professional French writer


Question Description

Don't ever use google translate do to what I am asking or the teacher will give Zero and I will get my money back, so don't waste your time and my time I want someone who is very professional in French writing to:

1- write a little bit about each pictures in French on the file attached "pictures".

2- write 1 page on English about the Battle of Algiers film.

There is a new film just coming out that focuses on what it was like to grow up in Algeria with this film playing in the background, in a way. Which is another way of saying how it was to grow up after the Algerian War and in the period of decolonization.

This resource is in French, as the documentary is just being released. But I thought it raised some interesting points about why the film had an impact and what it represented to different people.

Here is the link:

The documentary is called La bataille d'Alger: un film dans l'Histoire, (the Battle of Algiers, a film in history) directed by Malek Bensmail

3- see the file " 3310final essay guidelines(1) " and write 1 page in English about what it asked.

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FREN 3310 : Francophone Africa Final essay project Requirements: 1- watch at least one additional film or documentary from the outside of class materials, and beyond what you consulted for your midterm essay 2- read portions relevant to your project from the required African film dossier (see #8 below, dossier posted as a PDF to Blackboard) 3- read an additional article or short story / excerpt from the list provided (materials are posted to Blackboard) 4- if your final essay project will involve materials you have found outside of what I suggest here, please check with me 5- the final essay itself will be at least seven pages long, and it will be in the same personal exploration style as the journal entries and the midterm essay 6- include a list of references that you consulted for the final essay (films and reading materials) Reading materials posted to Blackboard : 1) Adichie short stories from The Thing Around Your Neck (2009) 2) Laila Lalami excerpts from Hope and Other Dangerous Pursuits (2005) 3) Melissa Thackway. « Exile and the Burden of Representation” Black Camera, Volume 5, Number 2, Spring 2014 (New Series), 5-20. 4) Kay Young McChesney, “Successful Approaches to Ending Female Genital Cutting,” The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare Volume 42 Issue 1: Article 2, March 2015. 5) Celestin Monga. "Eight Problems with African Politics.” Journal of Democracy Volume 8, Number 3, July 1997 6) Amy Abugo Ongiri, “Raoul Peck's Lumumba: The Passion of Remembrance and the PanDiasporic Longing for History,” Nka: Journal of Contemporary African Art, Number 16/17, Fall/Winter 2002, pp. 70-73 7) Edgard Sankara, “Hybrid and Practical Life Narratives: The Year in Burkina Faso,” Biography, Volume 40, Number 4, Fall 2017, pp. 546-552 **REQUIRED** 8) Africultures Dossier: Five Decades of African Film. Black Camera, Volume 1, Number 2, Summer 2010 (The New Series), pp. 63-102. Africultures Dossier Black Camera, Volume 1, Number 2, Summer 2010 (The New Series), pp. 63-102 (Article) Published by Indiana University Press For additional information about this article Access provided by Fairmont State College (16 Apr 2018 20:47 GMT) Africultures Dossier OLIVIER BARLET T he four essays that comprise this first installment of the Africultures Dossier were authored by the prominent French film critic Olivier ­Barlet, director of publications for Africultures. A unique cultural entity and resource for the study of African societies and cultures, Africultures’ holdings are vast, remarkable for their depth and diversity of documentation and coverage of cultural developments on the African continent and diaspora. The essays selected for this issue engage with African filmmakers’ “new” survival strategies “so that they can exist without renouncing who they are,” the absence of a market for African films, and concludes with Barlet’s survey and periodization of African film during the past five decades. • African Filmmakers’ New Strategies The demand for authenticity thought to constitute African identity forces the question of reality to remain central in film. Several recent films reveal new strategies filmmakers have adopted to avoid being labeled without renouncing who they are. Confronted with Western criticism (which, after all, reflects the public’s desires and thus the success of these films in Europe), films by directors of African descent must intrinsically prove their African identity. They can then receive the supreme blessing: general recognition of their “authenticity.” Two contradictory criteria come into play: ▶▶ a demand for exoticism: films must be limited to both a geographic territory (they must be shot in Africa, a condition for a long time imposed by the French interministerial Fonds Sud Olivier Barlet, “Africultures Dossier,” Black Camera, An International Film Journal, Vol. 1 No. 2 (Spring 2010), 63–102. 64 black camera 1: 2 commission, one of the main sources of funding for African film) and an ideological territory (an Africa that is magical, immemorial, legendary, mythical, and so on). ▶▶ a demand for reality: films must document contemporary African problems, which, in general, are limited to those of the urban milieu. Fictions must be based on the experiences of a disintegrating Africa. African criticism, for its part, is often a distorted mirror of the North’s, at times also spurning “bush films” or very often closely examining the veracity of the film. These two demands have evolved over time: we have already examined the turnaround in mainstream criticism (the national newspapers and film journals) in the early 1990s,1 which favored the second demand over the first, rejecting new films after having lauded the authenticity of earlier works. These were qualified, depending on the case, as natural, contemplative, primitive, ingenuous, a “cinema of origins,” with their charm, or even delicious naiveté, celebrated.2 Before this loaded gaze, filmmakers have developed survival strategies so that they can exist without renouncing who they are, or, in short, strategies that allow them to affirm themselves beyond all projections. A difficult exercise! A Historical Recap Gaston Kaboré used to say that “reality is the heart and body of films” in African cinema. This has always been so, but, after a series of impasses, an evolution became imperative. At the time of Independence, film was about reappropriating one’s own gaze, one’s own space, one’s own modes of thought. The aim was to replace the ethnologist’s external or colonialist’s propagandic gazes with one’s own vision of the self. Like African thinkers, filmmakers believed that Africa could resolve its contemporary problems by affirming its culture. Around the 1970s, the first films made by Africans in Africa formed a cinematic