what is something specific about the Second World War?

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the research paper is a paper of you choice , as long as it covers the period we are studying ,Reconstruction to present day ,the paper can be on a person, a event or a set of people ,the paper should no exceed 10 pages with a work cited/ reference page,.no broad topics like World War II but something specific about the Second World War.

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History 109 the research paper is a paper of you choice ,...... as long as it covers the period we are studying ......Reconstruction to present day ....the paper can be on a person, a event or a set of people ....the paper should no exceed 10 pages with a work cited/ reference page.....no broad topics like World War II but something specific about the Second World War.. make sure you read the research paper guidance also RESEARCH PAPER GUIDELINES One research paper is required for this course. The Research Paper is worth a total of 30% of your grade and is due on the assigned date found on your syllabus! The research paper is of your choice as long as it covers the period that is being cover in the course. The paper will be 10 pages in length, double spaced, using 12 point font, submitted online. This should be similar to any paper you would write for other classes – including a title page, an introduction, body of text, a conclusion, and references/bibliography. APA or MLA format is acceptable. Proper Citation of Sources. When writing papers which use information from researched sources, it is necessary to provide complete and correct documentation to show the source of all words and ideas which are not those of the student. Failure to cite a source implies that the information used is the original work of the paper writer – a form of stealing known as “plagiarism.” In the college class, plagiarism is grounds for failure, no matter how well written the rest of the paper may be. Do not use first person or contractions when writing. Also, remember that a successful term paper is not one that is written at the last moment, rather it is one that has been thought out, written, edited, and edited some more (you may consider turning in a rough draft or talking with me prior to the due date if you are unsure about how to approach writing the paper). Make sure you proofread! Nothing detracts from a paper (or grade) worse than a poorly written, mistake-filled paper. When writing this research paper, you should attempt to address the following questions: Comprehensive introduction ( includes who, what, where , and when) with clear thesis statement that answers the question. ➢ Why is this person or event important in American History? ➢ Does this individual or event represent an aspect that helped shape American History? ➢ Would American History be different if not for the actions of this person or the occurrence of the events? (ensure you have a solid conclusion) Students should not use the encyclopedia or the course text book as the primary source of research. Also keep in mind when writing the research paper ,You should not rely solely on the internet for information either; students may use certain web page links such as, The History Channel or Historynet.com to reinforce the research paper. ...
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feriatonet
School: University of Virginia

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Attached.

Japanese Treatment as Prisoners of War



Japanese Treatment to Prisoners of War
Name
Course
Date

Japanese Treatment as Prisoners of War

World War II: Japanese Treatment to Prisoners of War
Introduction
During World War II there were 425,000 enemies imprisoned in various prisoners in New York
to the state of California (Krammer, Arnold.n.d.). Most of these were Germans and others were
Italians as well as Japanese. There were about 5,424 Japanese soldiers as well as sailors that were
involuntarily captured and were incarcerated during the South Pacific battles. This paper aimed
to provide information on how the Japanese were treated as Prisoner of War in the United States
and why there were only a few of them were imprisoned compared to other races such as the
Italians and the Germans. Moreover, this essay will discuss the effects of the incarcerated years
in the U.S prisoner camps in their lives.
Why there were few Japanese POW prisoners during World War II?
The first Japanese caught during the battle was Ensign Kazuo Sakamaki, a Japanese midget
submarine commander and was detained in a well-guarded prison camp in Sand Island, Hawaii
(Krammer, Arnold.n.d.). In the middle of 1944, when there were more camps created and each
camp has an average prisoner of 2,500 and adhered to the Geneva Convention’s requirement
with regards to prison management where the provisions of basic needs such as food, health
services, and others should be identical with the provisions provided for the armed forces of U.S.
Among the thousands of prisoners that were housed in the new prison camps, there were only
fifty-two Japanese. The reasons for the few numbers of Japanese prisoners in the U.S. are the
Japanese soldiers were indoctrinated to prefer death rather than be caught by the enemies and get
imprisoned or surrender. It has been a Field Code of the Japanese Military where the soldiers

