Psychology Question

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Capella University

Description

Class 10 Assessment 2 

For this assessment, complete the Introduction, theoretical orientation, review of the literature, synthesis of the research findings, critique of the research methods, and summary.

Expand AllThe purpose of the literature review is to provide the context within which the project will be developed and framed. The process of finding, reviewing, synthesizing, analyzing, and writing the literature review provides greater definition to the theoretical framework and gives you a strong foundation from which to work when developing support for the research concept.

You will continue developing your literature review, integrating and synthesizing the information gleaned as you developed your research topic, your annotated bibliography, and your annotated outline, if you created one.

In this assessment, you will focus on developing brief, carefully constructed paragraphs supported by the literature and research. You will research and present key findings of your literature review that you may not have addressed or that may need further development. Plan to build upon what you have already presented.

Overview

In addition to the other helpful links provided in Resources, we recommend you use an organizing tool from the Capella University Library Services and Tools page, such as the Scholarly Research Log, to help you track the theories, methods, and findings of the articles you have read.

Instructions

The literature review assessment is a standalone assessment; however, it is part of the overall concept paper. Therefore, you notice that it is part of the concept paper template. You are encouraged to consult the assessment rubrics as you complete each assessment, including the final paper, for an understanding of the depth and breadth required for each level of scoring.

The following is a complete description of each section and subsection of the literature review assessment. These instructions are also included in the concept paper template, they are meant to help guide your process as you complete each section.

[Restate the Title Here and Remove the Brackets]

The introduction to the literature review should follow immediately after the title. Its placement signals that it is an introduction and does not require a separate heading. Follow current APA guidance for creating a title. The title should be a statement and not a question. It should summarize the main idea of the paper. It should be concise and include the variables in the research and their relationship. See section 2.4 on page 31 of the APA manual. Use this space to discuss what the reader is expected to learn from the literature review. Introduce your research topic and describe the significance of your topic. Discuss how you conducted your literature search, the databases and keywords used.

Theoretical Orientation for the Research Concept

Many times, the term theory can be conflated with other uses. In research there are about three ways that theory is applied in research: a) empirical theories; b) theories of method; and c) theories of content.

Empirical theories are likely to drive quantitative projects. These theories are intellectual guesses, supported by the research literature, that become the impetus for initiating a quantitative research study. They guide research questions, justify what is being measured (variables) as well as how those variables are related, and guide the data collection instruments. Such theories are best described in the research question section of the paper and should make a clear connection to the research question.

Theories of method refers to the epistemological underpinnings of theories that drive decisions associated with the planning and development of research strategies. Theories of method is also understood as concept mapping. It's a description of the research concept development with a discussion that includes a justification for making such choices. It's helpful to include this description in the background section of the paper.

For this section of the assignment, the focus should be on theories of content. Examples of theory related to content include psychoanalytic theory, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, attribution theories, and cognitive and developmental theories. Theories of content should be identified, defined, and described with support from the theoretical and empirical literature. These theories should be grounded in psychology and provide a lens by which to understand the research topic.

With this mind, be sure to:

Identify and define the theory or theories that provide the foundation for the research.

Describe the theory or theories and explain how the research topic relates to the theory(ies).

Include macro/umbrella theory or theories from seminal sources that provide a reasonable theoretical foundation for contextualizing the research concept.

Review of the Literature

The review of literature is more than a summary of the information found through the literature search. Its purpose is to provide the context within which the project will be framed and developed. It should include a conceptually organized synthesis of the results of the process that clearly delineates what is known, what is unknown, and what is controversial regarding your topic. It is expected that you will organize topics and subtopics in the literature review thematically. Reviews that are organized article by article are not appropriate for this project.

It is important to understand that the process of finding, reviewing, synthesizing, and writing the literature review defines the theoretical framework and gives you a strong foundation from which to work when developing your research question. The literature review is part of the concept paper template, which you will use and build on throughout the course.

