Cause and effect paper on Air pollution

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Running head: OPERATION MINCEMEAT Operation Mincemeat Student's Name Course Number-Name of Course Instructor’s Name Date OPERATION MINCEMEAT 2 Operation Mincemeat Introduction In 1943, World War II was on course as it approached its end in 1945. Several countries had taken sides depending on their history, welfare, and concerns. The military from different countries applied different approaches and tactics, others which were meant to deceive the enemy according to a private report given by Sellers (2009) who is a major at the United States Air Force in Maxwell Airbase in Alabama. Sellers assert that there were more than forty deception tactics used by the military to deceive, confuse and change the enemy’s course. Sellers (2009) further notes that operation mincemeat was arguably the most successful during the Second World War in enemy deception. This articulation is reiterated by Smith (2010) who terms it as one of the most deathly operations ever conducted during the WWII. Its operation enhanced by a previous operation dubbed Operation Husky whose main target was the German military (Montagu, 1996). This operation was to divert the attention of the Germans through deception. The Second World War archives have it that Sicily was the main target during the time of Operation Barclay. There was a need for Operation Mincemeat to achieve this target. What did Operation Mincemeat Entail? On April 30, 1943, the stage of the war was set for the sides, with Germany and Italy having their target enemies against the southern side of Europe. Sicily in Italy was the primary target for Germans (Smyth, 2010). Before they achieved their objective of attacking Sicily, their operation was aborted through the operation Mincemeat which was successfully conducted by OPERATION MINCEMEAT 3 British Intelligence Unit referred to as M15 (Sellers, 2009). The success of the operation was based on the fact that the Germans were duped to divert their attention and run errands to other places. At this time, the enemy used Alex leadership, and all hopes were that they could refocus and lessen the defense on Sicily. How Did They Deceive The Enemy? Charles Cholmondeley was the lieutenant of the Royal Air Force who was involved in the whole intelligence process together with Montagu (Macintyre, 2010). The success of the plan was based on usage of the body of a deceased man. Full deception included the use of the falsified documents and letting the body float at the coast of the Huelva where the German or Spanish spies were likely to pass by as they patrolled the area (Scribner, 2004). The deceased body which was used was for a man who was homeless but was of Wales’s origin. He had died of consuming rat poison. With the yellowish body due to the presence of phosphorous, it was apparent that the Germans and Spanish authorities would be convinced that the deceased had drowned or was merely a hypothermia victim (Haufler, 2014). The intellectual capacity of the British M15 unit was on another level. The body of the deceased was let floating with fake documents including a falsified name of an officer who was operating with the Royal Marines. It is crucial to note that there was a law which was broken in this operation. The operating officer, Coronel Bentley certified that the Williams Bill Martin, the name of the Royal Marine officer, had died abroad and his body was being transferred to the Intelligence Unit. The package also had details of tickets, credit cards, and falsified personal information. In this information, the intelligence unit included seemingly classified information OPERATION MINCEMEAT 4 which linked the deceased with the some of the high-ranking officials in the United States (Montagu, 1996). The information hinted that Sicily was not going to be the primary target. Instead, Kalamata and Sardinia were to be the primary focus of the military. At the last days of April, the body of “William Marin” was set on water, a kilometer away from Huelva. The lead teams ensured that the body of the deceased did not further decompose or decay by fixing it in steel can. The British military assessed the situation and identified that one of the lead operators in the mission, Adolf Clauss, would get the information and take it home to Berlin, the headquarters of all Germany Military operations at the time (Sellers, 2009). The launch of the falsified package was faced with unprecedented hiccups, but it did not raise the attention of the Spanish patrollers. Few hours after the body was set afloat, it was discovered by a man doing his routine fishing. He took the body to Huelva where a postmortem was conducted to determine the origin and cause of the death. It was apparent that the pathologist discovered that some of the parts of the body had decomposed, an indication that the body must have stayed for a while after death (Montagu, 1996). However, the report indicated that the person had drowned in the water. Subsequently, the report did not raise any initial suspicion, something that went in line with the expectations of the British Intelligence Unit. So far the plan was smooth. Montagu and the team involved in the intelligence process claimed that the process was a complex and its success would only be determined by time. “We simply had to get the letter to Spain by the beginning of May if the operation was to be of any value; we had to give the German Intelligence Service time to get the information, convince themselves of its genuineness by any checkup that they might want, and then to ―appreciate it OPERATION MINCEMEAT 5 and pass the result on to the operational staff. The latter would then need time to make their arrangements and to send their forces to the wrong places,” (Montagu, 1996). Apparently, there was a need to raise suspicion and create a notion that the documents were official and highly confidential. A message was broadcast by the British through a radio whose target was Berlin in Germany, claiming that some crucial documents containing details of militia operations had gone missing (Macintyre. 