microbiology research

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Infectious diseases have killed more people than any other single cause and have remained the primary source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Infectious diseases are disorders caused by microorganisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many of these organisms are part of our bodies’ microflora, and are generally beneficial, but under certain circumstances they may lead to disease. Furthermore, other infectious diseases can be transmitted directly or indirectly: from one person to another, from insects or animals, or can be acquired by ingestion of contaminated foods and water, as well as by environmental exposure. Accordingly, our ever-growing world population is facing new challenges such as emerging and re-emerging infectious disease associated with globalization and increased populations of immunocompromised individuals. Therefore, the prescription and/or administration of an antimicrobial and the potential emergence of resistance among pathogenic microbial isolates requires a working knowledge of the diversity of infectious agents, testing and profiling techniques used to identify them, treatment modalities and preventative actions. Accordingly, the objective of the following term paper is to acquaint students with performing original literature research pertaining their chosen infectious agent. This paper will be in a review paper format, ranging from its history and discovery to morphology and growth characteristics, mechanisms of pathogenicity and treatment or preventative options, and lastly public health related management strategies or policies.

Each student will select an infectious agent of their interest (bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoan, prion) at the beginning of the quarter and research their chosen microbe outside of class using web resources (NIH, CDC, FDA, PubMed), and peer-reviewed primary literature. You will be expected to prepare a 10 page written paper covering the various topics listed below.

  • Taxonomic classification
  • History and interesting facts
  • Notable outbreaks
  • Morphological and growth characteristics
  • Disease geography
  • Rout of transmission
  • Mechanisms of pathogenesis
  • Diagnosis / symptoms
  • Treatment modalities / availability of vaccine
  • Public health initiatives / preventative actions
  • References

The final, submitted, paper must include the above-mentioned topics organized into sections with headings. Please double-space all your text. Use 1” margins all round. Use 11 pt font. The minimum number of pages should not be less than 9 pages and maximum length should not exceed 11 pages (references not included). A minimum of 8 peer-reviewed primary literature citations should be used. These do not include websites. Articles must be cited in APA format. Your chosen infectious agent must be named using taxonomic nomenclature.

Taxonomic nomenclature employs the names of the two lower-level taxa, genus, and species. Conventions when using taxonomic nomenclature include genus comes before species and is always capitalized. Species name is never capitalized. Both names are always italicized. For example, Escherichia coli. If the name appears in several places in throughout the text, you can abbreviate the genus name after it has been written in full length for the first time. For example, the abbreviation of Escherichia coli is E. coli. When specifying a particular strain, the genus name comes first, species name is second and strain name is last, followed by the serovar. The prefix subsp. is generally used to signify the strain. Everything should be italicized except the prefix subsp. and the serovar - Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin. If the species is not fully identified, than the abbreviation "sp." in the singular or "spp." in the plural is used (e.g., Salmonella spp.). In this case, the name of the genus is written in italic, and sp. and spp. are written in normal font.

If figures are included, number them consecutively and give each a caption, as well as refer to them in your text by their number. Do not use more than 3 figures. Make sure that you include all the information necessary to interpret your figures. If figures are taken from other works, make sure you cite their original source.

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Explanation & Answer


1. Introduction
Title: Microbiology Research Paper: Viruses
Thesis: In the current research paper, the focus is placed on viruses as microbes, discussing their
existence, history, pathophysiology, and efforts in place to mitigate their occurrence or spread.
2.. Definition and significance of taxonomy in virology
a. Challenges in classifying viruses
b. Hierarchical classification system in virus taxonomy

3. History and Interesting Facts
a. Discovery of viruses and their impact on medical science
b. Notable viral pandemics throughout history
c. Contributions of virology to molecular biology and medicine

4. Morphological and Growth Characteristics \

Structural components of viruses

b. Variability in size, shape, and complexity
c. Host range and adaptation strategies.

5. Disease Geography
a. Patterns of viral distribution
b. Endemic, epidemic, and pandemic spread
c. Factors influencing viral emergence and re-emergence.

6. Route of Transmission

Sexual, bloodborne, and direct contact transmission

b. Faecal-oral and vector-borne transmission
c. Vertical transmission from mother to child

7. Mechanisms of Pathogenesis
a. Viral attachment, entry, and replication
b. Evasion of host immune defences
c. Impact on host tissues and immune responses

8. Diagnosis and Symptoms
a. Clinical presentation and common symptoms
b. Laboratory diagnosis techniques
c. Importance of early and accurate diagnosis

9. Treatment, Modalities, and Availability of Vaccines

Supportive care and antiviral medications

b. Role of vaccination in prevention
c. Challenges in vaccine availability and distribution

10. Public Health Interventions

Vaccination campaigns and routine immunization


Surveillance systems and outbreak detection

c. Collaboration among stakeholders for effective disease management

11. Conclusion
a. Recap of the importance of virus taxonomy
b. Need for ongoing research and public health efforts
c. Future directions in virology and virus taxonomy


Microbiology Research Paper: Viruses

Student’s Name

Viruses are minute, microscopic organisms that contain a small piece of genetic material
or information (either RNA or DNA) within their protective shells (Kuhn, 2021). According to
Kuhn (2021), viruses are the smallest of microbes. Viruses are only able to survive and reproduce
while inside of their host (often an animal or a human being). The protective layer within which
the genetic material of the virus is located is called a capsid; completely made up of protein. A
spikey coat around the virus allows viruses to latch onto their hosts and get inside them. The unique
characteristics of viruses provide them to maintain their life within the cell. In the current research
paper, the focus is placed on viruses as microbes, discussing their existence, history,
pathophysiology, and efforts in place to mitigate their occurrence or spread. Further, the study
presents crucial discussions on the diagnosis and symptoms associated with viral infections,
notable outbreaks related to the microbes, how they morph and grow, and the treatments associated
or that exist to manage the conditions caused by viruses.
The taxonomy of viruses
Taxonomy is the scientific branch that focuses on classifying organisms into groups with
similar attributes and manifestations (Kuhn, 2021; Walker et al., 2022). Despite their impact on
human health and distinct manifestations, viruses pose a challenge in taxonomy since they are
intracellular parasites. Being intracellular means that they lack distinct cellular structures unless
they are inside a host, which means they also do not have their metabolic structures that would
promote their classification (Dominguez-Huerta et al., 2022). In taxonomy, virus classification
depends on different criteria, including their ways of replication, the structure of their genomes,
modes of transmission and their strategies of replication. This approach to classification informs
hierarchical classification. The hierarchical classification of viruses results in various levels
including the family, genus, species, and order (Dominguez-Huerta et al., 2022; Maggi et al.,

2019). Each of these levels defines the genetic and phenotype attributes that make viruses unique,
and therefore distinct from one another. Using these attributes, similar viruses are grouped
The highest taxonomic level of viruses is the order, and this groups together viruses that
share similar biological characteristics (Kuhn, 2021; Maggi et al., 2019). Within the order, the
viruses are grouped further into families, based on their genomes, how they replicate and their
overall structure. An example of an order is Nidovirales. Nidovirales are viruses that have a large
positive-sense RNA genome (biological characteristic) (Kuhn, 2021). Under the order Nidovirales,
there is the Coronviridae family: which is a collection of viruses that inform disease in humans,
including such viruses as the SARS-CoV-2 (Macchi et al., 2020). Within th...

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