next brand will try to surround Rochester transit with a sense of comfort and ease. Rochester isn't alone in its desire for a transit brand. Jeff Doble, director of transportation design for the Vancouver office of architecture firm Perkins+Will, says system branding is becoming "more and more prominent and important to cities." From the architectural design of stations to the wayfinding style of signage and maps, branding can help cities that are "trying to build a transit culture." "You realize how much a brand — whether it's station design or just a refresh of signage within the city itself — really becomes part of the experience of the rider," says Doble. "[Cities] are still struggling to get people to really appreciate the benefits of public transit. I think branding plays a big role in that." Public perception of a transit system is no superficial matter. Recent studies suggest it can have a ridership impact on par with actual service quality. The most iconic transit brands tend to conjure up positive feelings; think the art nouveau entrances of the Paris Metro, or Beck's famed map design of the London Tube. On the flipside, consider the negative image people had of New York City's subway when its cars were covered in graffiti. The key to an effective transit brand, says Doble, is to connect a design with the local culture of the city itself. He points to Vancouver's transit system as a great example. The city's involvement in the Pacific Northwest forest industry inspired an architectural style that incorporates wood into the transit stations. Exposed wood now graces canopies and shelters throughout the system. Photo by Nic Lehoux Photo by Enrico Dagostini Some of the other projects Doble has been involved with lately include transit station designs in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and in Honolulu, Hawaii. A unifying element in both places is strong canopy that unifies the system and becomes identifiable to city residents and visitors as a transit hub from afar. "It's mostly about providing a nice environment that elevates that experience," says Doble. "Transit stations — it's important to make them very durable, but through that you don't want to make them sterile environments that aren't inviting or comfortable for passengers." Courtesy Perkins+Will Via Honolulu Transit Designing new stations is one thing; reinventing an existing system, as is the case in Rochester, often poses additional challenges. In such cases, says Doble, architects must consider whether to tweak the present identity, start completely fresh, or impose new brands on individual parts of the system — especially routes serving neighborhoods that see themselves as unique communities. Balancing the character of an individual line with the branding of an entire system can be tough. "It's working within those existing systems that I think is probably more of a challenge," he says. "To look at ways to modernize them and expand upon a language that's been established." The Next Century of Sustainable Communities Will Be Organized Around Transportation The era of transit-oriented development and "networked livable communities" has arrived. • • • John L. Renne @jlrenne Apr 29, 2014 • http://www.citylab.com/commute/2014/04/next-century-sustainable-communities-willbe-organized-around-transportation/8980/ • Flickr user Montgomery County Planning Commission The Great Recession has fundamentally changed the trajectory of both real estate and transportation in the United States. For the past century, our nation's economy revolved around the production of vehicles, highways, sprawl, and more vehicles. Transportation policy emphasized a supply-side approach of building highways to increase the speed and mobility of our nation's vehicular-based mobility system. However, in the 21st century, transportation's focus will shift to a sustainable transport paradigm of managing existing infrastructure (as opposed to building new roads) and improving accessibility. This will be enhanced through transit-oriented development and "networked livable communities." As their name suggests, networked livable communities are networked into both the Internet and multi-modal transportation systems. They're also also networked into the professional economy: they are hubs and corridors of cafes, boutiques, restaurants, bars, and shared-office settings. They include art, live music, and animated street life. These communities are emerging in former warehouse and industrial districts, downtowns, historic districts, inner-suburbs, TODs, collegetowns, and artistic communities that have bucked national trends over the past five years of decline and eroding land values. As the saying goes, "being in the right place at the right time" is important to source opportunities. Networked livable communities are the post-recession "right places." Residents there network for jobs, business financing, new partnerships, and overall professional connectivity. Several interrelated events have set the stage for sustainable transport and the rise of networked livable communities over the next several decades. During the first decade of the 21st century, America's total vehicle miles traveled peaked. Since our transportation system is funded from the gas tax, the peaking of VMT means that we no longer have a growing source of federal funds