Benchmark: Research Project Part 1

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Review the feedback provided by your CLC group member. Make any revisions to your paper based on their feedback.

This first paper will analyze what you find out about the culture 1) from depictions of the cultural group in U.S. media and 2) from academic journals or scholarly references explaining the communication/values of the cultural group.

Write 1,000-1,250 words in response to the following:

  1. Compare and contrast the concepts of stereotyping and ethnocentrism.
  2. Find two concrete examples that show how the cultural group you are studying is stereotypically represented by local and/or national media in the U.S. (This could include Comic Strips, Newspaper Articles, Advertisements, TV Shows, etc.).
  3. Compare and contrast the media stereotypes with research about the culture communication value orientations (pick two value dimensions from the list provided below, describe the value dimension, explain what research findings say about your culture in relation to these values, and give illustrations of how this is expressed in their communication).
  4. Using academic sources, explain how mass-mediated stereotypes may affect communication between you and a member of this cultural group.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.

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COM-263 Peer Review Worksheet Please provide quality feedback to your peers that will help them to improve their writing skills. This worksheet will assist you in providing that feedback. Name of the draft’s author: Perry David Name of the peer reviewer: Matthew Stone Reviewer After reading through the paper one time, write a summary (three to five sentences) of the paper that includes your assessment of how well the paper meets the assignment requirements as specified in the assignment directions and rubric. IMr. fe David’s paper is well written and thoroughly researched. Though it has a few technical errors, it appears to adhere to the rubric of the assignment. Should these few technical corrections be made, I that it will be a high scoring paper. After a second, closer reading of the paper and another look at the rubric, identify specific areas that are strong and areas that could use reinforcements or revisions. Two strengths of the paper: 1.The paper is Informative and well written. 2. The paper is very well researched. Three things that could use reinforcements or revisions: The first thing that jumps out right away is the heading. The middle of the page is not in accordance with GCU guidelines. I would check for proper paper heading. 2. There are some minor punctuation mistakes, along with a minor in-text citation error. Et al was used as a beginning citation, as it should only be used in a second citation after listing all authors the first time. 3. Thesis. A thesis should be the very last sentence in the first paragraph. It should also fully summarize the contents of the entire paper. It appears that in this paper the thesis is at the beginning of the second paragraph, and it does not encompass the information provided in the entire essay. Good job Dude Benchmark Topic 3 Rubric: Research Project Part 1 Criteria % Value % Scaling 1: Unsatisfactory 2: Less Than Satisfactory 3: Satisfactory 4: Good 5: Excellent 0% 65% 75% 85% 100% Content – 70% Compare and contrast the concepts of stereotyping and ethnocentrism 25% Compare and contrast of stereotyping and ethnocentrism is incomplete or missing. Compare and contrast of stereotyping and ethnocentrism is weak and missing evidence. Compare and contrast of stereotyping and ethnocentrism is appropriate. Compare and contrast of stereotyping and ethnocentrism is strong with sound analysis and appropriate evidence. Compare and contrast of stereotyping and ethnocentrism is comprehensive and insightful with well researched evidence. Find two concrete examples that show how the cultural group you are studying is stereotypically represented by local and/or national media in the U.S 10% Two concrete examples show how the studied cultural group is stereotypically represented by local or national media are missing. Two concrete examples show how the studied cultural group is stereotypically represented by local or national media are weak or incomplete. Two concrete examples show how the studied cultural group is stereotypically represented by local or national media are present. Two concrete examples show how the studied cultural group is stereotypically represented by local or national media are present and appropriate. Two concrete examples show how the studied cultural group is stereotypically represented by local or national media are present and well researched. Compare and contrast these media 25% Compare and contrast of the media stereotypes Compare and contrast of the media Compare and contrast of the media stereotypes Compare and contrast of the media Compare and contrast of the media © 2013. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved. stereotypes with research about the culture communication value orientations with research about the culture communication value orientations is incomplete or missing. stereotypes with research about the culture communication value orientations is weak and missing evidence. with research about the culture communication value orientations is appropriate. stereotypes with research about the culture communication value orientations is strong with sound analysis and appropriate evidence. stereotypes with research about the culture communication value orientations is comprehensive and insightful with well researched evidence. Explanation of how mass-mediated stereotypes may affect communication is incomplete or missing. Explanation of how mass-mediated stereotypes may affect communication is weak and missing evidence. Explanation of how mass-mediated stereotypes may affect communication is appropriate but somewhat unclear. Explanation of how mass-mediated stereotypes may affect communication is strong with sound analysis and appropriate evidence. Explanation of how mass-mediated stereotypes may affect communication is comprehensive and insightful with well researched evidence. Thesis and/or main claim are clear and forecast the development of the paper. It is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose. Thesis and/or main claim are comprehensive. The essence of the paper is contained within the thesis. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear. C2.3: Compare and contrast how communicative behaviors reflect various cultural norms Using academic sources, explain how mass-mediated stereotypes may affect communication between you and a member of this cultural group 10% Organization and Effectiveness – 20% Thesis Development and Purpose 7% Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim. Thesis and/or main claim are insufficiently developed and/or vague; purpose is not clear. Thesis and/or main claim are apparent and appropriate to purpose. © 2013. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved. Argument Logic and Construction Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use) 8% 5% Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources. Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility. Argument is orderly, but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis. Argument shows logical progressions. Techniques of argumentation are evident. Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice and/or sentence construction are used. Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register), sentence structure, and/or word choice are present. Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used. Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. A variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech are used. Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English. Appropriate template is fully used. There are virtually no errors in formatting style. All format elements are correct. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative. Clear and convincing argument that presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative. Format – 10% Paper Format (Use of appropriate style for the major and assignment) 5% Template is not used appropriately or documentation format is rarely followed correctly. Appropriate template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken. A lack of control with formatting is apparent. Appropriate template is used. Formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present. © 2013. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved. Research Citations (In-text citations for paraphrasing and direct quotes, and reference page listing and formatting, as appropriate to assignment and style) 5% No reference page is included. No citations are used. Reference page is present. Citations are inconsistently used. Reference page is included and lists sources used in the paper. Sources are appropriately documented, although some errors may be present. © 2013. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved. Reference page is present and fully inclusive of all cited sources. Documentation is appropriate and citation style is usually correct. In-text citations and a reference page are complete and correct. The documentation of cited sources is free of error. Running head: THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN CULTURE Perry David The African-American Culture and Intercultural Communication Challenges The element of Intercultural communication Grand Canyon University Mark Matthews April 22, 2018 THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN CULTURE In a society where different cultures co-exist, there is bound to be lots of misunderstandings, judgments, and biases. Two main factors have contributed to this kind of situation are ethnocentrism and stereotyping (Ryan et al., 2007). Ethnocentrism refers to the tendency of an individual to belittle other people’s culture, creating a notion that his own culture is superior to others. Ethnocentric people usually judge others in comparison to their own, generally by language, customs, religion, and behavior. In turn, stereotyping refers to a widely accepted idea about specific actions to depict an entire group as a whole, which may be true or false. While this may be universally existent, the similarity in ethnocentricity and stereotyping lies in the fact that they have gained more negative connotation than the positive, especially in recent times. The difference is that stereotypes do not necessarily exhibit superiority to other people and can sometimes share different commonalities. Over a long time, the African American culture has been depicted in several ways which do not necessarily bank on their strengths by both the local and national media. In showing this evidence, this paper will give examples both from the historical and modern perspective. Historically, one of the most prominent stereotypes is depicted during the Minstrel shows performed in the 1830’s where white actors used shoe polish and burnt cork to ‘blacken’ their faces. These performers were dressed in tattered clothing to depict AfricanAmericans who were battling slavery at the time (Sampson, 2013). These shows depicted the African-Americans as being foolish, lazy, superstitious, ignorant, cowardly and hypersexual. The most popular blackface character was ‘Jim Crow’ played by Thomas Dartmouth Rice which inspired the manufacturing of make-up, music, and costumes for the black stereotypes upon which they built brand new shows. These blackface performances and the popularity they gained are partially responsible for the racial animosity that brewed between the whites and blacks at the time. In the 21st century, the African-American community has been depicted as a materialistic, independent and angry lot-especially the women. They are seen as 2 THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN CULTURE having very little morals exhibiting uncivilized behavior, aggressiveness and are very loud. Their independence is often portrayed as being overachieving, narcissistic and financially stable, usually emasculating male blacks that they interact with (Henry, 2011; Moody, 2012). Educationally, the media depicts African-American’s as non-intelligent; requiring a lot more commitment and passion to be recognized as scholars and academicians. This black angry and aggressive stereotype is also seen in movies like ‘Wolfenstein II: The New Colossus’ by Grace Walker in 2017, and 2015’s ‘Empire’ played by Cookie Lyon (Johnson, 2015). According to Hofstede (2011), the leading cultural dimensions exist by