Peer review assignment

timer Asked: Apr 29th, 2018
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Question Description

Read three people's articles, then write three comments to these three people.

Find three questions or problems for each comment, 25 words for each question.

ps: The three articles and grading rubric are given in the following documents.

Peer review assignment

You will review three papers written by your peers. For each review, you will complete a peer review worksheet and you will submit a score based on the rubric provided.

Here are more detailed step-by-step instructions for accessing and completing the peer reviews:

  1. Download the peer review worksheet you will be completing for each peer.
  2. Review the instructions here for accessing the peer reviews you have been assigned. The reviews are located in the original assignment "Design Project - First draft submission."
  3. Review each paper carefully and score the paper based on the rubric provided. To access the rubric, click the "show rubric" link and enter a score for each criterion in the "points" column. When finished, click the "save comment" button.
  4. Respond to the three questions in the peer review worksheet. Responses for each question must be at least 25 words long.
  5. Upload your peer review worksheet in the comments section of each peer review you complete by clicking on the "attach file" link below the comments box.

You will receive points toward your design project for completing the three reviews. To receive full credit, you must answer all three questions and complete a rubric for each of the three papers.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

EDP 101 15 April 2018 Design Project Principle: The psychology principle that I choose to focus on is short-term/working memory, and more specifically chunking. Chunking applies to a method of encoding for short term memory. Memory help us with recall, recognitions, inferences, regulating behavior, and contributes to our everyday lives. You short term memory is done through attention and rehearsal from your sensory memory. With a duration of about 10-20 seconds, you short term memory has a capacity of about 7 +/- 2 chunks, or the amount of things remembered at once. The content of short term memory consists of the position of words, processing or words, personal relevance, and thematic relevance of words. Looking at a long list of words or numbers, attempting to recall every item can be a very difficult process. Chunking is often used to group multiple pieces of information into a smaller number of groups of information. In order for chunking to work, you need prior knowledge to form associations between the words or numbers. Self-reference help the participant feel more connected to the chunks of information and give them more meaning.The retrieval of the information will be much easier to recall when chunking is involved. Materials/procedure: For my psychology principle I want to focus on making the memorization and retrieval of information relatively easier for the participants. For example, recalling lists, codes, passwords, ect. My procedure for chunking will be to teach my participants to recall a sixteen digit passcode, consisting of all numbers. My participants will be inclined to not write anything down, and try their hardest to recall the code without any help from a physical copy of the code. The goal of this study is to teach participants to enhance their retrieval skills of a code through the use of coding. The act of recalling the sixteen digit passcode in my study, will be done through the chunking technique. My design will consist of a family of five, with two parents and three children, all ages sixteen and up, to act as participants. The family will be asked to remember a certain sixteen digit code for their family safe. Since the code helps them get into the safe that holds all of their most important belongings, it will have even more self relevance and motivation to memorize the code. The code will be as follows: 16182119972018. I would ask the participants to first review the code once by simply reading off the numbers. Next, I would have them try to recall the code as best as possible by writing it down for me to examine. Due to the fact that the participants had no chance to actively rehearse the code or try to make personal connections to the numbers, their results for the code will be off. After the initial review, I will ask the participants to go through the code again and attempt to chunk the information into smaller, more relevant pieces. After an allotted time, let’s say five minutes, of coming up with relevant chunks, I will request that each participant write down their distinctive groups and reasonings for chunking the information into their specific groups. After reviewing each participants reasoning for their chunks, I will have the participants take part in some sort of activity for five minutes, allowing time to pass between the time they last reviewed the list. After the time has passed, I will have the participants reconvene and ask them to recall the list once more, with the help of the chunks they previously thought of. The entire procedure will last about fifteen minutes long, which should be a sufficient amount of time for the participants to use the chunking technique and recite the code back correctly. Application of Principle: The influence of my design of the learning materials and procedure branches from improving my participants short term memory encoding and retrieving skills through the use of chunking. Attempting to recall long lists of words or numbers can often be quite difficult for people