Japanese Treatment as Prisoners of War

were commanded to remember the code as to avoid the dishonorable name and bear the shame of
being caught and become a prisoner of the enemy; the soldier should choose to die. For the
Japanese, being captured even if they are wounded or unconscious was regarded as an
irretrievable shame. And they are commanded that the last round of their ammunition should be
saved for themselves or for a suicidal assault. Another reason for the small numbers of Japanese
soldiers is its inability to survive during the actual combat because the Americans were afraid
and reluctant of taking Japanese as prisoners because of their treacherousness (Krammer,
Arnold.n.d.).
In the various battles like in Burma campaign, there were only 142 Japanese that were caught
and became prisoners but killed 17,166 (Krammer, Arnold.n.d.). In another war in Guadalcanal
in Jan to February 15 of 1943, the number of Japanese soldiers captured was 84 and 33 of these
prisoners were sick and wounded. And during the Pacific campaign where battles took in 11
places (Krammer, Arnold.n.d.). There were only a total of 604 Japanese who became prisoners
of Allied forces. In the year 1944 of October, it was during the Philippine campaign that the
number of Japanese soldiers increased into five thousand that include the sole twenty-nine-yearold Japanese woman sniper. Most of these Japanese soldiers who surrendered to the American as
well as Commonwealth forces were disillusioned or malnourished.
Another reason for few numbers of Japanese prisoners in the U.S. is the decision of the War
Department to turn over the captives to the allies due to lack of personnel and insufficient
facilities for large numbers of prisoners (Krammer, Arnold.n.d.). It was in 1942 that the U.S. and
Australia entered to an agreement that all Japanese soldiers that were captured will be turned
over to Australia and those who are identified as the potential to the military intelligence will be

Japanese Treatment as Prisoners of War

shipped to the proper custody of the United States and become subject for a special interrogation.
Included in the agreement was the U.S. will provide a share of the maintenance cost to Australia
and responsible for the final disposition once the war ended. Other Japanese soldiers that were
caught and detained in the U.S are those who were caught near the U.S. territory (Krammer,
Arnold.n.d.).
Treatment to Japanese Captives
These Japanese prisoners were then brought to small mountainous Angel Island in San Francisco
Bay, California which was a former Immigration service station and converted to a temporary
transit for the incoming Japanese captives and brought to the interrogation center located in
Tracy California (Krammer, Arnold.n.d.). In Angel Island the Japanese prisoners went through a
sanitary measure of getting rid of lice, belongings were disinfected, underwent a medical
examination, and were assigned of serial numbers. Most of the captives were discovered to have
syphilis, internal worms, malaria, combat wounds, and skin diseases which were attended to and
treated by the medical team in the camp or at the Letterman General Hospital found in San
Francisco (Krammer, Arnold.n.d.). When they were asked to provide information in postcard
which will be sent to their family to inform of their safe condition and file the names to the
International Red Cross Prisoner Information Bureau, the captives adamantly requested to no
longer inform their family about their imprisonment because they would rather like them to be
considered killed in the war rather than in for them to know that they were captured and be
dishonored.
The Japanese prisoners then were surprised that they are more well-fed compared while being in
captive compared to their army where the food prepared and served are according to their tastes

Japanese Treatment as Prisoners of War

as Japanese and this is because they also wanted to protect the interest of the American prisoners
who are in the hands of the Japanese. These captives were allowed to listen to camp gramophone
and playing Mah-Jong or cards (Krammer, Arnold.n.d.). However, this treatment did not soften
the Japanese captives and found difficulty in winning their confidence because the prisoners
hated their captors and hated themselves too for not able to die in the combat.
Three phases of the psychological strategy employed for Japanese POW
There were three phases psychological strategy that was employed for the POW. The first phase
is 48 hours after the capture the captives will be treated as little value for the American
interrogators (Krammer, Arnold.n.d.). The prisoners were made to think that they will be tortured
and killed. Moreover, the interrogators act unresponsive and treat the information as unreliable.
The second phase was after several days of being detained, the Japanese captives realized that
their captors were not going to torture or even mistreat them. This phase was the important part
for the prisoners were slowly relaxing from their fears which were changed into gratitude and
became anxious to talk freely. In the next two weeks or so, the captives became more receptive
and more open to giving important information. The final phase was they made the Japanese
prisoner accustomed to the kind treatment and to the good food that was provided to them and
became annoyed whenever they were questioned that they become an unreliable source for any
important military information (Krammer, Arnold.n.d.).
The lessons that the army intelligence learned from the interrogation process employed with the
Japanese captives were the easiest way to extract important information from them is by
threatening them in forwarding their names to their relatives in their country. With this strategy,
there was no need for the interrogators to inflict violence just to be able to extract information

Japanese Treatment as Prisoners of War

from them. Another learning that the intelligence officers gathered was the realization of the
captives of their worthlessness in life where they were already dishonored and their life as a
Japanese has come to an end. When their request to kill themselves were not granted, they have
shoved away their Japanese traditional views and changed themselves to model prisoners.
According to the American official, there was even a time when Japanese prisoners helped them
locate ammunition dumps and flew the bombing pilots and guided them to the military targets.
Becoming prisoners made their outlook changed and a group of Japanese captives made an
announcement that they are going to fight back to Japan together with the Allied soldiers because
they thought their Emperor and the military deceived them (Krammer, Arnold.n.d.).
In addition to these the intelligence officers also learned that those who were questioned in
isolation and were not yet intimidated by the older prisoners talked freely after they were being
consoled ...

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Anonymous
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