mirror that denounced obsolete traditions, rife with anathemas against neocolonialism and corrupt elites, and called for values that would replace “civilization” with “progress.” This radicalism and its didactical designs did not survive the invasion of television or the assaults of a Hollywood cinema that quickly imposed itself as an imaginative model as well as reassuring entertainment. It came up against the ambivalence of relationships with the West, experienced both as dream and nightmare. Olivier Barle t/ Africultures Dossier 65 It was the trap of the mirror: refusing a reductive view of the Other required self-affirmation that in turn led to an idealization of difference, which became dogmatic. The illusionary dream of a world without the Other loomed behind the demand for authenticity. Asserting one’s specificity to escape the exclusion of being made to feel inferior led to the formulation of a territorial and racial discourse. Belief in a fixed identity proved to be xenophobic, negative, and circular. Novelistic-type strategies offered a way out in the 1980s: by favoring events over action, the succession of occurrences over causality, “then” replaced “therefore,” as André Bazin put it when talking about neorealism. Idrissa Ouedraogo applied these principles in his first feature film, Yam Daabo / The Choice (Burkina Faso, 1986): a rural family flees the drought and awaits international aid; misfortune befalls the family, but it manages to reconstitute itself. The children in Nyamanton / The Garbage Boys (Cheick Oumar Sissoko, Mali, 1986) simply relate the daily trials and tribulations of poverty in a humorous way. The message is less explicit in these films; voice-overs are absent, and the screenplays follow life’s chance happenings, in natural settings, with actors who concentrate on being rather than on expressing, while the narrative continues to respect the duration of things, the ellipses being no more than gaps in reality. Enthusiasm was great in a Europe that needed images of the South to cope with its own cultural shocks: the films broke out of the confines of the specialist festivals, and Cannes showered praises on a cinema it had just discovered, awarding the Jury Grand Prix to the Malian Souleymane Cissé’s Yeelan / The Light in 1987 and to Burkinabè Idrissa Ouedraogo’s Tilaï in 1990. These films were seen to bring “soul” to a cinema under attack from television, misappropriating their very raison d’être: people only remembered Yeelan’s magic (the film drew 340,000 viewers in France), whereas the film was in fact a vehicle for a political message against elders’ appropriation of the power of knowledge. This novelistic-type approach, unlike Brazil’s Cinema Novo, for example, developed the ontological rather than the aesthetic: these films, whose form is often linear and relatively academic, marked a rupture with the epic poetry developed in the first period, but gained in internal evidence. But this cinema found itself at an aesthetic impasse: that of fictionalized reporting whose realism soon became a cliché. Directing styles soon got the upper hand again, affirming a point of view vis-à-vis the degradation of living conditions in Africa. Simply testifying was not enough: it was necessary to help rebuild a reality under perpetual degradation—and urgently so. It was not a question of dropping realism: if filmmakers showed reality, they charged it with meaning. Unlike naturalism, which simply records 66 black camera 1: 2 Yeelen (1987). Courtesy of Olivier Barlet the real, realism made the visible readable. But, even though necessary, fiction was at no less of an impasse: wasn’t it still the fiction of the Other? Of that West which, due to the state of Africa, remained both the financier and the market for the films? Of the Western demand for a ready-made discourse of invented tradition—that colonial library which kept rearing its ugly head, even in the very discourse that claimed to refute it, as Mudimbe analyzed and denounced? Although reality took on greater force in film, it was at the expense of entertainment. Put extremely schematically, an opposition emerged in world cinema: Hollywood wielded illusion to rework modern fears, deploying means that created an unrivalled professionalism in entertainment, while the other cinemas raised the terrible challenge of affirming reality, bringing a contradiction into the bargain: the more you show reality, the more you manipulate it. At stake was banking on the veracity of the characters rather than using them or turning them into symbols; it was to avoid didacticism by having confidence in the facts, and to encourage the audience to think by avoiding the habitual rut of representation. Olivier Barle t/ Africultures Dossier 67 Current Strategies Faced with the expectations of a nostalgic West, which tries to find its lost values in Africa, but which also constantly seeks a mirror for its own crises (which it now more often finds in East Asian cinema, thereby excluding Africa from “modernity”) and faced with this vampirism that defines what it wants before looking and listening, Africa’s films are developing new strategies for survival: ▶▶ Depict the complexities. The aim is not to dress a story in reality, but to grasp it in all its complexity, in short, to scramble the markers to depict Africa’s complexities and to move away from reductive simplifications. There are no ready-made answers: the mixed-race youth who goes looking for his father in Guinea in Immatriculation temporaire (Gahité Fofana, 2001) will only manage to do so by accepting the complexities, the lack of clear logic, the dispossession. The narrative adopts the same uncertainty, the image flirting with curtains which partly mask the real. He can only find the paths, which we realize will never be fixed, by adopting the young delinquents’ lifestyle, by taking risks. ▶▶ Go beyond autochthonism. This presupposes letting one’s characters exist freely, for themselves, in all their singularities. It presupposes not making them the emblematic symbols of a cause. This is so with El Hadj in L’Afrance (Alain Gomis, 2001): this Senegalese student builds his solidity in Paris on his project of returning home to serve the independence preached by the heroes of decolonization. But he is completely destabilized by the exclusion with which he is confronted and, like Samba Diallo in Cheik Hamidou Kane’s L’Aventure ambigüe / Ambiguous Adventure, ends up on the brink of suicide. This deep and painful deconstruction, which takes the form of an identity quest in which he renounces his values, ultimately leads to a renewal that allows him to share what a woman in the immigrants’ hostel says to him: “Home is where both my feet are.” Becoming the subject thus presupposes going beyond autochthonism. Asserting one’s citizenship—a major theme in Jean Odoutan’s films (Djib, 2000; Mama Aloko, 2001)—is a self-affirmation in the society of adoption: a