to do. Chunking is one of the many retrieval processes used for deeper level processing with memory. The principle of chunking helped design my study by having the participants initially look at a list of numbers for a code and then having them review the list again and group the pieces of information into smaller, more selfrelevant groups, in order to help remember the entire code better. I made this design choice based on my principle, which predicts that by grouping information together using prior knowledge will help ease up the retrieval process, and improve short term memory. The chunking technique will improve the learning of numeric passcodes for participants. I am attempting to ensure that my participants remember the numeric code by taking the pieces of information and putting them into distinctive chunks. Evidence to Support Design: The chunking technique is often effective in improving short term memory. One idea that supports my design is an activity that we performed in my EDP 101 class. The activity was to test the capacity of short term memory and how chunking was used to enhance the capacity and ease the retrieval process. This was done by having the whole class look at a list of numbers for five seconds. After the allotted time, the class was asked to close their eyes and recall the list the best they could. A majority of the class was unable to recall the whole list. Next, the number were split into three chunks of four, and the class was asked to look at the list again for five seconds and then attempt to recall it. Almost the entire class was easily able to recall the entire list. When a volunteer was asked why it was they were able to recall the list the second time, they explained that they were able to connect the three chunks of four numbers to years, which made it much easier to recall. This shows that chunking the information in to relevant groups makes the process of recalling the information much easier. Evidence to Refute Design: Although the chunking technique is often effective, there are times when it does not always work. For instance, chunking does take a large list of information or numbers and condenses it into smaller groups, but there is a limit. The mind isn’t able to hold a long list of chunks. The mind has a certain capacity, of 7 +/-2 chunks, so lists or chunks past nine are more difficult to recall with short term memory. Principle The learning theory that I chose to focus on is Operant Conditioning, but more specifically, the effect that operant conditioning has on long-term learning. I am curious to see what operant conditioning can do to teach people, as well as animals, certain procedures/tasks that they will be able to learn and later remember how to do in the long-term. Operant Conditioning involves acts of reinforcement; behaviors that are reinforced have a higher chance of being repeated, thus producing long-term learning. We learned in class how these reinforcements can either be positive or negative, which I am determined to experiment with. Positive reinforcement refers to the act of giving someone a reinforcing stimulus in order to try to show that behavior as good, while negative reinforcement would be to take away something in order to reinforce a behavior. Operant conditioning also relies on positive and negative punishment in order to decrease a negative behavior. These are the aspects of operant conditioning that I will focus on within my procedure. Materials/Procedure My goal is to use ideas from operant conditioning in classrooms to be able to see the effects it has on students learning and their outcomes in the class. The way I imagined having it set up would be by the teacher using idea from operant conditioning in his lectures and homework assignments for one class (reinforcement/punishment), and another class would only use neutral responses when teaching the class besides the regular system for grading. This would allow for a way to see at the end of the semester which teaching style was more effective for the students, and also what potential shortcomings this method has. For the class that includes positive and negative reinforcement/punishment (Class A), the teaching style would be entirely based on interactions with the students and getting commentary and discussions going throughout the entirety of the class time. For homework, this would include strict due dates and peer review that will also be graded by the professor. The professor will also be very quick to do things like hand out extra credit points and give immense praise in class for students who answer the questions the best and most accurately. The professor will also have the ability to take away homework assignments from certain students who the professor feels has proven to have a good understanding of the material for that assignment. This professor will also be quick to give harsh punishments to students who answer questions incorrectly or who they feel are actively trying to not participate or are falling behind. These punishments could include things such as negative commentary, adding additional homework, holding them after class, or even taking away points. While I do feel as if some of these punishments are harsh or unnecessary I think that it would be for the best in terms of representing the ideas of operant conditioning in a classroom setting. For that class that would NOT include positive and negative reinforcement/punishment (Class B), the class would be taught solely as a lecture with no student’s interaction except when a student asks a question, and even than the professor will answer the question as concisely as possible. There will no chances for extra