Managing Quality and Risk

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Question Description

Managing quality often means addressing small issues so that they do not escalate into risks for the organization. This week's learning activities addressed some of the organizational challenges nursing leaders are likely to face.

Select one of the topics from this week's learning activities:

  • Mitigating bullying and lateral violence
  • Managing conflict
  • Using power to influence
  • Improving communication
  • Valuing diversity

Develop a plan to carry out your selected topic as a nurse leader on your floor. Consider:

  • Available resources: time, budget, space, industry collateral, personnel
  • Employee engagement
  • Change management principles
  • Team dynamics

Create a presentation to show your CNO how you plan to address the topic.

Format your assignment as one of the following:

  • 7- to 10-slide presentation
  • 15- to 20 minute oral presentation
  • 450-word executive summary
  • Another format approved by your instructor

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1 An APA running head is not needed for undergraduate or master’s courses per the University Writing and Style Guidelines. If you are a student in a doctoral program, or otherwise require a running head in your paper, consult the doctoral APA Sample Paper in the CWE>Tutorials and Guides>Doctoral Writing Resources. Pagination: Use the header feature in Microsoft® Word to set the page number (see Appendix A). Writing Style and Mechanics Student Name Course/Number Date Instructor Name The title: Use upper and lower case letters, centered between the left and right margins, and positioned on the upper half of the page. Use black, 12point Times New Roman font throughout. Arial and Courier font types are acceptable. All lines are double-spaced throughout the entire document. Use black, 12-point Times New Roman font throughout the document. Arial and Courier font types are acceptable. This APA Sample Paper is intended for undergraduate and master’s level students. The University of Phoenix APA sample papers represent the consensus of key academic officials within the University. This particular sample reflects expectations outlined in the University of Phoenix Writing and Style Guidelines for undergraduate and master’s courses, which correspond with the University’s preferred style guide for most programs: The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition. If your course materials direct you to follow MLA style, please see the MLA Sample Paper in the Center for Writing Excellence (CWE)>Tutorials and Guides>MLA Information. This sample paper is offered as a concise tool to help students with style, but it is not a definitive or binding representation of format for all courses. The CWE provides many tools to help students write and format effective papers; however, the faculty member determines the assignment grade in the course. Abstract: Typically, an abstract is required only for publication. If your assignment instructions indicate a requirement to use an abstract, a sample can be found in the CWE>Tutorials and Guides. Center for Writing Excellence © 2014 Apollo Group, Inc. All rights reserved. Writing Style and Mechanics Indent the first line of each paragraph using the tab key, set at five to seven spaces or one-half inch. Use the paper title above your introduction, centered not bolded. 2 The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) began as a Direct quotations require a page number or paragraph number. journal article in 1929. The APA reported results from a meeting of scholars “to establish a simple set of procedures, or style rules, that would codify the many components of scientific writing to increase the ease of reading comprehension” (APA, 2010, p. xiii). Today, the Publication Manual is in its sixth edition and the APA style described in it is a widely Use one or two spaces after a period at the end of a sentence, but be consistent with usage throughout the document. recognized standard for scholarly or professional writing in the social sciences. Although the style guide is designed to prepare manuscripts for publication, many universities and health care journals have adopted its use as a guide to achieve uniformity and consistency (Cuddy, 2002). Writing in the style prescribed by the Publication Manual can be a daunting experience for students. As with any new skill, “practice makes perfect” (S. Proofreader, personal communication, June 28, 2004). Points of APA style most often used by undergraduate and Personal communication citation: No need to include on the reference page. graduate students are listed below. However, keep in mind that this sample paper is a guide and should not be considered as a replacement for the Publication Manual. Format Considerations Level one heading: Centered, bolded, upper and lower case letters. . Some commonly used rules and formats from the sixth edition of the Publication Manual are listed below. Please note, however, that some assignments may require unique formatting, Level two heading: Left margin, bolded, upper and lower case letters. and you should consult your syllabus for clarification. Correct Margins Margins are one inch on all sides. This rule is broken only to avoid placing a lone heading on the last line of the page or a single line of text on the top of the next page. Margins should be one inch on all sides of the document. Writers should ensure that a line is not tab indented when centering a heading so as not to appear off center. 