For this section of the assessment, the review of literature should reflect an effective understanding of the current state of empirical research on the topic. Include (1) studies describing and/or relating to the research topic; (2) studies on related research such as factors associated with the themes; (3) studies on the instruments used to collect data; (4) studies on the broad population for the study; and/or (5) studies similar to the proposed study. The themes presented and research studies discussed and synthesized in the Review of Literature need to demonstrate a working understanding of all aspects of the research topic. Analyze the relationships among the related studies instead of presenting a series of seemingly unrelated abstracts or annotations. The literature review should motivate the study. The reader should understand why the problem should be researched and why the study represents a contribution to existing knowledge.

Themes to be considered and addressed in your literature review include the following (this is not an exhaustive list):

Themes in the literature that illuminate the history of the discipline or area of practice of your project.

  • Themes in the literature that provide a theoretical background for the topic or area of practice regarding your project.
  • Best practices in your area of practice or specialization.
  • Themes regarding the proposed research that add something significant to the knowledge base of psychology.

Themes that identify the standards of your profession (values, attitudes, beliefs, professional attributes) and the sources from which these are derived.

Synthesis of the Research Findings

The introductory paragraphs in this section are usually followed by a review of the literature. Show how your research builds on prior knowledge by presenting and evaluating what is known about your research topic and problem. Assume that readers possess a broad knowledge of the field but not the cited articles, books, and papers. Discuss the findings of works that are pertinent to your specific topic.

This section requires that you take the research findings, discussed in the review of literature above, and integrate the findings so that they overlap and create a new understanding of the issues that relate to your research topic. This new understanding is developed by Identifying the connection between each of the themes from the literature and deciding what argument you are making. Use those same sources to support the final point that you want readers to know.

Critique of Previous Research Methods

Critiquing research is part of the research process. This calls for an evaluation of the methods that were employed in the research that informs the research topic. To do this well, a synthesis of the methods should be conducted. This synthesis should connect with the synthesis from the previous section. That is, the research that has been reviewed and synthesized for its findings will be reviewed and synthesized for its methods. Evaluate the various methodologies and designs that have been used in prior empirical research related to your research topic. Discuss how the methods helped advance the knowledge base, discuss the strengths of the methods, and what you might change to boost the research. Must include supporting examples with proper citation.

  • Summary
  • Restate the main arguments/points that were made throughout the paper provide supporting citations. The summary section reflects that the learner has done their due diligence to become well-read on the topic and can demonstrate that this research concept can potentially add to the existing body of research and knowledge on the topic. It synthesizes the information to define the gaps in or identified research needs arising from the literature and the theory or theories to provide the foundation for the study.


