PSY1010 Columbia Southern Case Studies Naturalistic & Structuralism Questions

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Question 1

Identify the differences between case studies, naturalistic and laboratory observations, tests, surveys, correlational studies, and experiments.

Your response must be at least 200 words in length.

Question 2

Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis. Your response should identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought and an example of an area they would examine.

Your response must be at least 200 words in length.

Question 3

Distinguish between a theory, a hypothesis, and an operational definition. You must also provide an example for each one.

Your response must be at least 200 words in length.

Question 4

When people think of psychology, they usually think of mental disorders, emotional disorders, abnormal acts, personal problems, and psychotherapy, but it relates to many different areas of life. Define psychology, and describe how it addresses topics from a scientific perspective. Your answer must include two specific examples.

Your response must be at least 200 words in length.

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UNIT I STUDY GUIDE Introduction to Psychology and Research Methods Course Learning Outcomes for Unit I Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Outline the historical development of the psychology field. 1.1 Describe how psychology addresses topics from a scientific perspective. 1.2 Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis. 1.3 Identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought. 2. Differentiate research methodologies used in the field of psychology. 2.1 Distinguish between a theory, a hypothesis, and an operational definition. 2.2 Identify the differences between case studies, naturalistic and laboratory observations, tests, surveys, correlational studies, and experiments. Reading Assignment Chapter 1: What is Psychology? Chapter 2: How Psychologists Do Research Unit Lesson Chapter 1: What is Psychology? Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion: Most laypersons would argue that behavioral science involves the embracement of common sense principles. Quite often, people gain their foundational knowledge about psychology by grasping information they have gleaned from professionals on talk-shows. However, it is important to go beyond common sense principles because these beliefs are not always supported by scientific findings. In fact, psychology is a diverse field in which many theories are present. According to Wade and Tavris (2017), psychology is a specific discipline that seeks to understand mental processing and human behaviors. Psychologists study the internal and external processing of various stimuli and the effects on the organism’s mental and physical state. Many forms of pseudoscience, including psychics and astrologers, seek to compare with psychology. However, psychology is distinguished by its usage of empirical evidence. Although many forms of psychobabble seem tempting due to the natural appeal to various beliefs and prejudices, psychology often provides evidence to challenge assumptions and ideologies. Thinking Critically and Creatively About Psychology: As you read Chapter 1, you will begin to gain critical-thinking skills. By thinking critically, one can evaluate research findings on various psychological issues. In order to think critically, an individual must seek to answer questions, examine the evidence, carefully analyze biases, avoid reasoning grounded in emotions, bypass oversimplification, contemplate various alternatives, and permit uncertainties that may exist (Wade & Tavris, 2017). PSY 1010, General Psychology 1 Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory: Chapter 1 discusses the various viewpoints from forerunners of psychology, including Wilhelm Wundt, Edward Titchener, William James, Wolfgang Kohler, and Sigmund Freud. Many of the roots for psychology today can be traced back to the work of Freud and his theory of psychoanalysis. Freud postulated that many unconscious thoughts are grounded in various emotional and mental problems experienced by the individual (Wade & Tavris, 2017). Although much is widely known about the foundational men in psychology, numerous female scholars have notable accomplishments within this field as well. For instance, Mary Whiton Calkins was a student at Harvard University, and she collaborated with William James on many projects while enrolled there. Unfortunately, she never received a Ph.D. from this institution of higher learning because during this period, Harvard did not give women official acceptance into their graduate school. Calkins, did however, make great contributions to the field as her lab produced prolific work in the area of short-term memory (Madigan & O’Hara, 1992). Another notable woman in psychology’s history was Mamie Phipps Clark. This African American researcher received degrees from Howard University and Columbia University. Clark was interested in examining the impact of racial segregation on African American (Grillich, n.d.) youth. Within her studies, she used White and Black dolls to help ascertain racial identity with White and Black children. Upon seeing the two dolls, the children were instructed to choose the one that most resembled them. They were then asked to pick which doll they wanted to play with during the experiment. The majority of both White and Black children chose the White doll. Based on these observations, Clark concluded that both races of children preferred being White (Clark & Clark, 1950). Her pivotal work within this area was detailed in the Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education in 1954, which determined that school segregation within American public schools was unconstitutional. Sigmund Freud is considered to be one of the most influential people in the early field of psychology. Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science: There are four dominant perspectives in modern psychology today: biological, learning, cognitive, and sociocultural. Each approach seeks to answer various questions about the behavior of humans. Other movements do not fall into the above categories yet have affected the field as well. These include feminist and humanist psychology (Wade & Tavris, 2017). Each perspective seeks to explain human behaviors in an unique way. What Psychologists Do: Psychologists today hold a variety of occupations. Some serve as professors and mental-health providers while others conduct research in either basic or applied psychology. Many psychologists perform the role of practitioner. They often counsel individuals seeking to solve daily issues and conflicts. Historically, psychologists have been under the obligation to do no harm when working with research participants; however, after the attacks on September 11, 2001, the CIA and U.S. military Constellation therapy is one method used by family psychologists were accused of embracing controversial in therapy sessions. interrogation strategies while seeking to gather (Wong, 2012) information from suspected terrorists. These questionable acts included numerous tactics such as water-boarding, sleep deprivation, and stress positioning, just to name a few. It is important to note that psychologists participated in such interrogations, which raised multiple ethical questions. Although the American Psychological Association (APA) determined PSY 1010, General Psychology 2 that psychologists could assist with national security and military interrogations and consultations, this decision has been met with much controversy. Many members of the APA purport that this position conflicts with the foundational principles of this organization. In response to this controversy, some resolutions were crafted that banned practitioners from controversial strategies such as forced nudity and exploitation of phobias held by prisoners (Munsey, 2008; Vedantam, 2007). What are your thoughts? Should such controversial interrogation strategies be used if they can potentially save American lives? Biology, Culture, and Psychology: As you conclude your examination of Chapter 1, you will learn that most psychologists today embrace more than one school of thought in regard to psychology. This is described as crossing the border (Wade & Tavris, 2017). This trend is often reinforced by the growing interest in cultural and biological influences. The overarching theme is to embrace the crucial element of empirical evidence that makes psychology the science it is today. Chapter 2: How Psychologists Do Research What makes psychological research scientific? It is important to understand scientific methods within a psychology context. It is important to embrace research methods that will sift foundational conclusions from groundless beliefs. By examining diverse research methods, one can begin to improve his or her critical thinking about psychological disputes. Scientists make a concerted effort to practice effective research techniques (Wade & Tavris, 2017). They formulate hypotheses and draft concise predictions. They are not gullible beings that believe all claims. These researchers rely on empirical evidence and avoid biases. The research methods of these individuals are open to public scrutiny, and their findings can effectively be replicated. Peer review is an integral portion of the process and provides a proper sense of balance. Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts: In a perfect world, researchers would always utilize representative samples when conducting studies so that the larger population could be properly studied; however, due to various reasons, researchers are often forced to embrace convenience samples. When doing so, the data must be interpreted with extreme caution. In descriptive studies, behaviors are predicted and described. These can include case studies, observational studies, psychological testing, and surveys. Correlational Studies: Looking for Relationships: Correlational studies are a type of descriptive study in which the relationships between two variables are examined. It is important to remember that not all correlations are based on supporting data. Although correlational studies are helpful in making predictions, they do not necessarily determine causality. An example of data from a correlational study (á, 2012) A study conducted by Christakis, Zimmerman, DiGiuseppe, and McCarty (2004) reported that a positive correlation exists between the amount of time children 1-3 years of age spend watching television and their propensity for hyperactive behaviors like impulse control, inattention, and concentration struggles by the time they reach 7 years of age. Do you think this means that watching television can cause a child to later become hyperactive? Could it be possible that children who are already predisposed to hyperactivity are more likely to enjoy watching television than children who have calm dispositions? Furthermore, could strained parents of easily distracted children be more apt to embrace the television as child monitor? Experiments: Hunting for Causes: Experimental research seeks to identify cause and effect relationships via controlled efforts. In these studies, independent variables are manipulated while measuring the effects on dependent variables. Participants are assigned to either control or experimental groups. Placebos are often given to the control group during treatment efforts. In an effort to keep the results from being influenced, single-blind and double-blind procedures are often embraced to eliminate biases. Evaluating the Findings: Descriptive statistics are utilized to summarize the data gathered. Such statistics include the arithmetic mean and standard deviation. Inferential statistics are implemented as well. Both assist PSY 1010, General Psychology 3 in making research findings significant and meaningful. It is imperative that one does not go beyond the facts of the data when interpreting the results. Often times, hypotheses must be tested in various ways. This can include cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Keeping the Enterprise Ethical: Researchers are bound by various codes of ethics to ensure respect and dignity for participants. It is important to obtain informed consent from participants in a study. The researcher must seek to protect these individuals from harm and make them aware of any potential dangers associated with the experiment. Moral guidelines have been implemented to protect individuals as well. For many years, debate has continued