2010). The curiosity of the Spanish authorities was provoked, and they were prompted to open them in the presence of the Germans to discover the hidden secrets of M15. The Spanish and German authorities made copies and gave back the original documents (Montagu, 1996). Upon receiving the original prints, the Intelligence Unit determined that the letter had been opened, evident from the way the folds had changed their initial outlay designed by the officers. Adolf Hitler had had his fair share of military invention, a great discovery. He ordered that there should be a reshuffle of the army, and all focus should be concentrating on the new target which was Kalamata in Greece. The deception was conducted which led to the diversion of attention of the German and Spanish military. A successful attack was made on Sicily (Montagu, 1996). Conclusion In conclusion, it is apparent that the success of the operation can be attributed to the fact that deceptive military tactics conducted by Montagu and the group of intellects. The role which Adolf played in the deception cannot be underestimated since he was reluctant to send his troupes to Sicily. This is because Italy was almost withdrawing from the conflict. The intellects had been successful in ensuring that they have duped the enemies. Consequently, what followed OPERATION MINCEMEAT 6 was a change of strategy by the Germans. The deception by Montagu and team made it possible for the allies to be successful in achieving their target while the enemy was lost in the deception. OPERATION MINCEMEAT 7 References Haufler, H. (2014). The Spies who never Were: The True Story of the Nazi Spies who Were Actually Allied Double Agents. Open Road Media. Macintyre, B. (2010). Operation mincemeat: the true spy story that changed the course of World War II. A&C Black. Montagu, E (1996). The Man Who Never Was, Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. Scribner, (2004). The Deceivers: Alled Military Deception in the Second World War, New York: Sellers E B (2009). Case Study: Operation Mincemeat, Major, United States Air Force| Alabama. Smyth, D. (2010). Deathly Deception: The Real Story of Operation Mincemeat. OUP Oxford. Cause and Effect Essay Subject: The thing or person you are writing about. (This is always in your claim/thesis). Audience: Who exactly are your readers? Purpose: Why are you writing, to call to action, to persuade, inform, or entertain? Through your focused free writing exercise you generated a number of topics on the environment. Choose one of your strongest claims from your focused free writing and turn that claim into your thesis for your cause and effect essay (i.e. Deforestation has adverse impacts on atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland). Your audience should specifically target someone you want to (a) inform about the negative impacts of this problem on the environment and (b) what can be done to stop this negative impact on the environment (show your reader that you can handle definitions by clarifying for your reader what things mean). You are writing to bring attention to an environmental problem, so you must research and have a good understanding of your subject in order to show your reader why they should be concerned or alarmed. In this essay you must display your ability to handle formal research by not just simply citing borrowed information, but by analyzing the research. Your purpose is to talk about a problem and show its impact on the environment, but focusing more on the negative impact(s) and the effects it has on the environment. For example, deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees or derived charcoal are used as, or sold, for fuel or as lumber, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity. This essay is about cause and effect, so it should generate those specific elements and requires formal research. You must include four sources in your essay, and they can only come from authorities, including books or journals from select research databases. Again, use MLA citation for this essay. Make sure you cite accurately. I will be grading you on your clarity, organization, grammar, use of metaphors and similes and MLA! If you need help...PLEASE ASK TO MEET WITH ME WAY IN ADVANCE...........BEFORE THE PAPER IS DUE. Your paper should be 3-4 pages in length; words processed, and use proper formatting (1 inch margins, double spaced, and in a 12 point font). .
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Surname 1
Student’s Name
Instructor’s Name
Course
Date
Causes and Effects of Air Pollution
Introduction
Air pollution constitutes the most visible and invisible forms of environmental
pollutions that affect the ecosystem. Air pollution refers to the release of health and
environmentally harmful pollutants into the atmosphere. It may also refer to introduction
particles that do not form part of the air into the atmosphere. The particles that pollute the air
are referred to as air pollutants and constitute substances from chemicals, smoke, and dust.
Smoke and dust particles are visible forms of air pollution while chemical pollutants are
mostly invisible (Raaschou-Nielsen et al. 815). Major causes of air pollutions originate from
human activities through industrial and domestic activities. This essay examines major causes
of air pollution and the effects of the problem on the environment and human health.

Causes of Air Pollution
Fossil fuels burning is a major cause of air pollution. When fossil fuels are
combusted, sulfur dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere. Fossil fuels include substances such
as coal, petroleum, and diesel. This pollution arises from motor vehicle and airplane engine
combustions. Incomplete combustions from the motor vehicles also emit carbon monoxide
which is harmful to human health. Carbon dioxide is also emitted into the atmosphere
through human activities. When these gases are emitted into the atmosphere, they combine
with the natural atmospheric atmosphere causing an imbalance in the atmospheric gases
(Seinfeld & Pandis 21)

Surname 2

Agricultural activities are also a contribut...


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