Business Finance
BHR4601 Columbia Southern Poorly Written and Well Written Job Descriptions

BHR4601

Columbia Southern University

Question Description

Using the Web browser of your choice, identify two poorly written and two well-written job descriptions. Please copy and paste the descriptions into your Word document and include references in APA format. Discuss: What makes the poorly written job descriptions weak? What makes the better job descriptions more effective? Respond to each question with a minimum of 250 words. Now, select one of the weaker job descriptions and rewrite them by utilizing O*NET (http://www.onetonline.org/) as one of your sources. When responding to the questions, be sure to utilize the information from the required reading and the Unit III Study Guide. All sources cited, including the textbook, must be cited and referenced according to APA standards. Utilize APA formatting for your title and reference pages.

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COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 1-1 Chapter 4 – Strategic Job Analysis and Competency Modeling COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-2 Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to:       Explain why job analysis can be strategic. Describe different types of job analyses, and what they are used for. Define “job description” and “person specification” and describe how they are used. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of different job analysis methods. Describe how to plan a job analysis. Describe how to conduct a job analysis. COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-3 Job Analysis Definition: a systematic process of identifying and describing the important aspects of a job and the characteristics workers need to perform the job well Job analyses are used for multiple purposes, including:  Determining job entry requirements  Developing a company’s strategic recruiting plan  Selecting individuals for employment  Developing employee training plans  Designing compensation systems  Developing performance evaluation measures Job analyses also help group jobs into job families or groupings of jobs that either call for similar worker characteristics or contain parallel work tasks COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-4 Job Families COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-5 Job Analysis for Staffing A job analysis that produces a valid selection system identifies worker characteristics that:  Distinguish superior from average and unacceptable workers;  Are not easily learned on the job; and  Exist to at least a moderate extent in the applicant pool. Future-oriented job analysis: job analysis technique for analyzing new jobs or analyzing how jobs will look in the future COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-6 Job-Worker Match COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-7 Legal Requirements To meet legal requirements, a job analysis must:  Be valid and identify the worker knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics necessary to perform the job and differentiate superior from barely acceptable workers  Be in writing and relevant to the particular job in question  Be derived from multiple sources COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-8 Practical Reasons to do a Job Analysis COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-9 Job Description A written description of the duties and responsibilities associated with the job itself. Job descriptions usually include:          The size and type of organization The department and job title The salary range Position grade or level To whom the employee reports and for whom the employee is responsible Brief summary of the main duties and responsibilities of the job Brief summary of the occasional duties and responsibilities of the job Any special equipment used on the job Any special working conditions (e.g. shift or weekend work, foreign travel, etc.)  Purpose and frequency of contact with others  The statement, “Other duties as assigned” to accommodate job changes and special projects COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-10 Person Specification Person specification: summarizes the characteristics of someone able to perform the job well Essential criteria: job candidate characteristics that are critical to adequate performance of a new hire Desirable criteria: job candidate criteria that may enhance the new hire’s job success, but that are not essential to adequate job performance COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-11 Outcomes of Job Analysis COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-12 Job Analysis Methods Must be:  Reliable, or replicable ◦ A reliable job analysis procedure will produce the same results when it 1) is applied to the same job by a different job specialist; 2) when a different group of job experts is used; and 3) when it is done at a different time.  Valid, or accurately measure what it was intended to measure ◦ A valid job analysis accurately captures the target job. COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-13 Job Analysis Techniques Critical incidents technique: identifies behaviors extremely effective or extremely ineffective behaviors by documenting critical incidents that have occurred on the job Job elements method: uses expert brainstorming sessions to identify the characteristics of successful workers Structured interview technique: subject matter experts provide information about the job verbally in structured interviews Task inventory approach: job experts generate a list of 50-200 tasks that are grouped in categories reflecting major work functions that are then evaluated on dimensions relevant for selection Structured Questionnaires: involves using a list of preplanned questions designed to analyze a job (e.g., the Position Analysis Questionnaire or