Reviewing Quantitative Research Studies


Question Description

In a paper of at least 2,000 words (not including title, abstract, and reference pages), identify four quantitative research studies that relate to your topic of interest and research focus (two of the studies may be those you profiled in the first Discussion Forum assignment this week). In your paper:

  • Describe each research study, identifying the research question(s) and hypothesis (or hypotheses), the study population for each study, and the type of statistical analysis the researcher used to analyze and summarize the data.
  • Analyze similarities and differences in the ways each researcher tackled the research topic.
  • Evaluate the extent to which each study exhibits internal, construct, and external validity. Is there any evidence of lack of consistency or bias in any of the studies? If so, describe your concerns.
  • Discuss any unresolved questions about your topic of interest or research focus that were raised by the studies. How would further research on this topic help augment the findings of the studies you reviewed?
  • Prepare an outline of the information you gathered from the four sources that could be used if you were to write a paper on your topic. Organize your outline in a way that would demonstrate to a reader how you might synthesize the information across the four quantitative research studies.

Make sure to list all four articles and any other sources you

accessed to write your paper in the reference list. If needed, use the APA Formatting Templates (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

to ensure the most common reference types are formatted correctly, and

use your APA manual for less common reference types. Include title,

abstract, and reference pages in your paper. For a tutorial, see the

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1 Doctoral Study Business Problem: Savior C Wright Walden University August 24, 2017 2 Doctoral Topic: Corporate Social Responsibility The topic that I am interested in studying is that of Corporate Social Responsibility (CRS). The topic itself has gradually developed and continues to evolve every day. An expanding body of evidence shows that businesses are being forced to treat corporate social responsibility as an element central to their strategy (Crane, 2008). In fact, corporate social responsibility has become one of the standard business practices of our time. Corporate social responsibility is concerned with business’ commitment to contribute to sustainable economic development by treating all its stakeholders ethically and in a socially responsible manner (Cavico, 2013). The main aim of corporate social responsibility is businesses to engage themselves in social responsibilities rather than solely focusing their activities on profit motives. The need to study the topic emanates from the need to examine and understand some of the factors that have led to the development of the concept of corporate social responsibility and why businesses need to develop proper corporate business practices for their emerging markets. Corporate Responsibility History Over the last two decades, there has been a significant change in triangular associations between firms, governments, and societies. These have primarily been influenced by changes in business environments that have undergone vast changes concerning both competition and the wave of globalization that continues to sweep across markets (Crane, 2008). Today, companies are expanding their boundaries from the countries of their origin to evolving markets in developed and developing countries. Companies have begun to realize that engaging in clearly defined business practices, public goodwill, and responsible business etiquette is of paramount importance in a business gaining competitive advantages in the competitive environments and enjoying continued existence (Cavico, 2013). Previous studies that have focused on this topic of 3 research have noted that today’s firms are no longer acting as independent entities regardless of the interest of the general public. In actual sense, the way businesses associate with the state and societies has been said to have slowly transformed from philanthropic coexistence to one that entails mutual interest for all the stakeholders (Rothaermel, 2015). Researchers in previous studies have also noted that businesses are now seeing the need to have policies and procedures that integrate environmental, social, ethical, human rights, and consumer interests into business operations, all in close collaboration with stakeholders. Corporate Impact and Consequences For companies, the overall intention is to achieve a positive impact on the society while maximizing shared value for owners of the business, its employees, shareholders, and stakeholders. Companies that practice corporate social responsibility are rated higher and are likely to enjoy greater customer retention and customer loyalty, positive brand outlooks, increased competitiveness, greater financial gains, and cost savings (Rothaermel, 2015). Studying corporate social responsibility would be relevant in an era when governments, activists, the media, and the society as a whole have become adept at holding companies accountable for the social consequences of their activities (Cavico, 2013). Studying the topic would impact a better understanding of why corporate citizenship has emerged as an inescapable priority for business leaders all areas of business, all industries, and in every country. My selection of the topic reflects similarities with what is discussed in the media piece ‘Choosing a Doctoral Topic.’ In its broadest sense, my topic is of growing concern, investigates old ideas, is relevant and straight to the point, and provides a chance for future research. Studying the topic would be based on various research questions. The first research question would be, “Is corporate social responsibility necessary or optional for businesses?” The 4 second research question would be, “Does corporate social responsibility improve corporate reputation and thus performance?” Answering these questions would necessitate quantitative data, which would be collected through different scientific methods. These include but are not limited to interviews, observations, questionnaires, and focus groups. 5 References Cavico, F. J. (2013). Corporate social responsibility. Carrollton, KY: iLead Academy. Crane, A. (2008). The Oxford handbook of corporate social responsibility. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Rothaermel, F. T. (2015). Strategic management. