Biomaterials subject, summary and presentation

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Chapter 6
6.0 Materials in Medicine
In the medical science arena, which can be described as big, the delineation and explanation
of the effect of materials on developments and innovations can be considered in healthcare. The
medical field utilizes a wide range of materials, such as metallic alloys, ceramics, and glasses, to
design implants, orthotics, and prosthetics. Those materials are heavily tested to satisfy the
stringent requirements for biological compatibility, mechanical strength, and durability. This
chapter will consider materials in medicine and will feature the finer world of materials in
medicine, exploring the different types with their properties and their applicability in improving
the quality of healthcare delivery.
6.1 Metals and Alloys in Medicine
Metals and alloys have been a core component in the fabrication of implants and
prostheses, which began long ago and now. This segment discusses the mechanical features of
several metallic substances used in medicine and the relevance of these metallic substances in
6.1.1 316L Stainless Steels (316L SS)
The conditions that these metals can withstand, such as corrosion or mechanical strengths,
allow them to be employed in eligibility for organs, tendons, joint arthroplasty, and dental
implants. From the mentioned above, 340L stainless steel is good due to its excellent properties.
This group of iron alloys was based on 304 stainless steel. It was later supplemented by
incorporating molybdenum (Mo); this made it more resilient to corrosion, mainly in a marine
environment. By having content lower in carbon, the 316L SS shows improvement in corrosion
resistance, making it a perfect selection for temporary implants such as ear and skin pin devices,

e.g., fracture plates and screws. Anodization techniques, as well as other surface modification
processes like anodization, significantly increase the corrosion resistance and wear resistance,
continuing to make titanium a medical application-eligible metal.
6.1.2 Cobalt-Chromium Alloys
Cobalt-chromium composites are the other group of popular components used in implants.
The mentioned alloys, even though they are the highest in strength and corrosion resistance, find
uses in dental and orthopedic implants. The cast CoCrMo alloy as well as the wrought CoNiCrMo
alloy are the two leading types of materials applied in medicine that both have benefits for the
various groups...

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