PAQ) COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-14 Planning Job Analyses Job analyses should be performed in such a way as to meet the professional and legal guidelines that have been published in the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-15 Planning Job Analyses Determine time and resources necessary and available Collect background information about the company, its culture and business strategy, the job, and the job’s contribution to strategy execution and competitive advantage O*NET - Occupational Information Network (http://online.onetcenter.org/) Identify job experts Identify appropriate job analysis technique(s) to use COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-16 Job Analysis Steps COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-17 Task Statements COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-18 Job Duties COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-19 Weighting Job Duties COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-20 Job Requirements Matrix COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-21 Competency Modeling Definition: a job analysis method that identifies the necessary worker competencies for high performance Competencies: more broadly defined components of a successful worker’s repertoire of behavior needed to do a job well Because competencies are linked to the organization’s business goals, strategy, and values, a person specification resulting from a job description can enhance hiring quality and strategy execution A competency-based job description:  Enhances a manager’s flexibility in assigning work  Lengthens the life of a job description  Can allow firms to group jobs requiring similar competencies under a single job description COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-22 Competencies Related to Specific Job Environments COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-23 Job Rewards Analysis Job rewards analysis: identifies the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards of a job  Analyzes the intrinsic rewards that are non-monetary and derived from the work itself and the firm’s culture ◦ Including the satisfaction of meeting personal goals, great coworkers, continuous learning, and doing meaningful work.  Analyzes the extrinsic rewards that have monetary value ◦ Including base pay, bonuses, and benefits. The combination of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards are a job’s total rewards COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-24 Job Rewards Analysis, cont. Employee value proposition (EVP): the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards an employee receives by working for a particular employer in return for their job performance Communicating your EVP:  First determine exactly what attracts job candidates, and why employees enjoy their work.  Then craft a message to clearly state what makes your company the obvious choice over the competition. COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-25 3 Criteria for Employee Value Propositions 1. Magnitude refers to a reward package that is neither too small nor too large in economic terms. • Spending too much on rewards can negatively impact the firm’s financial stability, and hurt investor relations. 2. Mix refers to the composition of the reward package matching the needs and preferences of applicants or employees. • Offering stock options that vest in five years to a young, mobile workforce, or free daycare to an older workforce is not consistent with workers’ needs and preferences. 3. Distinctiveness refers to the uniqueness of the total reward package. • Rewards with no special appeal and that do not set the organization apart as distinctive do not present a compelling value proposition. COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-26 Job Reward Dimensions Amount refers to how much of it is received.  how much pay, what level of task variety Differential is how consistent the reward is across different employees.  all employees receive the same number of vacation days, but merit bonuses range from 2% to 15% of base pay Stability is how reliable the reward is. ◦ Is the reward the same all of the time, or does it change (e.g., does it vary based on organizational performance or business requirements?) COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-27 Job Rewards Matrix COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-28 Job Rewards Matrix, cont. COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 1-29 Discussion Questions Why do you think some organizations choose to not perform job analyses given their benefits? What could be done to increase their willingness to analyze jobs? How can job analysis make staffing more strategic? How do you personally evaluate different job opportunities and decide which to pursue? COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-30 Discussion Questions If supervisors and job incumbents disagreed about the relative importance and weights of various job duties, how would you reconcile their conflicting opinions? For example, if a supervisor emphasized the technical aspects of a customer service representative’s job and the representatives emphasized the interpersonal aspects of listening to customers and understanding their problems, what would you do? Some jobs change so rapidly that companies do not feel doing a job analysis is worthwhile because by the time one is done, it’s already outdated. What advice would you give such a company to help them take advantage of the benefits a job analysis has to offer without wasting unnecessary time and resources doing a traditional job analysis? COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-31 Develop Your Skills Exercise Working in a group of 3-4 people, do a job rewards analysis on the job one of your group members holds (or has held). Use the questionnaire in this chapter’s Develop Your Skills feature