3 Page Header The page header contains the page number aligned with the right margin. The automatic header function in Microsoft® Word should be used to place the page numbers consecutively in the paper (see Appendix A). Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, and so on) are used to number each page, beginning with 1 on the title page. Document Headings Paragraph headings should be used in long documents to organize the essay, to break it up into readable portions, and to make it easy for readers to locate information. Using headings in a short document before every paragraph can make the writing appear choppy, and the paper may not flow smoothly from point to point. Use paragraph headings if your document is longer than three or four pages or if the assignment instructions require paragraph headings. Reference Page Hanging indentation is used for the reference page. The proper format can be set in Microsoft® Word (see Appendix B). Creating the hanging indentation by using the tab key or space bar will not protect the formatting if changes are made to the reference page at a later time. The reference page is alphabetized by author or by title of the work when no author is listed, and each entry contains the date of publication in parentheses directly after the author’s name. The title, the place of publication, and the name of the publisher follow the date of publication for a book entry. The proliferation of electronic materials has prompted APA to create formats designed specifically for Internet and web-based written material. Visit the APA website at http://www.apastyle.org for additional information about formatting electronic references. You will also find frequently asked questions and helpful free tutorials about using APA style. The place of publication in a reference should include city and state using two letter postal abbreviation for the state. If the location is outside of the U.S., use the city and country. Examples: New York, NY. London, England. 4 Only references that have been cited in the paper are listed on the reference page. Personal communications are cited in the text but do not appear on the reference page because the reader cannot retrieve them. Additional reference examples are available in the Reference and Citation Examples tutorial in the Center for Writing Excellence (CWE) at Tutorials and Guides. In-Text Citations Level three heading: Indented, bolded, capitalize only the first word, period at the end, continue text same line. Direct quotations. Direct quotations must mirror the original source word for word, even if errors are contained in the original text. To alert the reader that errors are part of the original material, the word [sic], enclosed in brackets and italicized, must follow the erroneous material. The source of the quotation must be cited. The format of direct quotations may vary with the placement of the quoted material in the sentence. The following is an example of how you may use a direct quotation from a website with an author: “Diversity is emerging as one of the most serious issues in the workplace today, yet most employers are not prepared to deal with it” (Copeland, 2003, Erroneous Assumptions, para. 1). The author’s last name, the year of publication, the website title or section title, and the paragraph number, when no page number is available, are included in the citation. The following is an example of how one may use a direct quotation from a book with one Citation with a page number: One space between the p. and the number. Level three heading usually only necessary in longer papers, most commonly in master’s and doctoral papers. author: Venes (2001) stated, “The types of influenza doctors must prepare for fall into three categories” (p. 106). If the author’s name is stated prior to the quotation, include the date of publication (in parentheses) after the author’s name, and follow the quotation with the page or paragraph number. For a work with two authors, use both authors’ last names for every citation. If the source has three or more authors but fewer than six authors, list all authors in the first citation, and use the first author’s last name and the words et al. (without italics) for the rest of “Erroneous Assumptions” is the heading of a section within the web-based article, “Managing a Multicultural Workforce.” Using the heading of a section for an online article citation will help your reader quickly locate the content in the original source. 