Written Assignment - Military and Health Conflict Management

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Part I: Read the article below and complete a 1-2 page article review. The article review should include the following:

  • Summary of the article.
    • What are the key points of the article?
    • How does military conflict management different from traditional businesses?
  • Do you agree with the techniques presented in the article? Why or Why not?

Personality traits, management styles & conflict management in a military unit.

Attached the article in case link does not work properly. ALSO TIPS AS NOTES FOR HELP

******Separate the summary questions above by headings********


Part II: You are considering creating a cross-functional Health Care Inc. team to ensure that a deeper level of creativity and better results. The team will be composed of people that have different backgrounds, education, multiple disciplines and work environments. The diversity each team members brings to the team is a benefit but can also create conflict.

For this portion, answer the following:

  1. How will you ensure that the Minority influences the Majority to develop a group that has the ability accept each other opinions and not create conflict?
  2. Explain the differences between real conflict and symbolic conflict.
  3. Prepare a response to implement within a team environment to recognize, analyze, and resolve a symbolic conflict.


******Separate the questions above by headings. It about 2 pages********

TOTAL OF PAGES FOR BOTH PARTS ARE 3-4 PAGES. SEPARATE EACH PART BY HEADINGS. ARE DIFFERENT SUBTOPIC

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Iranian Journal of Military Medicine Spring 2011, Volume 13, Issue 1; 11-16 Personality traits, management styles & conflict management in a military unit Salimi S. H.1 PhD, Karaminia R.2 PhD, Esmaeili A. A.* MSc * Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Sport Physiology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2 Department of Clinical Psychology, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 1 Abstract Aims: Personality of managers affects their managerial style and their conflict management method. This study was performed with the aim of investigating the relation between personality traits, leadership styles and conflict management methods in a military unit. Methods: This cross-sectional correlation study was performed on 200 senior managers of a military unit in Qom who were selected by available sampling method. The leadership style was investigated by leadership styles questionnaire and managers’ personality traits were investigated by NEO questionnaire and their conflict management method was studied by Robbins questionnaire. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results: The benevolence-consolatory imperative leadership style was the most frequent style (65.5%) and compatible personality was the most observed characteristic (19.5%). The extrovert personality had positive relation with participatory management style. There was a significant positive relationship between the extrovert personality and management style score. In addition, there was a significant positive relationship between neuroticism and incompatible style. Conclusion: The benevolence-consolatory imperative leadership style is the most frequent style and compatible personality is the most observed characteristic among the studied unit’s senior managers. There is a significant positive relationship between solution-seeking and controller methods of managing conflict and management style score and there is a significant negative relationship between neuroticism and management style score. Keywords: Personal Traits, Management Styles, Conflict Management, NEO Questionnaire Introduction In the current era, understanding the personality of individuals is necessary in many situations of life. Managers' personality is effective in the process and choice of conflict resolution method and management style. Research shows that there is a significant correlation between personality traits and style of conflict management. An indifferent or impassive manager passes the issue and ignores it, while another manager shows serious reactions [1]. Therefore, for achieving organizational goals, paying attention to these factors is necessary, because each manager with any type of personality follows particular style of management [2]. Study of Mehdipour showed that extrovert personality correlates with cooperative conflict management style and introvert and neurotic personality have relationship with conflict management style specifically compulsory and power method [3]. Also, the results of Antonioni's study show that some of five group factors of personality including extroversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, compatibility and openness have significant relationship with management styles [4]. Studies show that one of the reasons and agents that * Correspondence; Email: mahdinana@gmail.com bring about conflict in organizations is the presence of individual and personality differences. Different managers' personality can be a source for development and creation or it can be a root for many organizational problems and affects the operation, decisions and organizational behaviors [5]. In other words, the