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Assessment 2 Literature Review For this assessment, complete the Introduction, theoretical orientation, review of the literature, synthesis of the research findings, critique of the research methods, and summary. Introduction The purpose of the literature review is to provide the context within which the project will be developed and framed. The process of finding, reviewing, synthesizing, analyzing, and writing the literature review provides greater definition to the theoretical framework and gives you a strong foundation from which to work when developing support for the research concept. You will continue developing your literature review, integrating and synthesizing the information gleaned as you developed your research topic, your annotated bibliography, and your annotated outline, if you created one. In this assessment, you will focus on developing brief, carefully constructed paragraphs supported by the literature and research. You will research and present key findings of your literature review that you may not have addressed or that may need further development. Plan to build upon what you have already presented. Overview In addition to the other helpful links provided in Resources, we recommend you use an organizing tool from the Capella University Library Services and Tools page, such as the Scholarly Research Log, to help you track the theories, methods, and findings of the articles you have read. Instructions The literature review assessment is a standalone assessment; however, it is part of the overall concept paper. Therefore, you notice that it is part of the concept paper template. You are encouraged to consult the assessment rubrics as you complete each assessment, including the final paper, for an understanding of the depth and breadth required for each level of scoring. The following is a complete description of each section and subsection of the literature review assessment. These instructions are also included in the concept paper template, they are meant to help guide your process as you complete each section. [Restate the Title Here and Remove the Brackets] The introduction to the literature review should follow immediately after the title. Its placement signals that it is an introduction and does not require a separate heading. Follow current APA guidance for creating a title. The title should be a statement and not a question. It should summarize the main idea of the paper. It should be concise and include the variables in the research and their relationship. See section 2.4 on page 31 of the APA manual. Use this space to discuss what the reader is expected to learn from the literature review. Introduce your research topic and describe the significance of your topic. Discuss how you conducted your literature search, the databases and keywords used. Theoretical Orientation for the Research Concept Many times, the term theory can be conflated with other uses. In research there are about three ways that theory is applied in research: a) empirical theories; b) theories of method; and c) theories of content. Empirical theories are likely to drive quantitative projects. These theories are intellectual guesses, supported by the research literature, that become the impetus for initiating a quantitative research study. They guide research questions, justify what is being measured (variables) as well as how those variables are related, and guide the data collection instruments. Such theories are best described in the research question section of the paper and should make a clear connection to the research question. Theories of method refers to the epistemological underpinnings of theories that drive decisions associated with the planning and development of research strategies. Theories of method is also understood as concept mapping. It's a description of the research concept development with a discussion that includes a justification for making such choices. It's helpful to include this description in the background section of the paper. For this section of the assignment, the focus should be on theories of content. Examples of theory related to content include psychoanalytic theory, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, attribution theories, and cognitive and developmental theories. Theories of content should be identified, defined, and described with support from the theoretical and empirical literature. These theories should be grounded in psychology and provide a lens by which to understand the research topic. With this mind, be sure to: • • • Identify and define the theory or theories that provide the foundation for the research. Describe the theory or theories and explain how the research topic relates to the theory(ies). Include macro/umbrella theory or theories from seminal sources that provide a reasonable theoretical foundation for contextualizing the research concept. Review of the Literature The review of literature is more than a summary of the information found through the literature search. Its purpose is to provide the context within which the project will be framed and developed. It should include a conceptually organized synthesis of the results of the process that clearly delineates what is known, what is unknown, and what is controversial regarding your topic. It is expected that you will organize topics and subtopics in the literature review thematically. Reviews that are organized article by article are not appropriate for this project. It is important to understand that the process of finding, reviewing, synthesizing, and writing the literature review defines the theoretical framework and gives you a strong foundation from which to work when developing your research question. The literature review is part of the concept paper template, which you will use and build on throughout the course. For this section of the assessment, the review of literature should reflect an effective understanding of the current state of empirical research on the topic. Include (1) studies