7 summary papers based on readings and videos.

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School: Boston College

hello buddy, which are the papers to be summarised here?

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30th Jan-5th Feb
Thomas Hobbes, “Leviathan”
The history of the Commonwealth is based on the living things living together and socializing.
Man compared to ants and bees is competitive for honor and dignity which is absent in ants. The
ants have the same common good and private good that differs significantly with humankind.
Man is selfish. The ants have no cognitive ability to reason this single factor differentiate men
from ants. The ant's agreement is natural while interests artificially drive the human.
Commonwealth represents universal power for defense and sovereignty. Association of
Commonwealth guarantees peace, and security.
The right and sovereignty of institutions in the Commonwealth are based on the agreement of
multitudes. The agreement is reached either through a popular assembly or popular vote.
Members are bound by covenants1. There are popular government and monarchy in the
commonwealth. There is the rule of law that members abide.
There are several kinds of commonwealth institutions the representative assembly has
one member, the commonwealth has the monarchy. The leadership of the monarchy is well
selected and groomed. The representative assembly has risks due to the nature of the popular
vote. There are two challenges to the commonwealth that threaten its existence namely;
"rebellion and sedition." Rebellion described as recognizing that the commonwealth is not


with Thomas Hobbes, "Leviathan" describing the commonwealth

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perfect the same way humankind is imperfect. Resistance is refusing to be ruled under the
commonwealth covenant. Sedition, on the other hand, is described as the use of individual
common sense against the rules of the country. Commonwealth sovereignty has governance
challenges where the few can accumulate wealth at the expense of the majority. The wealthy are
privileged with the ability to buy patronage. The problem of accumulation by the few has led to
the increase of urban sprawls in cities. There need to increase and enlarge order continues to
improve with cities enlargement into sprawls.
The membership of the commonwealth is through forceful acquisition or inheritance. The
standard feature is domination. The state must guarantee the safety of its subjects. Leadership
compared to the relationship between God and man or master and servant. The man has created
civil laws that give people rights to do the right thing. Civil laws need to be obeyed to establish
order. The civil laws are general rules; lawyers can only interpret special laws. The people who
make rules are semi-immune to the same standards because they have the power to change the
rules to suit their circumstances.
The law of reward and punishment has been used to motivate people to obey laws.
Discipline must be justified. Sovereignty gives rulers the right to punish and reward subjects.
Transgression of the law is when punishment is offered without proper judgment. Punishment
must be measured with the level of crime and must be seen to be fair and justified without
Equality and justice are essential elements of leadership. There is recognition that those
who can pay taxes need to do so to enable welfare to take care of the poor in society.
Commonwealth thus means respect for leaders, obeying law and order, paying taxes and
enjoying peace and defense. The rich and wealth must pay the most taxes to shoulder the cost of

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welfare. Those who are wealthy paying taxes allows for wealth redistribution for the common
good. The poor can access public goods like security, peace, and order.
6th Feb-12 Feb
John Locke, Second Treatise on Government: Abridged into Modern English
Of politics and society, there are some similarities. The simplest unit of society is the
family made up of man and woman who come together voluntarily. The father in the family
represents the monarchy. The man by himself feared loneliness and had to create relations with
the woman. Man and woman create society. The union serves three purposes namely procreation,
mutual assistance, and protection of offspring. The man comes to the world a free being2.
The man born free may decide to give up freedom in exchange for wages. A contract
guides the relationship of master and servant. The contract controls the relationship between the
master and the servant. The agreement gives the temporary master power. The father in society
represents the monarchy that is more concerned with the protection of property, creation of law
and order and reduction of violence.
Justice and order guide society. The rights to property must be protected. The
communities have the conventional means of maintaining order in the community through the
norms, culture, and rules. The communities have ways of settling disputes, enforcing the order
that is just among community members. Non-compliance leads to banishment.
The government has taken over the role of society and community. The people give their
power to the government. The government exercises the consent. The government is organized
into three arms namely the legislature, executive, and judiciary. Majority rule leads the
government. The majority have power over governance. The basic principles of majority rule are


John Locke, Second Treatise on government. Abridged into modern English

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based on the premise that men are equal when in the real sense there are marked differences.
Secondly, men will never naturally agree on all issues. The will of majority allow the minority to
have their say while the majority have their way.
The powers of the government are restricted to a particular jurisdiction marked by land.
The governments thus have power over all persons within the jurisdiction of the land that they

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