Name: Alexey Maleka
Professor: Rodolfo Santamaria
Course: JWMI 550
Value Stream Mapping and
Value Stream mapping is a lean enterprise and lean
manufacturing technique that is employed in
documenting, analyzing as well as improving the for of
information or materials needed in producing a product or
a service for a customer.
A value stream map or an end to end system map does
take into account only the product’s activity, but the
management and information systems that support the
Value Stream Analysis involves employing a planning
tool in optimizing results of eliminating waste
Current state in Manufacturing
As a worker of Kline Steel company as the officer in charge of
production that makes widgets and supplies thorough various retail
outlets. There were a number o problems that emerged. These
There was shortage of supply to the retail outlets like GNK
There were high levels and value of inventory in the company
Lastly, a letter of complaint was sent to the company fro m a
customer who stated that he was a frequent customer of our
company’s products and that he was dissatisfied with the quality of
products we o9ffered and that he often returned faulty widgets to the
Since I am unsure of these questions, I intend to get to the bottom of
the situation and if possible I will make efforts of improving the
Step 1: I will first select a sponsor as well as set
In this step I will be appointing someone who will be
responsible in making decisions, arbitrating solutions and
planning the project.
The sponsor will be selecting the processing that will be in
the map and he will be grasping firmly the achievements
that are being targeted.
Step 2: I will then select my team. I will as well ensure that
every area or stakeholder of the mapping process is
represented that is areas like sales, warehouse.
Step 3: I will select the process that are to be mapped as
value stream mapping is suitable for manufacturing,
logistics, and also supply chain.
Day= 1 shift
Since daily Shifts in a day is 8 hours then = work
time is 28,800 sec/ shift
Morning tea is 15 mins
Lunch is 30 mins
Afternoon tea is 15 mins
Total Breaks is 60minutes
(15+15+30) * 60 = 3600 seconds
Working time / operating time
Shift time –Break
28800-3600= 25,200 working seconds.
Collection and Mapping of Data(
Supplier and customer)
Map Information Flow
Current State Calculation
In 1 week there are 5 working days
The demand is 3200 pieces per week or rather 640
pieces per day.
Type L + S = 2,250 pieces is 1000+ 1250
Time Duration = 3.5 days 2250/640
Current State Map
1 week has 5 working days
Demand is 3200 pieces per week
Type L is 1000 pieces per week (200 per day)
Type S is 2,200 pieces per week (440 per day)
Total pieces per day or shift is 640
Operating time/working time is 25,200
Takt Time per time period =
𝑨𝒗𝒂𝒊𝒍𝒂𝒃𝒍𝒆 𝑾𝒐𝒓𝒌 𝑻𝒊𝒎𝒆
This means that there is need of completing a unit in every 39 seconds to
satisfy the average customer demand.
Total- Processing/work time
Process time =3 + 22+ 35= 60 seconds
Production Lead time 5 + 3.5 + 5.2 + 2.3 = 16.0 days
Takt Time= 39 seconds
Summary Metrics: Time
The activity ratio in this process will involve the
percentage time that anything that is being done
in the work process passing through the system
that is whether it is non value adding or value
Common current state finding in the
manufacturing process is 1-10% across the whole
(Σ𝑃𝑇/ Σ LT )* 100
Activity ratio passes troughs/Lead Time
Activity ratio= 60/16= 3.75%
This is a quality metric that will determine the
percentage of work that will go through a series
of process steps that is free of errors.
It is determined in every unit whereby the
percentage of the product is measured over the
work in process is completed and accurate when
It determines the percentage of the time that the
product passes through the entire process without
rework in 100 occurrences.
Customer demand 3200/ Operating time 25200
Rolled %C&A= 12.7%
Line Balancing/Labor requirements
Number of Operators required is work over Takt time
No of Operators= work/ Takt time
No. of Operators = 39 = 1.54
Current State Description
The number of operators required are 1.54 operators.
If the company has 2 operators, the production will be
costly and if the company gets 1 then it can result to
I can as well make a reduction of the Takt time from 39
seconds to 35 seconds or less. This can be come by
combining some of the tasks and avoiding burnout.
From Current State to Future State
The Current State findings:
From Current State to Future State
Future State design- The minimum required for
✓ Abolishing redundant NVA steps
✓ Eliminating delays
✓ Improving the outcomes effectiveness
✓ Improving information quality.
✓ Improving VA steps
✓ Building consideration (from present state)
✓ Eliminating batches
✓ Build similar paths
Keyte, B., and D. Locher. The complete lean enterprise:
Value stream mapping for office and services. 2017.
Locher, D. Value stream mapping for lean development: A
how-to guide for streamlining time to market. Taylor &
Murphy, T., et al. Value stream management: 8 steps to
planning, mapping, and sustaining lean improvements.
Productivity Press, 2001.
Sandia National Laboratories, et al. Value Stream Mapping:
Foam Collection and Processing. United States. National
Nuclear Security Administration, 2015.