to expand highways. The Great Recession also reduced suburban sprawl, which has lost favor with many Americans now looking to live, work, and play in denser, mixed-use areas. A recent study reported that close proximity to shopping and transit was important to the majority of Americans. There is a pent-up demand for TOD, which is an important element for the success of networked livable communities. As a nation, we have built more than 4,500 fixed transit stations, most of which are rail. However, only 38 percent of these station areas achieve a minimum gross density of eight residential units per acre within a half-mile of the station — the level of density identified by researchers as needed to support transit usage. Density is also vital for business establishments to survive. A study that I authored last year with Reid Ewing reveals that TOD station areas have outperformed low-density transit adjacent developments (TADs) significantly in terms of sustainable commuting. TADs are the opposite of TODs; they are low-density, auto-oriented communities around rail stations which do not facilitate walking or transit ridership other than via car access. In 2010, nearly 53 percent of commuters in TODs traveled by transit, walking, or bicycling as compared to less than 16 percent living in low-density TAD station areas. Perhaps surprising, TADs in the U.S. are wealthier on average than TODs, earning $68,409 in household income compared with $51,335. However, TOD residents only spent 37 percent of their income on the combined cost of housing plus transportation compared to TAD residents, who spent about half their income. In other words, the location efficiency afforded to TOD households yielded them significantly more in disposable income than TAD households for the year. On average, TOD residents earn less but have about the same disposable income in comparison to their wealthier counterparts in TADs, who drive for most of their commute trips. TOD residents spend less on housing and transportation costs. Given these findings, it's no surprise that over time TOD home values have significantly outperformed the national market, including TADs. The TOD Index reveals that from 1996 to 2013, homes in over 449 TODs across the United States appreciated 325 percent, as compared with homes in 817 TAD station areas, which appreciated about 200 percent — same as the overall national market. In sum, homes in TODs are worth more, which generates more local property taxes for cities. Residents spend less on housing and transportation costs, which means they have more money for other purchases from local businesses. The higher densities and higher share of non-car commuters means that transit agencies can earn more revenue by expanding TODs around vacant stations. As Americans demand more networked livable communities, cities can begin with increasing densities around empty rail stations and incentivizing more TODs. Metro areas that build at 8 units per acre (4,000 residential units or 10,000 people per station area) around all empty stations could accommodate 26.4 million of the next 100 million Americas by 2050 in such locations. Much of the transportation infrastructure is already there, but local investments are needed around stations to unlock their potential. Local zoning reform is also paramount. Adding this density would go a long way to enabling networked travel including walking, bicycling, and other modes to increase overall accessibility towards a sustainable transport system. Top image via Flickr user Montgomery County Planning Commission. This article is part of 'The Future of Transportation,' a CityLab series made possible with support from The Rockefeller Foundation. 3 Enormous Benefits to Charging the Right Price for Parking Less traffic, higher transit use, and more tax revenue — charted and mapped. • • • Eric Jaffe @e_jaffe Apr 2, 2014 • http://www.citylab.com/cityfixer/2014/04/3-enormous-benefits-charging-right-priceparking/8772/ • Shutterstock.com Costanza's universal theory of parking states that drivers should never pay for a spot because, if they apply themselves, they'll get it for free. Most U.S. cities do everything they can to abide the theory. They undervalue the price of street spaces. They keep parking so cheap it encourages driving (and thus undermines their own transit investments, leading to more driving). And they require a minimum number of parking spaces for new developments whether residents need them or not. These policies conspire to create a situation in which even someone as lazy as George Costanza can eventually find a free — or, at least, very cheap — parking space in the city. But what's thrilling for Georgie Boy (assuming no one steals his space by pulling in head first) is bad for the city as a whole. Three recent studies highlight big benefits to setting the right price for city parking: less traffic, more transit use, and greater tax revenue. Less congestion First comes a close evaluation of SFpark, San Francisco's world-class effort to match the price of parking with real-time demand. SFpark changes the cost of street spaces in commercial areas to maintain an average occupancy of 60 to 80 percent. By making sure the streets are never completely full, the program hopes to reduce circling and thus congestion on city streets. The new study (here, in