conflict occurs because people always do not have agreement upon goals, issues, ideas and similar cases and since people employed in organizations involved in activities with different personal characteristics such as locus of control (introvert, extrovert), power seeking, self-esteem, copying with situation, being risky, the basis of conflict is provided. Past studies have shown that there is significant relationship between personality characteristics and organizational conflict [6]. The results of Nassiri's study showed that there is significant positive relationship between personality traits and control center and power seeking in staffs and organizational conflict (interpersonal). Also, there is negative significant relation between self-esteem personality characteristics and compatibility with staff's situations and organizational conflict (between individuals) [7]. Nabavi’s study in 2006 on the relationship between personality types (extrovertReceived 2010/09/08; Accepted 2010/12/14 Personality traits, management styles & conflict management in a military unit ______________________________________________ introvert) and leadership style (imperativeparticipatory) in Tehran University managers, indicates a significant relationship between having extrovert personality and participative management and significant relationship between introvert personality and imperative management style [8]. Also, the research of Foong showed that the personality characteristic is potential factor in job success and extraversion personality characteristic and being conscientious with participative management style are the factors of managers' success [9]. Kozan in his study of management in Turkey, Jordan and the United States achieved the following according to five management styles: A) in Turkey, most of the managers preferred cooperative approach rather compulsory and compromise methods. B) In Jordan cooperative, compromising, adaptive, avoidant and mandatory methods were used respectively. C) In United States, cooperative method was at the highest level and then compromising, adaptive and mandatory methods respectively [10]. In a study conducted in 1998 in the United States through questionnaire, extraversion had positive relationship with imperative management style while compatibility and neuroticism had negative relationship with imperative management style. Also, avoidance had positive relationship with extroversion and neuroticism [11]. However, in another study in the United States, 97 employed female nurses in south Mississippi were investigated and there was no significant statistical relationship between personal characteristics and method for dealing with conflict [11]. Martis has conducted a study with the title of investigation of the relationship between the "Big five personality characteristics" and managerial practices in trust relationships between managers and staff dimension. The results indicated that there is a significant and positive relationship between managerial practices and trust between managers and staff [12]. In the research that investigated the relationship between personality dimensions of managers, the significant relationship between personal dimensions and conflict management style such as tolerance style and avoidance style has been expressed [13]. Studies show that the leadership style of most managers is consulting in their own views. This view has been indicated by several studies, such as Tajvar and Ebrahami [14], while the findings of Mosadegh Rad (Arab and Akhtari et al.) do not confirm these findings [15]. Kalantari performed a research in 2007 to determine the relationship between conflict management styles and personality characteristic of Yazd university managers' personality. The findings of this study showed that extrovert personality has relationship with cooperative, collaborative and consensus conflict management styles and no significant correlation was seen between other variables and conflict management styles [13]. The result of Zarnosheh's study in 2000 in one of military hospitals in Tehran showed that 50% of managers were using solution seeker style, 45.8% were using controller style and 4.2% were using avoidance style [16]. Findings of another study by Amin Torabi in 2004 showed that 54.2% of managers had a taskoriented leadership style, 35.6% had orientedrelationship style, and 10.2% had a social independent leadership style. Regarding conflict management strategies, 49.7% had avoidance, 44.6% had controller and 5.7% had solution seeker strategies respectively [17]. Undoubtedly, the leadership style of managers is effective in the proper guidance of staff towards the organizational objectives. Using the best management or leadership style and factors affecting it will lead to increase of the effectiveness and efficiency of the staff and systems. Although sufficient research has not been done in this area especially in army systems, studies have been done in different domains that were mentioned. The results of this research, however, can provide scientific attitudes and perspectives for researchers especially for military commanders, and helps the proper application of managers (regarding their personality and behavior characteristics) in sensitive and key posts in order to ultimate improvement of organization. The purpose of