power, gender, identity, time and uncertainty. Cultural value dimensions help individuals to understand their own culture as well as that of others and fosters the cultural awareness needed to promote excellent intercultural communication. In individualism versus collectivism, individualist cultures are more geared towards independence, self-reliance, and personal achievement while collectivist cultures exhibit traits of group consensus and harmony and excellent collective relationships. The African-American culture despite being projected as an independent lot, they portray more collectivism. This is because they stress on the obligations they have towards other members of the society and are willing forgo individual needs to benefit the entire group. One such example is the ‘I am because we are’ slogan used in colleges dominated by African Americans (Carson, 2009). This can be seen whenever they undergo racial discrimination and come out together to fight against it. They put more emphasis on fitting in and providing a sense of conformity and belonging that could be as a result of the problems they faced in earlier centuries (Peters, Aroian & Flack, 2006). In their communications, this is shown by the fact that they freely express themselves while taking into account the emotions and impact that their stance has on other people in contrast to what is portrayed in the media. 3 THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN CULTURE A high versus low power-distance also exists in the African-American culture where people embrace power as an important part of the society. The superiors, usually the male gender, are tasked with the provision and taking care of their families, and in turn, their subordinates return loyalty, obedience, and deference. In these settings, the superiors are given preference in public settings such as when taking seats. It is a common phenomenon that the juniors usually refrain themselves from expressing negative opinions and thoughts (Basabe & Ros, 2005; Hofstede, 2011). This is in contrast to low power-distance societies where people put more value more gender equality and seek to eliminate existent inequalities. Democracy is highly valued, and subordinates are free to question any actions or behavior. The existence of high power-distance in the African-American culture has greatly influenced their communication. One such illustration that governs communication as a result of high power-distance lies in the notion that male adolescents should learn to ‘speak like a man’ or ‘take it like a man’ (Morgan, 2002; Richardson, 2003). A study by Appel & Weber (2017) shows that negative and devaluing stereotypic depictions of individual cultures in the media lead to a decline in their achievements- both educational and cognitive, and as a result affects their levels of intercultural communication. Grim portrayals of African-Americans by the media as being hypersexual, violent and very aggressive have influenced my communication with members of this group because I expect some aggression in case my message gets misconstrued. Despite the fact that I know this is just a stereotype, the media has made it look like an almost-reality, it has hampered several chances of interracial communication. Numerous other people have also become fearful of this cultural group because of this negative connotation. Welch (2007) in his study on black stereotypes admits to the fact that the portrayal of this group as being violent contributes to a deep-seated fear of their ‘savageness’, hampering communication. 4 THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN CULTURE The media is guilty of the ethnocentrism and stereotyping which have had negative impacts on people. However, these minority groups have also played a part in it because they accept large monetary benefits at the expense of making self-disparaging shows. Despite the fact that progress has been made on this issue since the 19th century, this cultural group should have gained more substantial results regarding the fair portrayal of both the minority and majority groups in a country. 5 THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN CULTURE References Appel, M., & Weber, S. (2017). Do mass mediated stereotypes harm members of negatively stereotyped groups? A meta-analytical review on media-generated stereotype threat and stereotype lift. Communication Research, 0093650217715543. Basabe, N., & Ros, M. (2005). Cultural dimensions and social behavior correlates Individualism-Collectivism and Power Distance. International Review of Social Psychology, 18(1), 189-225. Carson, L. R. (2009). “I am because we are:” collectivism as a foundational characteristic of African American college student identity and academic achievement. Social Psychology of Education, 12(3), 327-344. Henry, C. P. (2011). Sister Citizen: Shame, Stereotypes, and Black Women in America. The Black Scholar, 41(4), 52-54. Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context. Online readings in psychology and culture, 2(1), 8. Johnson, J. (2015). Examing the Effect of Counterstereotypical Examples of African American Women in the Media on People’s perspective of the African American Woman. Moody, M. (2012). From Jezebel to Ho: An analysis of creative and imaginative shared representations of African-American women. Journal of Research on Women and Gender, 3(1). Morgan, M. (2002). Language, discourse, and power in African American culture (Vol. 20). Cambridge University Press. Peters, R. M., Aroian, K. J., & Flack, J. M. (2006). African American culture and hypertension prevention. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 28(7), 831-854. Richardson, E. (2003). African American literacies. Routledge. 6 THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN CULTURE Ryan, C. S., Hunt, J. S., Weible, J. A., Peterson, C. R., & Casas, J. F. (2007). Multicultural and colorblind ideology, stereotypes, and ethnocentrism among Black and White Americans. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 10(4), 617-637. Sampson, H. T. (2013). Blacks in blackface: A sourcebook on early black musical shows (Vol. 2). Scarecrow Press. Welch, K. (2007). Black criminal stereotypes and racial profiling. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 23(3), 276-288. 7 ...
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