as part of your analysis. Summarize your analysis in a job rewards matrix. Then apply the results and describe the type of potential job applicant to which each reward might appeal. COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-32 Opening Vignette Exercise The opening vignette describes MITRE’s effort to develop a competency model for its sytems engineers. As explained in the vignette, systems engineering is a broad discipline requiring a variety of knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics. Performing a job analysis or developing a competency model for this type of job requires using different methods than would doing the same for a more static, lower-skilled job such as a cashier or mail sorter. Your assignment for this exercise is to describe how you would conduct a job analysis or create a competency model differently for these two types of jobs. How would the process differ? Would you use different sources of information? COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-33 COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 1-34 Chern’s Case Study a) Using O*Net and other sources of data, create a job requirements matrix. b) For each competency or KSAO, decide if it should be used to hire or plan to develop. c) Estimate how important each characteristic is relative to the others as well as the relative time spent on each job duty. d) Create a job rewards matrix. COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 1-35 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. COPYRIGHT © 2015 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. 4-36 UNIT III STUDY GUIDE Job Analysis—Is It Really Important? Course Learning Outcomes for Unit III Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 3. Explain the significance of research methods used in job analysis. 3.1 Define job analysis, including the various types of job analysis methods and the steps to complete the process. 3.2 Explain the legal reasons for conducting job analysis. 3.3 Describe job description, person specifications, and competencies. Reading Assignment Chapter 4: Strategic Job Analysis and Competency Modeling Unit Lesson Click here to access the audio recording of this lesson. What is a job analysis? Why is it important? What purpose does it serve? Why does the supervisor need input from the employees? What if the employees fail to cooperate? What if false information is given? How does this impact company failure or success? As you can see, there are many questions that may be asked in regards to job analysis. Many of you have heard the term “job analysis.” Some of you may have had the opportunity to conduct job analysis. As popular as job analysis can be, there are some organizations that believe it is a waste of time. However, based on experience, job analysis can help to determine the success of an organization. You may ask, how so? When a job analysis is conducted, the reviewer looks to find the specifics about the specific job. The job analysis does not look at the person in the job but the job itself. The reviewer tries to determine what duties and tasks are needed, the time it takes to complete the task, and the process for completing the task. The reviewer also tries to determine what necessary tools and/or equipment are needed to perform job tasks. Although most people believe the supervisor is the go-to person for this information, the person performing the job is the best person to gain such information from. The person performing the job’s tasks on a regular basis can generally share information about the job that the supervisor may not be aware of. The job analysis is a great tool when writing job descriptions or revamping an organization. The job analysis helps to create specifics about the position and essential functions. There are several job analysis methods that organizations utilize. Many organizations utilize more than one method because they typically utilize the one they feel will produce the best reliability and validity for a job class or family. Now that the job analysis is complete, it is important to understand how all this works. The managers are now able to determine if the proper knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) have been identified. They can determine if changes need to be made to the job descriptions. When changes are needed, the managers must make certain that essential functions are identified and are in compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Managers can also determine specific rewards that need to be implemented in order to attract and retain employees. Scenario You heard “through the grapevine” that your company will be conducting job analyses for various positions within the organization. Your immediate supervisor has not told you about this, so you began to wonder: what is the purpose of the job analysis, who will it impact, and what impact will the analysis have on employee pay and job stability? These are only a few of the many questions that employees may have when they are not BHR 4601, Staffing Organizations 1 familiar with job analysis or when management does not take the time to communicate this process UNIT x STUDY GUIDEto the employees. Title To avoid confusion, disgruntlement, and lack of cooperation from the employees, what should management do? The answers are addressed within the reading in Chapter 4. After completing this unit, you should have a better understanding of job analysis, the legal ramifications of job analysis, job analysis methods, and what it takes to plan and conduct a job analysis. This unit will also provide insight on job analysis rewards—to include intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Suggested Reading Click here to access the Chapter 4 PowerPoint Presentation. Click here to view a PDF of the Chapter 4 presentation. BHR 4601, Staffing Organizations 2 ...
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