credit and no due dates for any of the homework, but all homework will be graded at the end of the semester. But other than this it will be taught as a normal class. Application of Principle This idea of implementing operant conditioning into a classroom setting very much applies all of its principles into the experiment. For reinforcement, the positive reinforcement would come from the teacher praising the students to answer questions correctly and most often, as well as awarding some of those students with extra credit points because of their behavior. Negative reinforcement would come from the teacher taking away responsibilities that all the students have such as homework, for students who demonstrate their clear preparation as well as understanding of the topics. As far as punishment, the positive punishment would come from the comments from the professor about the negligence of some individuals, as well as giving students who are clearly not doing well or being active in the class additional assignments, or even holding them after class to go through parts of the lesson again with them. The negative reinforcement would come from the professor taking away points from students who answer questions incorrectly and then don’t prove their growth or understanding of the concept afterwards. Although this might seem slightly aggressive or over the top, I think it would have the highest chances of forcing students into following the rules of the class in order to get through it with a good grade, or even influence students to change their ways so that the class would become easier for them instead of harder. Evidence to Support Design The evidence that supports this theory come from basic principles of B.F Skinner’s thoughts on operant conditioning. He described operant conditioning as “a process that attempts to modify behavior through the use of positive and negative reinforcement. Through operant conditioning, and individual makes and association between a particular behavior and a consequence” (Skinner, 1938). Although Skinner was mostly using lab rats for his testing, these same principles can definitely be brought into the lives of humans in order to create a change in behavior. Regardless of how unfair this design would be for some students, I think it would cause a very big change in behavior for people who would be involved and would have to make it through this class. I feel that while these changes could either be for the better or for the worse, I think it would incredibly interesting to see how students would do under these circumstances. Evidence to Refute Design I think one of the main problems with this design would be the fact that the teacher would have an extremely important role in this study and it could be very difficult to manage all of this in one classroom, especially if it is a class over 30 people. Another challenge would be for students to continue taking this until the end of the semester because in some cases, it could be way too big of a deterrent for some students, especially if the teacher’s job is to give students a hard time if they do poorly. My hope would be that the chance for praise and extra points/less homework would outweigh the chance of additional work, losing points, and negative public commentary but it could be too much. Principle The psychological principle I am focusing my design project on is memory. Particularly, the memorization of large quantities of information using mnemonic devices such as memory palaces to easily and accurately recall any information previously encoded. The three stages of memory are encoding, wherein we perceive and learn, storage, wherein the new information is put into our brains as storage to be recalled later, and retrieval, wherein the encoded and stored memories are accessed for use. Mnemonic device memory techniques affect and strengthen all aspects of the memory process as well as to episodic, semantic, and working memory. The most widely used mnemonic memory device is the memory palace. The memory palace technique is the use of a very well know physical area of one’s life that is used to store new information that, once placed, can theoretically be remembered forever, or at least until you want to replace it with something else. The new information is ‘dropped’ at a certain location, generally in the form of a distinctive picture or scene, so that when the person trying to memorize their information returns to that location in their head the picture or scene is sitting right where they left it. A sample use of a memory palace would go as follows. A person is trying to remember the names of twenty books and decides to use their childhood home to store their names. For instance, if they were trying to remember the book, George Washington Crosses the Delaware, they might picture George Washington in a rowboat in their pool, a distinctive and unique image that once placed will be easy to remember. Materials & Procedure The task that I would teach to apply mnemonic memory techniques would be to teach a class how to memorize a deck of cards. This would be accomplished by letting each person work their way through a deck of cards making distinctive pictures for each of them and then drop them off in a memory palace to be recalled later. I would encourage the students to use any other device to aid them in their memorization such as chunking; the only requirement be that they memorize a random deck of fifty-two cards by utilizing the memory palace technique. I would give the students fifteen minutes or so to create and place pictures of the cards around a building and then after a break for five minutes I would ask them to recite the order