over the use of animals for psychological studies. Regulations have been established to govern treatment practices and care of this population as well. What are your thoughts? Do you think it is ethical to expose animals to painful experiences if the learning outcomes improve conditions for humans? Taking Psychology With You: As you conclude your reading for this unit, it is important to remember that although statistics assist scientists in evaluating human behaviors, statistics often can be misrepresented, misused, and misconstrued. Wade and Tavris (2017) argue that certain efforts must be embraced to avoid these errors. Critical and scientific thinking must be embraced when examining psychological findings. References á. (2012, May 29). Correlation coefficient of intelligence quotients compared with genetic similarity [Image]. Retrieved from with_genetic_similarity.png Christakis, D. A., Zimmerman, F. J., DiGiuseppe, D. L., & McCarty, C. A. (2004). Early television exposure and subsequent attentional problems in children. Pediatrics, 113, 708-713. Clark, K. B., & Clark, M. P. (1950). Emotional factors in racial identification and preference in Negro children. Journal of Negro Education, 19, 341-350. Grillich, L. (n.d.). Sigmund Freud um 1905 [Image]. Retrieved from Madigan, S., & O’Hara, R. (1992). Short-term memory at the turn of the century. American Psychologist, 47, 107-174. Munsey, C. (2008). The debate continues: Psychologists continue to discuss the field’s involvement in interrogations. Monitor on Psychology, 39(9), 16. Vedantam, S. (2007, August 20). APA rules on interrogation abuse: Psychologists’ group bars member participation in certain techniques. Washington Post. Wade, C., & Tavris, C. (2017). Psychology (12th ed.)[VitalSource Bookshelf version]. Retrieved from Wong, A. (2012, January 15). Family constellation [Image]. Retrieved from Suggested Reading The links below will direct you to both a PowerPoint and PDF view of the Chapter 1 and 2 Presentations, which will summarize and reinforce the information from these chapters in your textbook. Click here to access the Chapter 1 PowerPoint Presentation. (Click here to access a PDF version of the presentation.) PSY 1010, General Psychology 4 Click here to access the Chapter 2 PowerPoint Presentation. (Click here to access a PDF version of the presentation.) In order to access the following resources, click the links below: The following are three psychology articles found within the Academic OneFile database located in the CSU Online Library. The articles discuss the topics of phrenology, psychoanalysis, and social psychology. These three topics are vitally important to the history of psychology as they helped to form the basis of psychological research. While research has changed drastically and we understand more than we did 100 years ago, psychological research may not exist had not pioneering individuals stepped forward and began researching the human psyche. Phrenology: Soreff, S. M., & Bazemore, P. H. (2007). Examining phrenology: This pseudoscience did have some influence on modern understanding of the brain. Behavioral Healthcare, 27(1), 14-17. Retrieved from 59594448&asid=35c4d00c923a7de62d91bb8b114821c7 Psychoanalysis: Nansen, J. T. (2010). Counseling and psychoanalysis: Advancing the value of diversity. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 38(1), 16-27. Retrieved from 14456339&asid=f137c45cab5a02731472e284a6f8422f Social Psychology: Collett, J., & Lizardo, O. (2010). Occupational status and the experience of anger. Social Forces, 88(5), 20793005. Retrieved from 6387720&asid=d60cc97f67b339d2a16ced5b0c8685b4 Learning Activities (Non-Graded) Non-graded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information. Knowledge Check! The short quizzes below are a great way to self-test your knowledge of the concepts learned in this unit. Take a few minutes to complete these quizzes to check your understanding. They are located in the textbook on the page(s) given. The answers are provided in the document below the quizzes, but try to answer the questions before checking the answers. Chapter 1  Quiz for Module 1.1 (page 6)  Quiz for Module 1.2 (pages 13-14)  Quiz for Module 1.3 (page 18)  Quiz for Module 1.4 (page 21)  Quiz for Module 1.5 (page 27)  Chapter 1 Quiz (pages 31-33) Chapter 2  Quiz for Module 2.1 (page 40)  Quiz for Module 2.2 (page 47) PSY 1010, General Psychology 5      Quiz for Module 2.3 (page 50) Quiz for Module 2.4 (page 56) Quiz for Module 2.5 (page 62) Quiz for Module 2.6 (page 64) Chapter 2 Quiz (pages 68-70) Answer Keys Click here for the Chapter 1 answer keys. Click here for the Chapter 2 answer keys. PSY 1010, General Psychology 6
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Identify the differences between case studies, naturalistic and laboratory observations,
tests, surveys, correlational studies, and experiments.


Case studies can be defined as the research strategies or an empirical inquiry that

investigates a phenomenon within the context of its is mostly regarded as the process
of research in the development of a particular situation, person or group over a period of time
that the investigation is taking place. That instance of something is used to illustrate a thesis.
Case studies take the full analysis of a few events or conditions and their interrelationships.
(Koseff, J2014)They rely on thorough qualitative and quantitative analysis and emphasis on
more details in order to provide an insight into problem-solving, evaluation and strategy.

Naturalistic and laboratory observations are used to classify the research environment.

i) Naturalistic observation is the situation where research studies are conducted on a natural
environment through observation without any attempts to create changes whereas

Laboratory observations are the observation research studies that are conducted in an

artificial environment and variables are analyzed according to the means of the study.

Tests are examinations or assessments intended to extract a particular result either from a

research or knowledge from the test may be intended to measure a respondent’s
knowledge or ability

Surveys are important methods of data /information collection especially from large

populations whe...

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