critical evaluation on journal papers.

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a critical evaluation on the following five attached PDF's is required.

a journal(( critical evaluation sample)) will also be provided to guide you on how to do the critical evaluation as per the college standards

each journal should be at least two-three pages long as a total of 3000++ words + a summery that discuss the results and discussion clearly.

all references should be in Harvard referencing style.

any missing file will be uploaded later upon confirmation due to the maximum amount of uploads (5).

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International Journal of Civil Engineering (IJCE) ISSN (P): 2278-9987; ISSN (E): 2278-9995 Vol. 6, Issue 4, Jun– Jul 2017; 11-20 © IASET EFFECT AND OPTIMIZATION OF FOUNDRY SAND, GGBS & STEEL FIBER ON STRENGTH OF CONCRETE R.H. JADHAV, SADIYA SHAIKH, RISHABH AGRAWAL, RAJAT ARYAN SHARMA, FARAZ KHAN & ASEEM ANAND JHA Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune, Maharastra, India ABSTRACT As the technology keeps on growing day by da, it helps in the development of our nation, but at the same time it damages our surrounding environment too. Concrete, which is the most important construction material, has some limited properties such as low tensile strength, low ductility and shrinkage and cracking problem related to hardening. These problems related to concrete can be tackled. To neutralize the problem related to low tensile strength, some material like steel fiber can be added to increase its tensile strength, along with its steel fibers also protect our structure from cracking and gives strength to concrete. GGBS in concrete is used to reduce the rate of heat of hydration, improves its durability by giving high hindrance against sulphate and chloride attack. It goes on to improve resistance against corrosion of reinforcement bars. Another thing it provides to concrete is, it improves the compressive strength [1] and along with that the setting time of concrete, improvements in these properties increases the workability of concrete makes concrete. GGBS also holds a little edge in comparison to OPC as it provides longer service life and less maintenance of structures. Foundry sand, when used in concrete [2], increases its strength and durability. Foundry Sand also adds to the workability of concrete and beside all these parameters, it may be used as an addition to improve different properties of concrete which may all lead to make concrete much stronger and durable. This research paper concentrates on the study of tensile, compressive and flexural behavior of concrete by varying the percentage of GGBS & Foundry Sand. Also, this research paper focuses on the characteristics of M25 concrete by adding 1% of steel fibers. The varying percentages of GGBS & foundry sand are considered, on the basis of these varying percentages, eight samples of mix were prepared including a control sample. Each sample, excluding control sample consists a concrete mix with GGBS, foundry sand and steel fiber. The variation in the compressive strength, flexural strength and tensile strength is observed. KEYWORDS: Compressive Strength, Flexural Strength, Foundry Sand, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, Steel Fiber, Tensile Strength 12 R.H. Jadhav, Sadiya Shaikh, Rishabh Agrawal, Rajat Aryan Sharma, Faraz Khan & Aseem Anand Jha INTRODUCTION Steel Fiber Figure 1 After, the recent finds in concrete technology, we have started taking into account reinforcement in the form of fibers, most usually steel fibers, polymeric or glass fibers. Fiber-reinforcement is largely used for crack control. The concept of reinforcing materials with fibers is quite old, this interest of reinforcing cement with steel fiber or any other kind of fiber is based on research starting from way back in 1960's [5]. Since then, substantial researches and development activities related to this throughout the world are going on. Crack toughness, ductility and impact hindrance; all these defects of concrete are overcome when steel fiber is used and ultimately resulting in better performance of concrete. The infrastructure development of a nation is an important aspect in the overall development, and India is establishing itself as a major hub in the construction industry and along the way providing jobs and services. Foundry Sand Figure 2 Foundry sand is basically, sand which contains high quality silica sand that has uniform physical properties. It is basically obtained as a waste material from metal casting industries. The casting process and type of industry are the two factors which generally governs the physical and chemical characteristics of foundry sand. Foundry industries use a good amount of silica sand for casting processes and due to which, a large amount of waste is produced on a daily basis which is around 700-1000tonn/day. If we take a look at the present scenario of foundry industries, the amount of waste being generated and waste disposal methods being adopted by them, it is quite clear that in coming years, problems related to