specifically physical presence is the alternative to the so-called visible minorities’ media invisibility. In Alain Gomis’s film, the camera embraces the black skin: a sensuality devoid of eroticism that demonstrates, that unambiguously incarnates the belonging to a social body, to society. ▶▶ Capture the present. The filmmakers show not pity, of course, 68 black camera 1: 2 which would be a slight on dignity, but a deep tenderness for their characters, an affection on the order of respect. Their behavior is never anecdotal: it is that of human reality. This presupposes taking risks, and one finds directors themselves playing contradictory characters who are quite simply human. The Zeka Laplaine of (Paris: xy) (2000) is an average type of guy; he works too much, cheats on his wife from time to time, spends his time at the bar, has his good and bad points. When he postpones his family holiday, it’s the last straw: his wife leaves him, leaving him in quandary. The fact that he is mixed race, that his mistress is black and his wife white is not central; it is simply the basis of some cultural differences, peripheral data. His very run-of-themill chauvinism is widely shared around the world, and this humanity constitutes the force of a film that does not exist through what is ultimately its rather banal subject, but through the life it unveils, a man’s attitudes and behavior. The directing pales before the convolutions of the actor; the filmic time is that of life’s uncertainties, which itself becomes a spectacle, thereby acquiring poetic strength. Here, film captures the human condition and in no uncertain terms, in the present: it is not about memory or about forecasting. Being conscious of being human implies capturing the present. ▶▶ Use the intimate to disorient. The purpose of this quasidocumentary approach is to affirm the human. The filmmaker manages to reveal what reality beholds by opening him or herself up to the intimate, far from grand discourses. Far from offering a globalized vision of Africa, the filmmaker affirms a here and now, a place and a country, a relationship. The intimate crops up there where it is least expected. In Bye Bye Africa (Mahamat Saleh Haroun, 1999), in an N’Djamena where “war has become a culture,” Africa’s problems from AIDS to police checks, from violence to the decline of the city’s movie theaters, are present. But the film is narrated in the first person: a filmmaker, who goes back home when his mother dies and who tries to make a film, gets tangled up in an old amorous relationship again. Caught between the elsewhere of exile and feeling disoriented in his own country, this man, who happens to be African, shows himself to be displaced within, revealing the paths of his own disorientation, his own loss of identity, his own failings to the viewer. ▶▶ Favor similitude not singularity. Why do I relate to a story like Daressalam (Issa Serge Coelo, 2000)? After all, the never-ending war, the mirage of revolution, the compromises of all sorts, are the Olivier Barle t/ Africultures Dossier 69 Chadians’ problem. These two rebel friends who share the same ideal and the same commitment end up taking opposite paths in the twists and turns of the war. The film neither judges them nor pits them against each other in a Manichean way because the director is interested in what they have in common, not what divides them. Rather than confronting us with our singularities, he encourages us to treat one another as fellows, and it is this impression of belonging to humanity, this familiarity between alter egos that enables people to find their place peacefully in the world. ▶▶ Examine memory. This does not rule out the fact that slavery, colonialism, and apartheid still cast their shadow on thought and dignity. But rather than focusing on the torturers’ guilt and repentance, these films carry out a salutary examination of memory. Asientos (François Woukoache, Cameroon, 1995) forces us to look our own history in the face; Adanggaman (Roger Gnoan Mbala, Côte d’Ivoire, 2000) depicts African involvement in the slave trade; and Fools (Ramadan Suleman, South Africa, 1997) speaks of black people’s integration of violence under apartheid… This cinema thereby decenters the victimized position of slave that precludes all self-criticism: it takes the past by the horns, not endlessly to denounce a fatal castration, but to explore what caused it and to understand what so much suffering means for the subconscious. The Rwandan genocide proved that the West does not have a monopoly on barbarity: filmmakers have not finished exploring man’s fratricidal penchant, for example in La Genèse (Cheick Oumar Sissoko, Mali, 1999). ▶▶ Back to orality. To avoid being reduced to their difference, which turned them into caged monkeys and their films into a genre, filmmakers insisted that they were simply “filmmakers full stop,” an illusory fantasy that supposedly put aside their determinations, their own specificity.3 A new impasse. So, as it is precisely here that the crux of the problem lies, directors realized that they might as well use their cultural foundations as a way of transporting spectators elsewhere, somewhere they want to take them. Balufu Bakupa Kanyinda told me that in Dix mille ans de cinema / Ten Thousand Years of Cinema (1991), he drew on the oral forms of the Congolese kasalas, which function in intertwined patterns. There is a striking similarity between the writing of Ahmadou Kourouma and that of Mahamat Saleh Haroun in Bye Bye Africa in the use of oral techniques: the deliberate narrative approximations which connote the sought-after incertitude, the precisions 70 black camera 1: 2 and digressions that form parentheses in the narrative they serve to illuminate, the direct addressing of the reader or the viewer in the full-face shots of people looking into the camera, the maintaining of the illusion of the presence of an audience evoked by the double gaze of the video camera in Haroun’s film… The outcome is a veritable blues piece, a musical form characteristic of many films, one of the finest examples of which is a “docu-fiction” about Sengalese immigrants in Milan, Waalo fendo / There Where the Earth Freezes (1998), by the black Algerian Mohamed Soudani. Here, too, testimonies addressed directly at the camera, a rhythmlike rather than linear narrative, sensitive images of the urban environment interspersed with shots of Africa, and so on, help punctuate the film with visual interrogations in a splintering of discourse that expresses a plural me as much as it does the linguistic multiplicity characteristic of the exile’s experience. But is all this specifically African? No. The recurrences or constants observed do not constitute an African identity. These strategies are found in other films from elsewhere. Far from being characteristics, they are paths which these fil ...
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School: New York University