5 the citations. If the source has more than six authors, you may use the first author’s last name and the words et al. (without italics) for every citation (APA, 2010, p. 175). The following example from the Publication Manual (2010, p. 42) shows a citation from a work with more than six authors using the first author: (Good et al., 2001). Refer to the Reference and Citation Examples tutorial in the CWE at Tutorials and Guides for more examples of in-text citations. Quotations that contain fewer than 40 words are enclosed in double quotation marks within the text. Use single quotation marks for quotations contained within a direct quotation. Quotations of 40 words or more are indented in a block format without quotation marks. Use double quotation marks to indicate a quotation within the block quotation. The block quotation is started on a new line, and it is indented five to seven spaces or one-half inch. A sample block quotation appears on page 7 of this document. Paraphrased or summarized material. Paraphrasing or summarizing allows the writer Write out and with authors’ names mentioned within the text. Use an ampersand (&) when they are written within a citation. to present someone else’s ideas or intellectual property and to supply proper credit to the original author or authors (Lawton, Cousineau, & Hillard, 2001). When an author is paraphrased or summarized, the source must be cited in the text. If a source is mentioned more than once in a paragraph, a citation must be included each time. Page or paragraph numbers are not required for paraphrased material, but the Publication Manual recommends that writers include a page or paragraph number to help the reader easily locate the information (APA, 2010, p. 171). If a writer were to paraphrase information from an article located in an online database, the writer would format the citation as follows: Daniels (2004) included Darden Restaurants on her list of the 50 best companies for minorities. Here is an example where the author is not mentioned within the text: A list of companies has been singled out as best for minority employees (Daniels, 2004). Both examples include the author’s last name and the date of publication. If the author’s 6 name is not provided with the paraphrased text, it must be included in the citation. Refer to the Reference and Citation Examples in the CWE at Tutorials and Guides for examples of citing paraphrased material. Deciding to summarize, to paraphrase, or to provide a direct quotation is an important question one must consider when using sources in an academic paper. Summarizing and paraphrasing both consist of sharing a source author’s ideas by phrasing them in one’s own words. A writer should summarize or paraphrase source material when it is important to capture the basic idea but when the author’s exact words are not essential to the paper. Conversely, a writer should quote directly when the source verbiage is crucial and stating it any other way would cause it to lose its meaning. Usually writers will quote authors who are experts in their field and whose ideas support their own. However, excessive use of direct quotations should be avoided. Writers are encouraged to paraphrase when doing so will not change the meaning or the impact of a source (Ede, 2011). Plagiarism. Plagiarism constitutes a serious academic concern. According to Lawton, Cousineau, and Hillard (2001), “Academic communities demand that writers credit others for Electronic source and quotation: If the electronic source does not have page numbers, use the abbreviation para. for the paragraph number. their work and that the source of their material clearly be acknowledged” (para. 6). Internet access has resulted in an increase in plagiarism. McCabe noted (as cited in Sterngold, 2004), 41% of students said they engaged in cut-and-paste plagiarism from online sources. The sentences and phrases used in one’s paper must be original or cited and referenced accordingly. Although it may be easier for a writer to use someone else’s words, doing so discredits the writer. When in doubt, cite. See the Plagiarism Guide in the CWE at Tutorials and Guides for more information about avoiding plagiarism and about properly citing intellectual property. Secondary Sources: Also called an indirect source. List only primary source in reference list, and cite secondary source author only within the text. Secondary sources are not ideal in academic writing and should be avoided. 7 Other Format Issues The preferred typeface for APA style is black, 12-point Times New Roman (APA, 2010). However, Arial and Courier font types are acceptable. Avoid using any software settings that reduce spacing between words or letters or that add spacing between paragraphs. Use doublespacing throughout the document. You may use one space or two spaces after sentence-ending punctuation in the body of your essay, but use consistent spacing at the end of a sentence throughout your essay. Although the Publication Manual (2010) requires an abstract to precede the text, an abstract is not used in most student papers. Some assignments may require an abstract if students are submitting lengthy papers or project proposals. In those cases, the direction to submit an abstract will be in the assignment guidelines. A sample abstract can be found in the CWE at Tutorials and Guides. Writing Mechanics Correct grammar, punctuation, spelling, and sentence structure—in addition to formatting—are essential components of scholarly writing. Strunk (1918/1999) emphasized the importance of being succinct: Block quotation (40 or more words): Indent to the tab margin and do not include quotation marks. The in-text citation occurs outside of the punctuation that ends the sentence. Vigorous writing is concise. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences, for the same reason that a drawing should have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts. This requires not that the writer make all his sentences short, or that he avoid all detail and treat his subjects only in outline, but that every word tell. (para. 1) 8 Grammar In addition to the provision of a standardized format for scientific writing, the Publication Manual (2010) emphasizes the importance of proper grammar. Important basic grammar principles are listed below. For further information, refer to Step-by-Step Grammar Review in the CWE. The Step-by-Step Grammar Review provides individualized practice with grammar and punctuation. Subject and verb agreement. A singular noun requires a singular verb and a plural noun requires a plural verb (APA, 2010). Words that intervene between the noun and the verb do not change this basic rule. Noun and pronoun agreement. When writers use a singular noun, they must also use a singular pronoun. To avoid using awkward combined forms such as he/she or (s)he, writers may reword the sentence and use a plural noun and a plural pronoun to eliminate the problem of nouns and pronouns that do not agree. For example, the sentence “A student applying for a job must carefully proofread his/her application” may be reworded to read, “Students applying for jobs must carefully proofread their applications.” Use of plural forms also helps writers reduce bias, avoid stereotypes, and refrain from using both singular and plural in the same sentence or paragraph. Passive voice. Passive voice obscures the actor in this sentence: “The house was painted,” because it omits who applied the paint. In contrast, the same sentence written in active voice would be something such as this: “Our company painted the house.” The passive voice, which is a form of “be” (is, was, were, will be, have been, etc.) and a participle (painted, etc.), is useful when the actor's identity is not important to the sentence or context. Overuse of the passive voice causes the document to read similarly to an instructional manual, dry and 9 monotonous. According to Sigel (2009), it weakens the essay’s argument and prevents clear and concise writing. Occasional use of the passive voice is acceptable, but documents written primarily in the active voice are more enjoyable and more persuasive to read (Sigel, 2009). Punctuation. Correct punctuation establishes the rhythm and readability of sentences. Use only one space after commas, colons, and semicolons. Use one or two spaces after a period at the end of a sentence (be consistent with use). When a hyphen or a dash is used, no space appears before or after the hyphen or dash (APA, 2010). In academic writing, use a comma to separate all words in a series of three or more, as in the following example: Tasks included reading, writing, and analyzing the information in the text. Correct use of commas and semicolons can be challenging for students. Writers should consider using a proofreading tool, such as WritePoint®, to aid in checking proper comma use. Capitalization. Capitalization is used to designate a proper noun or trade name as well as major words in titles and in headings. Instances where capitalization is not used include laws, theories, models, or hypotheses, such as ethical decision-making models and names of conditions or groups in an experiment, such as experimental or control groups (APA, 2010). A common error in capitalization is its use with the name of a job title or department. An example is human resources, which is not capitalized, versus the specific title of ACME Human Resources Department, which is capitalized. Seriation (elements written in a series). Items contained in a list help to clarify the point being made or help to clarify components of a subject. Bullets may be used for a list in academic writing according to APA standards (2010). To show seriation of separate paragraphs, however, number each paragraph with an Arabic numeral followed by a period that is not 10 enclosed in or followed by parentheses. To show seriation within a paragraph or a sentence, use lowercase letters in parentheses (see Appendix C). Numbers. Spell out numbers one through nine that appear in the body text. Use Arabic numerals to express numbers 10 and above. Exceptions to this rule are discussed in the Grammar and Writing Guides in the Center for Writing at Tutorials and Guides. Once in the Grammar and Writing Guides, go to Grammar Mechanics and select Number Usage for a list of the exceptions. If you have the Publication Manual, sixth edition (2010), refer to pages 111-114 for detailed information about number usage. Third person versus first person. Person refers to the point of view or the source of the writer’s opinions. Use third person (he, she, or they) in academic writing. When referring to yourself, however, stating “The writer instructed the patients” is ambiguous and may give the impression that ...
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