disposal of used foundry Impact Factor (JCC): 4.9875 NAAS Rating 3.04 Effect and Optimization of Foundry Sand, GGBS & Steel Fiber on Strength of Concrete 13 sand are going to become large. If only it can be used in other places such as in construction materials, ceramic industry, bricks (Hollow blocks), embankment construction & repair, mineral wool products, etc., it will give profit along with the production cost of the industry and the best thing is waste sand will get reduced. Also, by adopting such measures and using foundry sand as a waste product, we can contain a sustainable disposal of used foundry sand. GGBS Figure 3 GGBS i.e. Ground granulated Blast Furnace Slag, is extracted from the iron making industries, with the help of a process in which molten ash, which is obtained from the furnace is rapidly chilled or quenched. Water is used for chilling the molten ash. At the time of this process, the slag keeps on breaking down into smaller pieces and is then transformed into amorphous granules i.e. glass, which meets the requirement conforming to [6]. After that, granulated slag is processed in order to get the desired fineness for producing GGBS. Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag is basically, a by-product which is obtained during the manufacturing process of pig iron in the blast furnace and is formed when the constituents of the iron ore combines with limestone flux resulting in GGBS. When molten slag is rapidly quenched with the help of water in a pond, or when it is cool down using powerful water jets, it goes on to form small granules that are completely non-crystalline, are glassy in nature and finally forms a material known as granulated slag. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION Parameters like compressive strength, flexural strength and tensile strength are the three main properties of concrete, keeping in mind these properties, eight samples of concrete mix were prepared and casted based on the mix design for M25 grade concrete[7][10] and the samples consisted of: cube, cylinder and beams; and then were accordingly tested at 7 and 28 days. The variables considered are the different percentages of GGBS and Foundry Sand with an additional 1 % of steel fiber. MATERIAL PROPERTIES Cement: OPC i.e. Ordinary Portland Cement of Grade 53, conforming to [8], was used throughout to prepare all the eight different mixes of samples. The initial and final setting time was observed as 90 minimum and 230 minimum. Specific Gravity of cement was 3.14 and its compressive strength after 28 days was found to be 53MPa. And, it has the fineness modulus of 225 sqm/Kg. 14 R.H. Jadhav, Sadiya Shaikh, Rishabh Agrawal, Rajat Aryan Sharma, Faraz Khan & Aseem Anand Jha Fine Aggregate: Fine aggregate, which was used for the project was crushed sand and it conforms to zone 4 i.e. the zone for Maharashtra of [9]. Specific gravity of sand is 2.65 and the bulk density is 1.652 gm/cc. Coarse Aggregate: Crushed hard granite stone of maximum size 20mm is used for concrete. Bulk density of aggregate used was 1.450 gm/cc while the specific gravity of the aggregate came out to be 2.67. Water: Water for casting and curing purpose was used as per [10]. GGBS: Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, which is generally known by its shot form, i.e. GGBS was used for the project which was having a color near to whitish. It has a fineness modulus of 425 sqm/kg and it has a specific gravity of 2.9 and bulk density of 1.250 gm/cc. Foundry Sand: Foundry sand used in our project is, sub-angular to rounded shape. Approximately, 90% material came out to be in between 0.6mm and 0.15mm, so based on this we can say that the grain size distribution of foundry sand used was very uniform. The specific gravity of foundry sand came out to be 2.40 and having a bulk density of 2.59 gm/cc. Steel Fiber: Steel fibers used in the project have an equivalent diameter of 0.15mm and length of 50mm. Steel fibers are crimped having a rough surface along their length. CASTING Molds were oiled for easy demolding and properly fixed using screws. Concrete is prepared with the use of the above mentioned materials and required variations of GGBS and Foundry Sand are done. Fresh properties of concrete are determined. The samples were cast and vibrations were given to it in order to remove any air voids present in it and then the space which got created after the vibration, was filled with extra concrete to make up for the escaped air and then the next day samples were denuded by loosening the screws and at the same time care was taken not to harm the samples, and were put in the water pond for curing. Table 1 Note: FS: Foundry Sand, GGBS: Grand Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, SF: Steel Fiber TESTING After 28days of curing the samples are removed from the curing pond and are kept for surface dry. Cubes and cylinders are tested on the Compression Testing Machine and beams are tested using Universal Testing Machine. Impact Factor (JCC): 4.9875 NAAS Rating 3.04 Effect and Optimization of Foundry Sand, GGBS & Steel Fiber on Strength of Concrete 15 Figure 