Wardwell, P., and Kanopy (Firm). Value stream
Course Project Part B
Detailed Agendas for Kaizen or Work-Outs
of Alexey Maleka
Jack Welch Management Institute
Professor Rodolfo Santamaria
May 5, 2018
Kaizen is the continuous improvement in an organization. It is a long-term approach that
seeks to achieve small, incremental changes in processes with a mission of improving efficiency
and quality. Value stream mapping helps in identifying waste and improvement areas. According
to the value stream mapping and analysis, the manufacturing in Kline steel company had some
shortcomings that need to be improved. During the production, there were long delays which lead
to must time wasting which needs to be improved. The whole process experienced excessive costs
and ineffective outcomes. If the kaizen approach is employed, then the manufacturing process can
be streamlined making the manufacturing process more efficient. The Kaizen events of part of this
methodology in reducing the inefficiencies and increasing the quality of both the products as well
as the processes that create them. The primary idea is to bring forth the greatest breadth and depth
of knowledge as well as their experience in the discussion. The primary attribute of these events
is their efficiency as well as their focus. All the decision makers and the involved parties either in
one place at a time, should come together or buy in so that thoughtful and effective solutions can
be quickly implemented. The events will involve some activities.
Firstly, in a period of three to five days, the workforce from all departments meets at one
point and discusses the processes at hand. All stakeholders are participants in the process, and they
are derived from every part of the company that is from management to administration.
The group then makes an observation which can be in the form of demonstration or mostly
in practice through the creation of flowchart showing all the steps involved. The steps will be on
how to handle the excessive costs,
After the participants understand all the processes, they suggest what improvements should
Lastly, the group should discuss various options, during which the suggestions made are to
be implemented or discarded until every participant gets behind the fresh approach.
Kaizen events for Excessive costs
The chosen days, the sequence of the session topics, the lean tools to be used are set with
a purpose of fulfilling the Kaizen events objectives. The two days are for meeting up all the
stakeholders to concretely discuss the issue of excessive costs by looking for ways to reduce the
costs. In this case, the two days are adequate for the team to cover the topics. The team should
learn the problem solving first so that they can be able to outline effective methods of solving
problems in the manufacturing process. Later team facilitation can follow to help the team work
together in reducing the costs. The Activity ration can be used as a lean tool because it helps in
measuring the relative efficiency of a firm based on the usage of assets and balance sheets which
will determine whether the management is making enough efforts in generating revenues and cash
from its resources which can also involve reducing unnecessary costs. Standardized work can be
used as a tool because it involved documenting description of methods, tools, materials as well as
the processing times required for meeting Takt time for any job. This later helps in the
standardization of the budget or costs throughout the value stream. With the standardization of the
budget and the measuring of the efficiency of the company regarding costs will help the team in
determining the cause of excessive costs and how they can be reduced.
Kaizen events for long delays
Reducing inventory Bottlenecks
Total Productive Increased production Low morale and
and employee morale delays
Level load balance
Reduces set up time Long
The long delays require continuous improvements for the production to be efficient. The
team agenda is to have four days scheduled a time for discussing the issue where the topics to be
discussed are team facilitation and Kaizen events. The four days are adequate for covering the
topics and giving the team adequate time for understanding the challenge and how to handle them.
Team facilitation should be covered to help the team in developing strategies for increasing
production. The citizen’s events should be covered to enable the team to employ innovative
thinking to various challenges in production that are impending strategy execution. The tools to be
used are Load balancing because it provides a more even as well as a consistent workflow. It can
be incorporated in the design phase where the cause analysis can be done in analyzing points to
bottlenecks the process. It can also be used in introducing a pull in the system instead of letting it
operate on a push and in the long run bottlenecks can alleviate, and the inventories can also be
reduced. This is where the Takt time principles are employed in designing the system to realize a
level load balance. Total productive maintenance is a lean tool used in improving the overall
equipment effectiveness which constitutes the quality and performance. It, therefore, helps in
increasing production without any delays and at the same time increasing the morale of the
employees. The quick changeover tool will be in reducing the time to changeover a chine through
streamlining and externalizing steps. This helps in the reduction of setup time in improving
flexibility and responsiveness to the customer changes without any delays.
Kaizen events for Ineffective outcomes
Considering the ineffective outcomes or the low-quality products can be handled by having
a four days study of the roots of the issue. The four days will allow the coverage of Value stream
mapping topic, continuous flow and problem-solving. The value stream mapping will help in
identifying the challenges in meeting the customer demands and how to eliminate wastes.
Continuous flow should follow so that the team can determine the challenges faced in flow
production and lastly the problem-solving topic can enable them to use the problem-solving flow
chart in identifying the problems and how to solve them. The tools to be used are mistake proofing
which will help in tuning process steps. It helps in improving and designing steps with an objective
of reducing errors as most low-quality products have faults. The leveling workload tool helps in
ensuring consistent quantities of work over time which is critical for ensuring continuous
improvement regarding improving the quality of output. Standardized work is a tool that will help
in standardizing all the tasks throughout the value stream. Standardization of tasks will improve
the quality of products. The total productive maintenance tool will aid in increasing production
and at the same time increase job satisfaction.
In Davim, J. P. Progress in lean manufacturing. 2018.
Medinilla, A. Agile Kaizen: Managing continuous improvement far beyond retrospectives.
Springer Berlin, 2014.
Sharma, R. Kaizen: A Approach to Process Improvement in Manufacturing Industry. LAP
LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2015.
Keyte, B., and D. Locher. The complete lean enterprise: Value stream mapping for office and
Rother, M., Shook, J., & Lean Enterprise Institute. (2009). Learning to see: Value-stream mapping
to create value and eliminate muda. Cambridge: The Lean Enterprise Institute.
Alukal, G., & Manos, A. (2006). Lean kaizen: A simplified approach to process improvements.
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