Première photo.
C'est un jour comme les autres, chacun est occupé. Sur la photo on peut voir deux personnes qui
mangent aux café Antoine, un homme qui achète des journaux, une damme à la poissonnerie et
aussi un couple près d'une fontaine.
Deuxième photo.
Dans un restaurant, sur le menu du jour il est indiqué que la soupe du jour coûte 3.5 Euro et le
plat du jour 12 Euro. Sur la photo on y voit une veille femme et un vieux homme qui déjeunent
ensemble, deux hommes qui déjeunent ensemble, un homme qui mange seul, une femme debout
juste à côté d'une table et un serveur avec un plateau dans ses mains
Troisième photo.
Sur la photo, on y voit 3 filles qui jouent au tennis, 5 garçons qui jouent au football, 6 garçon
dans un terrain de basket-ball mais apparemment l'un d'entre eux est blessé au genou et quatre
autres sont entrain de parier et enfin un garçon et une fille qui jouent aux cartes
Quatrième photo.
Sur cette photo on y voit une femme dans des endroits différents. D'abord dehors où il neige et il
fait 0°C, on la voit encore marcher sous la pluie avec une parapluie, et puis dans un bal du 14
juillet où il fait vraiment chaud 29°C et enfin on la voit se promener mais cette fois il fait 13°C
Cinquième photo.
C'est l'anniversaire de Marc et ses amis sont venu lui faire une surprise et ils ont aussi apporté
des cadeaux.

Sixième photo.
Dans un magasin, cinque personnes dont trois hommes et deux femmes. Un couple semblent
acheter des nouveaux vêtements, apparemment la femme veut acheter une robe de 90 Euros et on
voit aussi un homme qui achète un tricot de 18 Euros.

Running head:


The battle of Algiers

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The cult film of the Italian communist director Gillo Pontecorvo (1965) traces the struggle
in 1957 for the...

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