4: Compressive Strength Test Figure 5: Split Tensile Test Figure 6: Flexural Test ANALYSIS OF TEST RESULTS Compressive Strength Compressive strength of a concrete specimen of control volume was found to be 20.15 MPa at 7 days and 31.2MPa at 28days. Then, the mix was prepared by replacing fine aggregate by foundry sand with 15%, 20% &25% variation. The result was obtained as 20.51MPa, 22.54MPa & 17.7MPa respectively. From the above test results, it was clear that when foundry sand was added, the compressive strength increased, and observed to be maximum, when fine aggregate was replaced by foundry sand by 20%. Thereafter, the percentage of foundry sand was kept at 20% (constant) and the variations were done in the percentage of GGBS as 30%, 40%, 50%. The results, thereafter were obtained as 46.58MPa, 44.60MPa and 39.61MPa respectively at 28days of testing. It was found that the mix prepared with 20% of foundry sand (replacement with fine aggregate) and 30% of GGBS (replaced with cement) shows highest compressive strength. Further on foundry sand (20%) and GGBS (30%) are kept constant and along with it 1% steel fiber was added to it. Finally the results obtained was 51.56 MPa. 16 R.H. Jadhav, Sadiya Shaikh, Rishabh Agrawal, Rajat Aryan Sharma, Faraz Khan & Aseem Anand Jha From the above test results, we came to the conclusion that when the cement was replaced by GGBS (30%), Fine Aggregate by Foundry Sand (20%) along with Steel Fiber (1%) the compressive strength was increased by 20.36 MPa (approx. 65%). Comparison of Compressive Strength B/W Control & Replacement Sample Table 2 Note: FS: Foundry Sand, GGBS: Grand Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, SF: Steel Fiber Figure 7 From the above figure we can conclude that the compressive strength of 7 days is approximately 2/3rd of the compressive strength of 28 days. Split Tensile Test Tensile strength of control sample was found to be 3.04MPa after 28 days of testing Thereafter, a mix was prepared with 20% of foundry sand (replacement with fine aggregate) and 30% of GGBS (replaced with cement) along with its 1% steel fiber. Finally the result of the replacement sample was obtained as 3.99MPa which was increased by 0.95 MPa (approx. 31%). Impact Factor (JCC): 4.9875 NAAS Rating 3.04 17 Effect and Optimization of Foundry Sand, GGBS & Steel Fiber on Strength of Concrete Comparison B/W Tensile Strength of Conrol & Replacement Sample of Cylinder for 28 Days SS Table 3 Note: FS: Foundry Sand, GGBS: Grand Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, SF: Steel Fiber Flexural Strength Test Flexural Strength of control sample was found to be 3.5 MPa after 28 days of testing. Thereafter, a mix was prepared with 20% of foundry sand (replacement with fine aggregate) and 30% of GGBS (replaced with cement) along with its 1% steel fiber. Finally the result of the replacement sample was obtained as 4.34 MPa. From the above test result, we came to the conclusion that when the cement was replaced by GGBS (30%), Fine Aggregate by Foundry Sand (20%) along with Steel Fiber (1%) the flexure strength was increased by 0.84 MPa (approx. 24%). Comparison B/W Flexural Strength of Control& Replacement Sample of Beam for 28 Days Table 4 Note: FS: Foundry Sand, GGBS: Grand Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, SF: Steel Fiber Comparison of Compressive, Flexural & Tensile Strength of Samples Note: FS: Foundry Sand, GGBS: Grand Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, SF: Steel Fiber Figure 8 18 R.H. Jadhav, Sadiya Shaikh, Rishabh Agrawal, Rajat Aryan Sharma, Faraz Khan & Aseem Anand Jha Workability Test Comparison of Workability Test Results (Slump Cone Test) Table 5 Sample Slump Value (in cm) S1 (CONTROL SAMPLE) 7.5 S3 (20%FS) 15 S5 (20% FS 30% GGBS) 13 S8 (20% FS 30%GGBS 1% SF) 12 Note: FS: Foundry Sand, GGBS: Grand Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, SF: Steel Fiber The workability test was conducted by using the slump cone test. It was observed that the foundry sand was used as a replacement; the workability was enhanced by twice. This was due to the fineness of foundry sand. CONCLUSIONS After performing the series of tests, we have come to the conclusion that our project was able to achieve the higher strength in compression, tension and flexure as compare to the control sample and at the same time making it more economical. Due to replacement of cement with GGBS, we were able to achieve higher compressive strength. With the use of GGBS the heat of hydration was decreased which ultimately resulted in increased hindrance against chloride attack, sulphate attack and corrosion. Also, we were able to achieve the higher workability by the replacement of fine aggregate by foundry sand. We also encountered there was an increase in compressive strength. Further, the addition of steel fiber helped us to enhance the tensile strength of concrete. REFERENCES 1. Vinayak Awasare and Prof. M. V. Nagendra, “Analysis of Strength Characteristics of GGBS Concrete”. 2. Eknath P. Salokhe and D. B. Desai, “Application of Foundry Waste Sand in Manufacture of Concrete”. 