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Running head: HOW TO FORMAT A PAPER How to Format a Paper in APA Style Student Name University of the Rockies 1 HOW TO FORMAT A PAPER 2 Abstract Your professor may require an Abstract, which should appear on the second page with the label centered and not bolded. The Abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of the article; it allows readers to survey the contents of an article quickly. Most scholarly journals require an abstract. The Abstract is the only part of an APA document where the first paragraph is not indented. The Abstract is usually only one paragraph in length and should not exceed 250 words. Ask your instructor if your Abstract is allowed to be longer. HOW TO FORMAT A PAPER 3 How to Format a Paper in APA Style Your college papers here at University of the Rockies will all be formatted the same way. Once you learn the correct format, you will not have to worry about how to prepare your written assignments. It is important to learn American Psychological Association (APA) writing guidelines because all University of the Rockies assignments must be formatted in APA style. While there may be a variety of sources from which you receive advice about APA formatting, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition), printed October 2009 or later, is the most accurate source for proper APA formatting. Unfortunately, the first printing of the sixth edition had many errors, so check the copyright page to make sure it says “Second printing” or later. This brief sample paper shows you how APA style looks when applied to a written assignment and can be used as a Microsoft Word template for you to format your own papers. General Formatting Information Set the margins of your document to be one inch on each side—top, bottom, left, and right. Double space all the lines in your document with no extra space between paragraphs or before or after headings. Left justify the paragraphs and leave the right side of your text ragged. Most paragraphs will have the first line indented by .5 inches. Use the Microsoft Word paragraph formatting tool to set your paragraph spacing. Make sure that Line Spacing is set to “Double” and that “Spacing” is set to 0 pt for both “Before” and “After.” There are separate considerations for different parts of your paper: the title page, the abstract, the first and subsequent pages of text, and the references pages. Directions for formatting the abstract are written in the abstract for this sample paper (see above). Directions for formatting the other parts of your paper are written in the following sections. HOW TO FORMAT A PAPER 4 Title Page Note the format of page 1, the title page. It includes the title of the paper, your name, and University of the Rockies. Check with your instructor whether additional information, such as a date or assignment number, is allowed or desired. In the header of the first page, the title page, place the words “Running head:” followed by a shortened version of your title in capital letters. On subsequent pages, put that same shortened version of your paper’s title in caps, but without the “Running head:” designation. You will have to use the Microsoft Word Header and Footer tool and check “Different First Page” to get a unique header on the title page. Body of Paper The body of your paper starts on page 3 (or page 2 if an abstract is not included). Please note that the full title of the paper that appears on the title page is repeated on a centered line just before beginning the body of the paper and is not bolded and is not repeated on subsequent pages. The following (sub)sections describe other formatting considerations within the body of the paper. Page header. Every page must be numbered in the upper right corner and must include a page header in the upper left corner that is a shortened title of the paper, in capital letters. The header is the same for all pages in your paper, including the abstract and reference pages, except for page 1, the title page. How to format headings. Note that this paper formats headings as noted in Table 3.1 of the APA Publication manual (American Psychological Organization, 2010). In general, papers are divided into sections and subsections. There are five levels of headings whose format is specified, but it is very unusual to use more than two or three levels of heading. Level 1 heading HOW TO FORMAT A PAPER 5 is the highest level and should be the first heading used in a paper. In this paper, General Formatting Information and Crediting Sources are Level 1 headings. The first level of subheadings is Level 2, such as the headings Body of Paper and Reference Page in this paper. The third level of heading is used as an example in this section--How to format headings. Usually a section is not given a heading unless there is more than one heading in that level. Reference Page Begin the references on a new page with the label “References” centered at the top, not bolded. All reference entries are formatted with a “Hanging” indent of .5 inches. Use the Microsoft Word paragraph formatting tool to set your paragraph spacing by choosing “Hanging” under “Special.” List references according to APA 6th edition style, see especially chapter 7 for examples. Crediting Sources When you use an idea that is not your own, you must give credit to the author of that idea. The importance of giving credit for outside sources cannot be overstated. Every print source and everything found on the Internet must be cited in the text of your paper. The two sentences that follow are examples of how to create in-text citation of an article you found on a website. An article on the Ethics Resource Center website (Sears, 2004) presents three scenarios that demonstrate the types of ethical situations employees might face in their jobs. Or, Sears’ article (2004) from the Ethics Resource Center website presents three scenarios that demonstrate the types of ethical situations employees might face in their jobs. HOW TO FORMAT A PAPER 6 Your in-text citations must also have a complete citation on a reference page. This reference page citation provides more detailed information for each source. Only include references on the reference page that you have cited in your paper. Conclusion Note that papers generally do not have an “Introduction” section labeled, but often have a “Conclusion” section with its own heading. The introduction is generally understood as the first section of text following the title and does not need a header. This paper has been formatted as a sample paper for use by students. It is not intended to be a tutorial on APA style, but what is included in the text is correct. Once one learns formatting basics, writing papers for submission to class or for publication becomes easier. Happy writing! HOW TO FORMAT A PAPER 7 References American Psychological Association (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Sears, B. (2004). Conflicts of interest. Monitor on Psychology, 39, 38-48. doi:10.1037/02786133.24.2.225 OR, if the article does not have an assigned DOI number Sears, B. (2004). Conflicts of interest. Monitor on Psychology, 39, 38-48. OR, include the URL homepage of the journal (section 6.32 in APA manual) Sears, B. (2004). Conflicts of interest. Monitor on Psychology, 39, 38-48. Retrieved from Do not indicate retrieval from library databases. Do not include retrieval dates for any source unless the source material may change over time. ...
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Tutor Answer