describing and/or relating to the research topic; (2) studies on related research such as factors associated with the themes; (3) studies on the instruments used to collect data; (4) studies on the broad population for the study; and/or (5) studies similar to the proposed study. The themes presented and research studies discussed and synthesized in the Review of Literature need to demonstrate a working understanding of all aspects of the research topic. Analyze the relationships among the related studies instead of presenting a series of seemingly unrelated abstracts or annotations. The literature review should motivate the study. The reader should understand why the problem should be researched and why the study represents a contribution to existing knowledge. Themes to be considered and addressed in your literature review include the following (this is not an exhaustive list): • • • • • Themes in the literature that illuminate the history of the discipline or area of practice of your project. Themes in the literature that provide a theoretical background for the topic or area of practice regarding your project. Best practices in your area of practice or specialization. Themes regarding the proposed research that add something significant to the knowledge base of psychology. Themes that identify the standards of your profession (values, attitudes, beliefs, professional attributes) and the sources from which these are derived. Synthesis of the Research Findings The introductory paragraphs in this section are usually followed by a review of the literature. Show how your research builds on prior knowledge by presenting and evaluating what is known about your research topic and problem. Assume that readers possess a broad knowledge of the field but not the cited articles, books, and papers. Discuss the findings of works that are pertinent to your specific topic. This section requires that you take the research findings, discussed in the review of literature above, and integrate the findings so that they overlap and create a new understanding of the issues that relate to your research topic. This new understanding is developed by Identifying the connection between each of the themes from the literature and deciding what argument you are making. Use those same sources to support the final point that you want readers to know. Critique of Previous Research Methods Critiquing research is part of the research process. This calls for an evaluation of the methods that were employed in the research that informs the research topic. To do this well, a synthesis of the methods should be conducted. This synthesis should connect with the synthesis from the previous section. That is, the research that has been reviewed and synthesized for its findings will be reviewed and synthesized for its methods. Evaluate the various methodologies and designs that have been used in prior empirical research related to your research topic. Discuss how the methods helped advance the knowledge base, discuss the strengths of the methods, and what you might change to boost the research. Must include supporting examples with proper citation. Summary Restate the main arguments/points that were made throughout the paper provide supporting citations. The summary section reflects that the learner has done their due diligence to become well-read on the topic and can demonstrate that this research concept can potentially add to the existing body of research and knowledge on the topic. It synthesizes the information to define the gaps in or identified research needs arising from the literature and the theory or theories to provide the foundation for the study. Additional Requirements • • • • Formatting: Use the Concept Paper Template [DOCX] to complete your assessment. It has been created to reflect the proper structure. To avoid missing content and losing points, please do not modify the template. Font: New Times Roman, 12 points, double-spaced, or any other font that complies with current APA guidelines. APA: Use APA format and style throughout, including citations. Length: The literature review draft assessment should be 5–6 pages, not including references. Refer to the scoring guide to ensure that you meet all criteria. Concept Paper Template Use this template to complete assessment 1, assessment 2, assessment 4, and assessment 5. Resubmit this document as you complete assessments, including the final paper (assessment 5). Do not modify this template with the exception of this page. You may remove this page. Remove the instructions in each section and add your content. 1 Title [Insert your name] School of Psychology, Capella University PSY5201: Integrative Project 2 [Restate The Title Here and Remove the Brackets] The introduction to the literature review should follow immediately after the title. Its placement signals that it is an introduction and does not require a separate heading. Follow current APA guidance for creating a title. The title should be a statement and not a question. It should summarize the main idea of the paper. It should be concise and include the variables in the research and their relationship. See section 2.4 on page 31 of the APA manual. Use this space to discuss what the reader is expected to learn from the literature review. Introduce your research topic and describe the significance of your topic. Discuss how you conducted your literature search, the databases and keywords used. Theoretical Orientation for the Research Concept Many times, the term ‘theory’ can be conflated with other uses. In research there are about three ways that theory is applied in research. - a) empirical theories, b) theories of method, and c) theories of content. Empirical theories are likely to drive quantitative projects. These theories are intellectual guesses, supported by the research literature, that become the impetus for initiating a quantitative research study. They guide research questions, justify what is being measured (variables) as well as how those variables are related, and guide the data collection