3. ARVIND B. NAKUM, VATSAL N.PATEL, VISHAL B. PATEL, “EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON MECHANICAL AND DURABILITY PROPERTIES OF HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE INCORPORATING GGBS AND STEEL FIBERS”. 4. Prof. A. I. Tamboli, Aishwarya Saha, Tejas Parakh, Nilesh Mane, Ashutosh Singh, Sufiyan Tamboli, “Strength Characteristics of Concrete with Addition of Steel Fiber and Partial Replacement of Cement with Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag”. 5. J.P. Romualdi, and G.B. Baston, “Mechanics of crack arrest in concrete. Journal of Engineering Mechanics Div., ASCE, Vol 89, No. EM3, pp. 147-168, June, 1963. 6. IS: 12269-1987, “Specification for 53 grade Ordinary Portland Cement”, Bureau of Indian Standard. 7. M. S. Shetty, “Concrete Technology”, S. Chand and Company Ltd, Revised Edition 2013. 8. IS 12089:1987 which is, “Manufacturing specification for granulated slag used in Portland Slag Cement”. Impact Factor (JCC): 4.9875 NAAS Rating 3.04 19 Effect and Optimization of Foundry Sand, GGBS & Steel Fiber on Strength of Concrete 9. IS 383-1970, “Specifications for Coarse and Fine Aggregates from Natural Sources for Concrete” (Second Revision), Bureau of Indian Standard. 10. IS 456-2000, “Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete Structures”, Bureau of Indian Standard. See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: Review on Effect of Glass Fiber on Blended Cement Concrete Article · January 2016 CITATIONS READS 0 46 3 authors, including: G. Partheepan P. Markandeya Raju 12 PUBLICATIONS 33 CITATIONS Maharaj Vijayaram Gajapati Raj College of En… SEE PROFILE 47 PUBLICATIONS 27 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects: Analytical studies on Prestressed Structures View project Strength and durability studies on special concretes View project All content following this page was uploaded by P. Markandeya Raju on 27 December 2016. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file. IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol. 4, Issue 10, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613 Review on Effect of Glass Fiber on Blended Cement Concrete Susanna Saladi1 Partheepan Ganesan2 P. Markandeya Raju3 1 PG Student 2Associate Professor 3Professor 1,2,3 Department of Civil Engineering 1,2,3 MVGR College of Engineering (A), Vizianagaram 535005, AP India Abstract— This paper presents use of glass fiber in blended cement concrete attracted the attention from construction industry. In the present study, the effect of addition of glass fiber on blended cement concrete such as fly ash based cement concrete and GGBS based cement concrete were studied. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge and technology of using fly ash, GGBS and Glass fiber. A detailed review on the various preparation techniques and the resulting properties of glass fiber are presented and the effect of glass fibers on the blended cement concrete properties is discussed in this paper. Key words: Glass Fiber, Blended Cement Concrete I. INTRODUCTION Cement is the one of the major component used in the production of concrete. Concrete is used in structural & nonstructural elements construction, like concrete can be used to build multi storied buildings, pavements, bridges, dams. Concrete is the most widely used material in the world. It contains cement, aggregate (fine aggregate and coarse aggregate) and water. In construction industry it is the main constituent for the construction of structures. Generally concrete is weak in tension strong in compression. There are so many materials which are used in the place of cement. The materials such as fly ash, GGBS were also used in the preparation of concrete. these materials are durable and economical. Fly ash and GGBS production was in large scale now a days. So to overcome the disposal problems of these largely produced materials they were using in construction industry. These are also had same properties like cement and also in strength criteria. Concrete is the primarily used material in the construction and concrete acts as a backbone for our infrastructure. When compared to all construction materials, concrete was treated with care and respect. And also working with concrete is safe. Also some additives such as admixtures or super plasticizers are also added into the mixture to improve the physical properties of the wet mix. Concrete was used in famous structures like Hoover dam, Panama Canal and The Roman Pantheon. Earliest Romans used the concrete technology was widely used in the Roman Empire. And they built world’s largest unreinforced concrete domes i.e. dome of the pantheon. Colosseum in Rome was built largely of concrete. Now a days we are constructing large concrete structures like dams & multistoried car parks are widely made or constructed with reinforced concrete. II. APPLICATIONS Concrete is the most used material in the world. In construction world it is the main constituent for the construction of structures. Concrete prepared by cement and usin ...
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School: Duke University