School: Carnegie Mellon University


Outline: Quantitative Research
Quantitative Research 1
Topic: Leadership in Corporate World
This research is about leadership in the corporate world. The reason why I chose this topic is
that leadership is dynamic and keeps changing every now and then. This topic is related to m
topic social responsibility because leadership is part of social responsibility. Different
leaders portray different leadership styles depending on the circumstances that they face
every day (Yahaya & Ebrahim, 2016
Quantitative Research 2
Topic: Non-verbal communication
I have chosen non-verbal communication because in corporate social responsibility
communication is crucial. Communication is very important in day to day activities as
nothing can go on without communication
Quantitative Research 3
Topic: Prejudice at Workplace
The research on prejudice relates to my topic of study corporate social responsibility. This
topic interests me because one of the factors that make workers non-productive is being
prejudiced in the workplace.
Quantitative Research 4
Topic: Attitudes
Another research that is related to my topic of study is attitudes. Attitudes affect the
corporate social responsibility. I got interested in doing a research on this topic after
observing that relationships in the workplace are greatly affected by the attitudes of people.
Almond, G. A., & Verba, S. (2015). The civic culture: Political attitudes and democracy in
five nations. Princeton University Press


Quantitative research
Institutional Affiliation
Student Name





This paper has explored four quantitative research studies that will form the base of my
research focus. The research topics that are discussed are; Leadership styles, prejudice,
attitude, and nonverbal communication. For each topic, the research questions have been
identified and summary did. The paper has also done a survey of the history of the respective



Quantitative Research 1
Topic: Leadership in Corporate World
This research is about leadership in the corporate world. The reason why I chose this
topic is that leadership is dynamic and keeps changing every now and then. This topic is
related to m topic social responsibility because leadership is part of social responsibility.
Different leaders portray different leadership styles depending on the circumstances that they
face every day (Yahaya & Ebrahim, 2016). As a matter of fact, a leader should be aware of
the different leadership styles that exist so as to know what type of style to use for different
circumstances. In a workplace, the circumstances keep changing and each circumstance is
unique. It is unlikely that a leader will be faced with similar circumstances and this means
that every circumstance should be handled uniquely. This means that as a leader it is
important to be conversant with different styles so as to know the most effective leadership
style to use when faced with different circumstances. Successful leaders are those who are
able to use different leadership styles.
The History of leadership styles
From the immemorial, leadership has been one of the topics that interest man.
However, the study of leadership was taken seriously in the 20th century (Goleman, 2017).
There are many theories that have come up to explain leadership. These theories keep
evolving with time. This is because leadership is dynamic and keep...

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