instruments. Such theories are best described in the research question section of the paper and should make a clear connection to the research question. Theories of method refers to the epistemological underpinnings of theories that drive decisions associated with the planning and development of research strategies. Theories of method is also understood as concept mapping. It’s a description of the research concept 3 development with a discussion that includes a justification for making such choices. It’s helpful to include this description in the background section of the paper. For this section of the assignment, the focus should be on theories of content. Examples of theory related to content include psychoanalytic theory, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, attribution theories, and cognitive and developmental theories. Theories of content should be identified, defined, and described with support from the theoretical and empirical literature. These theories should be grounded in psychology and provide a lens by which to understand the research topic. With this mind, be sure to: • identify and define the theory(ies) that provide the foundation for the research • describe the theory(ies) and explain how the research topic relates to the theory(ies) • include macro/umbrella theory(ies) from seminal source(s) that provide a reasonable theoretical foundation for contextualizing the research concept. Review of the Literature The review of literature is more than a summary of the information found through the literature search. Its purpose is to provide the context within which the project will be framed and developed. It should include a conceptually organized synthesis of the results of the process that clearly delineates what is known, what is unknown, and what is controversial regarding your topic. It is expected that you will organize topics and subtopics in the literature review thematically. Reviews that are organized article by article are not appropriate for this project. It is important to understand that the process of finding, reviewing, synthesizing, and writing the literature review defines the theoretical framework and gives you a strong foundation 4 from which to work when developing your research question. The literature review is part of the concept paper template, which you will use and build on throughout the course. For this section of the assignment, the review of literature should reflect an effective understanding of the current state of empirical research on the topic. Include (1) studies describing and/or relating to the research topic, (2) studies on related research such as factors associated with the themes, (3) studies on the instruments used to collect data, (4) studies on the broad population for the study, and/or (5) studies similar to the proposed study. The themes presented and research studies discussed and synthesized in the Review of Literature need to demonstrate a working understanding of all aspects of the research topic. Analyze the relationships among the related studies instead of presenting a series of seemingly unrelated abstracts or annotations. The literature review should motivate the study. The reader should understand why the problem should be researched and why the study represents a contribution to existing knowledge. Themes to be considered and addressed in your literature review include the following (this is not an exhaustive list): • Themes in the literature that illuminate the history of the discipline or area of practice of your project. • Themes in the literature that provide a theoretical background for the topic or area of practice regarding your project. • Best practices in your area of practice or specialization. • Themes regarding the proposed research that add something significant to the knowledge base of psychology. • Themes that identify the standards of your profession (values, attitudes, beliefs, professional attributes) and the sources from which these are derived. Synthesis of the Research Findings 5 The introductory paragraphs in this section are usually followed by a review of the literature. Show how your research builds on prior knowledge by presenting and evaluating what is known about your research topic and problem. Assume that readers possess a broad knowledge of the field but not the cited articles, books, and papers. Discuss the findings of works that are pertinent to your specific topic. This section requires that you take the research findings, discussed in the review of literature above, and integrate the findings so that they overlap and create a new understanding of the issues that relate to your research topic. This new understanding is developed by Identifying the connection between each of the themes from the literature and deciding what argument you are making. Use those same sources to support the final point that you want readers to know. Critique of the Previous Research Methods Critiquing research is part of the research process. This calls for an evaluation of the methods that were employed in the research that informs the research topic. To do this well, a synthesis of the methods should be conducted. This synthesis should connect with the synthesis from the previous section. That is, the research that has been reviewed and synthesized for its findings will be reviewed and synthesized for its methods. Evaluate the various methodologies and designs that have been used in prior empirical research related to your research topic. Discuss how the methods helped advance the knowledge base, discuss the strengths of the methods, and what you might change to boost the research. Must include supporting examples with proper citation. Summary 6 Restate the main arguments/points that were made throughout the paper provide supporting citations. The summary section reflects that the learner has done their "due diligence" to become well-read on the topic and can demonstrate that this research concept can potentially add to the existing body of research and knowledge on the