Article Evaluation



This review explores previous studies that have been done regarding the study
objectives. A thorough analysis of study results and conclusions is done trying to answer and
prove the hypothesis of the current study with due acknowledgment. Below is a discussion of
some important research work from some selected researchers.
Review of Selected Research Studies
Article 1:
The study by Jadhav, Shaikh, Agrawal, Sharma, Khan, and Jha (2017) involved a
determination of the compressive, tensile, and flexural characteristics of concrete by altering
the concentrations of foundry sand and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) in
concrete. In addition, the study investigated the effects of adding 1% of steel fiber on the
properties of M25 concrete. In order to develop concrete of varying percentages of the study
materials, the investigator mixed eight different concrete samples and explored against a
control concrete sample. Other than the control concrete sample, each of the eight samples
was prepared by mixing concrete with varying percentages of foundry sand, GGBS, and steel
fiber added.
After creating beams, cubic and cylindrical molds via casting and curing for 28 days,
Jadhav and colleagues (2017) tested the enhanced cubical and cylindrical concrete products
on compression testing machine while the beams were tested on the universal testing machine
for test parameters, including compression, flexural and tensile strengths. The concrete
strength properties were tested separately with the compressive characteristics as depicted in
the table below.



Key: FS: Foundry Sand; GGBS: Grand Granulated Blast Furnace Slag; and SF: Steel Fibre
From the table above, the investigator showed that control concrete sample made
from 100% cement, fine and coarse aggregates had a compressive strength of 20.15 MPa and
31.2MPa at 7 days and 28days, respectively. The optimal compressive strength of enhanced
concrete with foundry sand was established by replacing fine aggregate with 20% foundry
sand at 22.54MPa. The investigator further altered concrete component percentages by
adding GGBS at variable quantities in place of cement and the...

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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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