this study was investigation the relationship between personality, leadership style and conflict management and their relationship in a military unit. Methods This cross-sectional correlation research was performed in 2008 and is considered as applied type based on its specific objectives. Studied population were all senior managers in a military unit. Sample size was determined based on Morgan table equal to 200 individuals who were selected by available sampling method. Data gathering tools were NEO personality questionnaire, management style (leadership) questionnaire and conflict management style questionnaire. Revised NEO Personality type questionnaire is a type of self-evaluative personality questionnaire which is based on a popular personality model called the "five-factor model" [18]. This questionnaire contains 60 questions that in this method ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Salimi S. H. et al. the minimum score is zero and the maximum score is 48. Regarding the validity of short form NEO, the results of several studies indicate that the subscales of short form NEO have good internal consistency. For example, McCrae and Costa, have reported alpha Chronbach’s coefficient between 0.68 and for being successful up to 0.68 for neuroticism [19]. Holden also reports Alpha coefficient for these factors in the range of 0.76 for openness to 0.897 for neuroticism [20]. The results of a study by Mooradian and Nezlek indicate that the Chronbach’s Alpha for neuroticism, extroversion, openness, being agree and consciousness has been reported 0.75, 0.74, 9.75 and 0.83 respectively [21]. This questionnaire has been normalized in Iran by Grossi [22]. Validity of this questionnaire came out to be 0.83, 0.75, 0.80, 0.79 and 0.79 for factors C, A , O, E and N, respectively using test-retest method in 208 students with three months interval. Also, in Mollazadeh's study, the validity of test –retest with 37 days interval in 76 martyrs’ children has been reported 0.83, 0.78, 0.73, 0.79 and 0.85 respectively for neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreement and conscientiousness [23]. Chronbach’s alpha coefficient has been reported for neuroticism 0.88, Extraversion 0.83, openness 0.74, agreement 0.76, conscientiousness 0.87 and general alpha coefficient 0.83 respectively. Regarding concurrent validity of the questionnaire and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment questionnaire, Minnesota multidimensional personality questionnaire, California revised questionnaire, taste investigation of Gliford and Zuckerman questionnaire, trait inventory and interpersonal trait scale ,significant relationship has been reported. Reports regarding validity of short NEO form have been presented. Mc Crae and Costa express that NEO short form has exact compatibility with its complete form in the way that the short form scales has correlation above 0.68 with scales in complete forms. Mc Crea and Costa in another study report that the validity of NEO five factors based on correlation with mate and peers evaluation is placed in the range from 0.44 for conscientiousness to 0.65 for openness. Additionally, in this study it has been reported that this questionnaire explained the 85% of variances in the convergent validity which has obtained through similar traits evaluation using trait confirmation and mate and peer evaluations [19]. Management style questionnaire (leadership) had 35 questions and included three styles of imperativecompulsory management style, imperative benevolence-consultative style and participatory style that its reliability and validity are credited. Validity of this questionnaire is 0.82 and in Alpha level of 1% is significant [15]. Scoring is done based on Likert style in this questionnaire. A score of 1 to 5 has been considered for too low, low, medium, high and too high levels respectively that for some questions scoring is done reversely. Judging criteria to determine the leadership style of studied managers were in this way: managers who score 35 to a 107 have imperative-compulsory style, who achieve 108 to 131 have imperative benevolence-consolatory style and who get over 132 have participatory style. Conflict management style questionnaire also have 30 questions in which the investigation of managers dealing with conflict situation during the work performance has been investigated and each question has been graded from 1 to 7. The highest score in this scale is 210. In this scale investigation of 3 styles and method of solving the conflict has been considered. Solution-seeking style, incompatible style and controller style are evaluated based on Roobin's view. Validity and reliability of this questionnaire in 25 of people in community has been reported 78% by Mehdipour using Chronbach’s alpha [3]. Also, the reliability coefficient of measuring tools for conflict management styles has been obtained 86% by Kalantari M [13]. Scoring in this questionnaire was done based on Likert scale. For testing Normal distribution, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used that in all cases distribution was normal. Then, descriptive statistical method (frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (means comparison, one ¬ way variance analysis and correlation and Scheffe followup test) was used. Results Table 1 shows the demographic