topic. It synthesizes the information to define the "gaps" in or "identified research needs" arising from the literature and the theory(ies) to provide the foundation for the study. Include a brief introduction of the research topic and its significance. A road map of the organization of the paper should complete the introduction. Background The background of your study is a modified version of your literature review. It reflects the most important points from the main ideas of the literature review. Provide a summary of those main points that highlight the gaps in the literature. This section should communicate the main ideas from the literature review, and it should restate the gaps in the literature, making a smooth transition to the research problem. The Background section should include three paragraphs addressing the main ideas captured in the literature review. Specifically, address the historical and contemporary understanding of the research problem in the first paragraph. In the second paragraph, address the gap in the research – where the research falls short of addressing your specific interest related to the research topic. 7 The third and final paragraph needs to be a discussion of how the extension of the research concept, as a research study, would address the research problem. All paragraphs should include 5–7 sentences. Research Problem The research problem needs to be an explicit statement about the convergence and divergence in the literature review and a clear declaration of the problem deriving from the gap in the literature. It needs to address what the research literature states we know, what the literature indicates we know, and what we don’t know, based on the published research. This should be a succinct, yet detailed paragraph of 5-7 sentences. The research problem is the impetus for the research question. Research Question The research question should accurately reflect the research topic, theory, population, variables, and methodology. It should also address the research problem specifically. State it as a question. Include the hypothesis, null hypothesis, and alternative hypothesis. Goals and Objectives Goals and objectives are important to address in a concept paper. It becomes the justification for pursuing research. Anyone reading this research concept would want to understand why this is important and what the goals would be if it were to be pursued as a full research study. State the goals of this study as if you were going to conduct it or pursue a research proposal. Think about the significance of conducting a study like this and the impact it could have – the significance. State the goals in a succinct paragraph of 4-6 sentences. List the 8 objectives (what the purpose of the study would be) in narrative form – minimum of three objectives. You can add more if needed. Cite to support your claims. Population and Sample Describe the general population, the target population (include a description of the social setting), and study’s sample. Consider this example when describing the population: • the general population (i.e., students with disabilities) • target population (i.e. students with disabilities in one specific district - geographic location) • the study sample (students with disabilities in the district that will participate in the study – actual study sample). Identify the sampling strategy, provide a sample size appropriate for the study design, include a justification. When describing the sample size provide evidence that the sample size is adequate for the research design. You can use the Finding the Right Test tool to find the appropriate statistical test. As a general rule of thumb, consider the following: • Absolute Minimum: 50 cases or participants applicable to studies that use frequencies/descriptive statistics and parametric statistical tests (t-tests, ANOVA, correlation, regression analysis)—additional requirements related to the use of certain statistical analysis procedures may increase that number. Survey research = 10 subjects per survey question. • An a-priori Power Analysis is required to justify the study sample size based on the anticipated effect size and selected design. Include this in addition to using the literature to support your choices. 9 Methodology and Procedures Quantitative Research Define and describe quantitative research. Identify, define, and describe the research design. Provide a description of your instruments: All surveys, tests, questionnaires, experimental procedures, clinical interventions, inventories, and other data-collection tools should appear in an instrument subsection. A forecast of reliability and validity should be presented. Data collection and data analysis strategies also need to be addressed. Instruments. Provide a detailed discussion of the instrumentation and data collection which includes validity and reliability of the data. Describe the structure of each data collection instrument and data sources (tests, questionnaires, interviews, observations data bases, media, etc.). Specify the type and level of data collected with each instrument. Data Collection. Describe the procedures for the actual data collection that would allow replication of the study by another researcher, including how each instrument or data source would be used, how and where data would be collected, and recorded. Data Analysis. Address what, why, and how of data analysis. Identify what statistical/non-statistical analysis would be used. Discuss why the statistical analysis is the best selection. Demonstrate how the statistical analysis was selected, align with the research question and design. Conclusion Restate your research topic, restate the research problem and research question, briefly discuss the significance of the topic as a potential study, summarize the key supporting ideas you discussed throughout the literature review, and offer your final thoughts on how this topic would advance the knowledgebase. 10 References 11
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Explanation & Answer