full), led by Adam Millard-Ball of UC-Santa Cruz, analyzed hourly parking data to determine that SFpark has indeed achieved this target occupancy rate through demand-responsive parking prices. As a result, the researchers conclude, SFpark was responsible for a 50 percent drop in cruising for spots. Millard-Ball calls the finding evidence "of the benefits of meters more generally," and says even cities without sophisticated programs like SFpark can benefit from responsive pricing. "People might not like new meters or an extension of meter hours, but certainly our data suggests that they're very effective in reducing the amount of traffic cruising for parking," he says. If anything, says Millard-Ball, the rate changes imposed by SFpark weren't drastic enough. Bay Area drivers were actually slow to respond to the price changes, perhaps because SFpark only raises meters a quarter at a time. But the impact of any parking price on cruising came through most clearly in the traffic spikes that occurred right after the meters turned off (below, circling in the Marina neighborhood surges in red at 6 p.m. / 1800 hours) — another reason to extend pricing into nights and weekends, and onto residential streets: "I think the broad lessons are, firstly and most simply, that charging for parking works," says Millard-Ball. "We see this most dramatically in our data around the time the meters get switched off. Cruising spikes, and it's much more difficult to find a space." Higher transit use Another new study, this one led by Amy Auchincloss of Drexel, surveyed public parking costs from 2009 in 107 U.S. cities. The researchers found a significant association between these parking prices and public transit use during the same period. In larger cities — defined as those with more than 6,700 people per square mile — transit passenger miles increased 2.3 fold with higher parking costs, even adjusting for the economics of a given city. (Note though that the researchers found no such link in smaller cities.) The upshot is that cheap parking encourages people to drive into a big city. Put another way, public transit investments alone aren't enough to attract riders. Cities must consider raising the cost of driving and parking, too. More tax revenue The third study in Costanza's ménage a parking focuses on the effects that parking can have on a city's bottom line. Researchers at the University of Connecticut and the State Smart Transportation Initiative found that land devoted to street and garage parking generates less tax revenue for a city than other types of development do. This is especially bad news for cities with minimum parking requirements — policies that compel developers to provide a certain number of spots regardless of market demand. (That includes most U.S. cities at the moment, though a trend toward parking maximums has started in some places.) In Hartford, this lost tax revenue amounts to roughly $1,200 per year per parking spot (below, Hartford parking in 1960 and in 2000). That amounts to $50 million a year for a city in which all downtown real estate pays $75 million in annual taxes. "If the city can find new uses for these parking lots, then this means that it can bring a lot of revenue," study co-author Norman Garrick told WNPR in Connecticut. To be sure, there are equity challenges that go along with raising parking prices on city streets. But cheap parking is already compromising fairness in many city neighborhoods — hurting traffic, transit, and taxes for the many while helping Costanza's theory for the few. A better theory of parking would hold that drivers should never pay less for a spot than it's truly worth. Top image: Alfonso de Tomas/Shutterstock.com
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Student Name:
CMTY 195: Community &Democratic Citizenship
Pension, Megacities and Retirement age
Instructor: Professor Chuks Ugochukwu
St. Cloud State University
St. Cloud, MN
17th April 2018

1. Paul Supawanich, “Why Ridesharing Is a Way Bigger Deal for Suburban Seniors Than
Urban Millennials”, 2014
One of the most important information presented in this article is on the importance of
technology to ease the means and modes of transport. In the article there is the narration of the
use of a mobile phone technology to request for transport services. The services are efficient,
timely and delivered to the door step of the service consumers. There is also the possibility of the
service consumer to monitor progress of the ride and even make a report on the experience had.
This is the trend in most parts of the word, as the taxi sector is drastically changing and
embracing technology to deliver services. There are common companies delivering such
services, including UBER.
One concept from the article that is worth understanding is that there is a big difference between
the millennials and the Suburban seniors. The difference arises in the nature of service delivery
and service request. The consumption patterns of the two groups of persons mentioned in the
article is totally different. There could be a number of reasons leading to these differences,
including capital of the consumers, wealth at the disposal of the people under consideration,
employment status and wages. Those with enough money and resources do not find it conve...


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