findings including frequency and percentage of age, management experience, educational level, marital status, the percentage of veterans and income variables. The mean Scores of subjects in the management style were equal to 120.23 ± 12.07 with the range 86 to 165. The mean of Scores in solution-seeking style was equal to 54.51 ± 7.96 and in controller style was equal to 33.13 ± 5.83. Incompatible style also had the mean range 52.43±10.92 and the range 22 to 125. Imperative benevolence-consolatory style with 65.5% was the most leadership style, and participatory style with 13.5% was minimum leadership style used by participants. Compatible personality traits (19.5%), was the most personality traits among senior managers in this military unit. Then openness personality traits, Personality traits, management styles & conflict management in a military unit ______________________________________________ (18.5%), neuroticism (17.5%), conscientiousness (15%) and extroversion (11.5%) were located respectively. There was a positive and significant relationship between solution seeker style and controller style with extrovert personality trait. Also, positive and significant relationship was observed between incompatible style and neuroticism trait (Table 2). Table 1- The frequency and percentage of age, position, management experience, educational level, marital status, the percentage of veterans and income (n =200). Variable Frequency Percentage 25-30 13 6.5 31-40 43 21.5 Age (years) More than 40 141 70.5 No response 3 1.5 1-24 30 15 25-60 24 12 Management 61-120 42 21 experience (months) More than 121 101 50.5 No response 3 1.5 Diploma 29 14.5 associate and 157 78.5 Level of bachelors degree education Master and higher 11 5.5 No response 3 1.5 Single 3 1.5 Married 195 97.5 Marital status No response 2 1 To 25 43 21.5 25-50 28 14 Veterans’ 50-70 8 4 percentage No response 121 60.5 To 500 thousand 56 28 500 to 700 101 50.5 thousand Amount of income (Tomans) To one million 37 18.5 Over one million 3 1.5 No response 3 1.5 Openness Agreement Conscientiousness Solution seeker style Incompatible style controller style Extraversion Personal trait Management styles↓ Neuroticism Table 2- Correlation between personality traits and conflict management styles (n =200) -0.13 0.38** -0.05 0.12 0.12 0.17* 0.02 -0.02 0.04 -0.08 -0.11 0.18* -0.09 -0.02 0.04 leadership group. (p=0.001; df= 186 and 2, F=7.56) in the way that managers who were using solution seeker style, preferred using imperative-compulsory style compared with participatory style. Significant relationship was observed between controller styles and leadership styles (F=14.95; df=189 and 2; p=0.001). There was a significant difference between participatory style with imperative benevolence-consolatory style. In other words, managers who were using controller style preferred using imperative benevolence-consolatory style and imperative-compulsory style compared with participatory style. Also, significant difference was seen between imperative benevolence-consolatory with imperative compulsory style i.e. managers who were using controller style, had more tendency toward using imperative benevolence-consolatory style in comparison with imperative-compulsory style. Table 3- Correlation between personality traits and conflict management styles with leader ship style score (n =200). Correlation with management Variable style score 0.18* Extroversion 0.08 Openness -0.02 Compatibility 0.04 Conscientiousness -0.18* Neuroticism 0.33** Solution seeker 0.45** Controller 0.01 Incompatible p<0.001**, p<0.05* There was a significant difference between management style of subjects and neuroticism groups (F=3.85; df=186 and 2; p=0.026). Managers who had neurotic personality trait had tendency toward using imperative-compulsory management and the less neuroticism personality trait in management, the more the managers' tendency in using participatory style. There was a significant difference between incompatible styles of subjects with compatibility groups. (F=4.34; df=192 and 2; p=0.037). On the other hand, senior managers who were using incompatible style in times of crisis or difficulties did not have compatibility personality trait. Discussion p<0.001**, p<0.05* There was a significant relation between solution seeker conflict management style and with three Based on the results of this study, imperative benevolence-consolatory style was the most and participatory style was the lowest styles which were used. Since, the studied community has been a military society and the dominant culture in this environment is Islamic and value culture, it seems that ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Salimi S. H. et al. combination of these two features lead to more using imperative benevolence-consolatory styles among managers. According to the findings of study, solution seeker style had the highest mean in conflict management and controller has allocated the lowest mean of style. Therefore, it can be stated in this way that considering military unit managers had more tendency toward more using of solution seeker style in conflicts. These results have been confirmed in other studies such as Zarnoosheh's study [16]. Also the results from other research indicated that most of the managers with ...
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