Hello there! I need feedback for the Topic in order to proceed with assessment 2, 4 and 5..
Attached.

1

The Effect of Misplaced Beliefs on Corrupt Behaviors of Public Officials: A Literature
Review

[Insert your name]
School of Psychology, Capella University
PSY5201: Integrative Project

2

The Effect of Misplaced Beliefs on Corrupt Behaviors of Public Officials
For a long time, scholars from multiple disciplines have investigated this phenomenon
with the main aim being to find the most suitable interventions to address the problem of
corruption in societies (Neudorfer, 2015). The significance of this study is that it will help to
develop additional measures that may be effective in addressing the problem of corruption in
society (Shabbir et al., 2019). In many of the studies, corruption among public officials has
been considered as a political, social and cultural problem. However, there are very few
studies that have studied corruption in the context of the realms of psychology. In recent
years, however, there have been significant efforts to consider corruption as a psychological
problem, explain it using psychological theories and address it from the psychological
perspective (Chugh, 2012). From this literature review, it will be possible to understand the
psychological perspective on corruption, identify the gaps and determine what still needs to
be done to fully comprehend the problem of corruption as a psychological problem and
identify the most suitable strategies to address the problem. Literature sources were obtained
from psycinfo journals as well as other popular online academic databases. Most of the
articles on the database are scholarly and they are free-access. Some of the key words used in
the literature search included cognitive psychology of corruption, rationalization, unethical
behavior, and Personal gain and self-control.
Theoretical Orientation for the Research Concept
The primary theory that forms the foundation of this study is the cognitive theory of
corruption. The cognitive theory of corruption addresses a wide range of psychological
phenomena such as the psychological influence of power, rationalization of behavior,
personal gain and self-control among other factors that may influence corrupt behaviors
among individuals (Dupuy & Neset, 2018). According to this theory, psychological aspects

3

such as power, self-control and emotion play a significant role on influencing corrupt
behavior of individuals. Thus, when analyzing how people behave when they are exercising
power, it is possible to determine whether or not they may be corrupt (Ronsenblatt, 2012).
That, however, may not be the case when an individual does not have the authority and
power. Before an individual gets to such positions of authority and influence, they may detest
corruption and advocate for very strong punishments to be meted against people who get
involved in corrupt practices (Dupuy & Neset, 2018). When these same people get to wield
power. For an individual to start getting involved in corrupt practices, there are several
aspects of their psychology that may have changed, not only making them to view corrupt
practices differently but also to practice it.
Review of the Literature
The burden of corruption in public service
The burden of corruption on public service cannot be underestimated. In many
countries, the quality of public service is compromised by the significant levels of corruption
among the officials. Adagba and Anyio (2013) present that Nigeria, just like many other
countries in the global south have significantly high levels of corruption that are affecting the
levels of services offered by the public service. Using Nigeria as an example, the authors
examine the manner and extent to which corruption is rooted in public service and how it
affects the delivery of service in the affected countries. In the paper, the authors identify
corruption as one of the most destructive phenomena in society, and whose ramifications on
the social and economic aspects of populations has been devastating (Dang, 2016). While
there are many countries that are endowed with sufficient wealth in the form of natural
resources, they have failed to realize any meaningful development because the public officers
who are supposed to use them for the benefit of the plunder, loot and steal everything

4

(Jancsics, 2014). While Nigeria is an oil-rich country, it has largely failed to develop the
welfare of the people thanks to corrupt practices among public officers.
These findings are also shared by Gray (2015) who looks at corruption in Tanzania,
another African country that has a potential of achieving great economic heights but which
has largely been held back by corrupt public servants. The author says that the political
structure in the country plays an important role in the enhancement of corruption in the
country. The author says that “The distribution of power in society affects the ability of
historically constituted social groups to acquire or hold on to, property rights that generate
income” (Gray n.p). When society has public officers, who are very corrupt and who tolerate
acts of corruption, it is possible that such a society will not realize any significant progress
(Schatz, 2013).
In Growing trends and tendencies of corruption in the South African public service:
Negative contribution to service delivery, Sebake and Sebola (2014) present that South Africa
is country with a huge potential and it has whatever may be required for a country to develop.
The article describes public servants as soldiers of the government who are supposed to
spearhead service delivery. However, in the course of their service delivery, a lot of these
offices are tempted to use the resources placed in their custody for personal gain as opposed
to the benefit of the populations (Heyneman, 2011). From the foregoing, it is evident that
corruption in public service is an enemy of development and all efforts must be made to
address it and make sure public resources benefit the people (Van Schoor, 2017).
The cognitive psychology of corruption
The emergence of corrupt...


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