of the deck they just memorized. There would then be another five-minute break and then they would recite the order once more. This exercise would test both the success of using a memory palace to recall information as well as the effects of its success over time. Application of Principle Although mnemonics can be used for memorizing anything from a room full of faces to epic poems like the Odyssey, they are most useful for lists. With that in mind learning how to memorize a deck of cards seemed like an ideal test. Because each deck is standard there would be no complications to the standardization of the subject matter and the focus could be maintained on other areas of the process. Additionally, the decks could be used to compare individual results as each student would be memorizing the same thing. Lastly, the benefit of cards is that it is a big enough number of elements to memorize without being too challenging for a beginner. Evidence to Support Design In a book that was as interesting as it was refreshing reporter turned author Joshua Foer describes the world of elite memory competition. One of the sections of the book focused on using memory palaces and chunking to have the most effective memory capacity. Foer talks about the scientific origins of the invention of memory palaces and how in ancient Greek renowned poets such as Virgil had to use the technique to give presentations and speeches to their audience and countrymen. Later, in the book Foer talks to the competitors at the finals and throughout the qualifiers who all affirm that the technique they used to train and memorize things, particularly decks of card, is mnemonics. This supports my theory and lesson of card memorization because it is supported by the top ‘athletes’ and scientists of the discipline. The book also presents evidence that memory advancement could be experienced and achieved by anyone who is willing to put in the work to train; it is not a special gift bestowed to some and not others, nor is it genetic construct. The secret is something much more refreshing, old fashioned hard work. Evidence to Refute Design Although the study of memory is technically a branch of science, it is a murky one and one that should be understood critically. As we learned in class, understanding memory is one of the hardest aspects of psychology to study because it is hard to manifest any concrete evidence. The evidence I will use to refute the lesson will come from the same source as my support. The biggest challenges to memory training is time, or rather time of exposure. Much like the politicians and emperors of before who could not waste hours memorizing great speeches, spending any more than a few minutes to memorize a deck of cards is turned to a wasteful pursuit. In the interviews with the competitors and researchers they all said the hardest part was absorbing, or in this case encoding, the information quickly. For a class to be expected to memorize a deck of cards in fifteen minutes is an ambitious goal. The time spent would probably end up counting against this method. The other counterclaim to the value of this technique is the individual aspect. Each person can only be successful as their imagination and dedication, there is no one size fits all, the human element is a vital part of this technique and therefore decreases the validity of the claim. If it cannot be helpful and learned by anything less than 99 percent of the class, it is not really a science and should not be regarded as such. Design Project: Peer Review Worksheet When completing peer reviews, please read each paper carefully and follow these general guidelines for peer review. Any student not following these guidelines will lost points for their peer reviews. • • • • Be critical. You can tell the writers that their papers are great, but you should still be able to find some areas for improvement. Professors and professional writers undergo many rounds of revisions and peer review before their works are published. There are always areas that could be improved. Be kind and constructive. You should provide constructive criticism of the papers – that is, criticism that will help the writers improve their papers. You should not criticize the writers themselves. Be specific. Don’t just say that something was good (or not so good), as this probably won’t help the writer find a solution to the problem. Try to identify what specifically is not working and why it is not wo ...
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Tutor Answer

School: University of Maryland


Outline: Responses
Response for Student One: Operant conditioning
1) Identify at least one thing that was unclear about materials or the lesson, either in terms of
the design or how it connects to the principle. How could this be clarified?
The application of the principle. The negative reinforcement is not clear. An explanation
should be given on why the student who does well should be relieved of responsibilities
Response for student Two: Short-term/ working memory
1) Identify at least one thing that was unclear about materials or the lesson, either in terms of
the design or how it connects to the principle. How could this be clarified?
It is not clear how the code for the safe will be used to teach chunking. The procedure of
splinting numbers should be clarified
Response for Student Three: Memory
1) Identify at least one thing that was unclear about materials or the lesson, either in terms of
the design or how it connects to the principle. How could this be clarified?
It is not clear how the students will use the deck of cards and how this is relate...

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