research paper topic Volcanic eruptions

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Question description

Geology Project Requirements

**Please review your paper for all of the below before submitting your Week 8 Rough Draft**



- Length

  • Paper is to be 7 pages, at a minimum, in length:
    • One Cover Page
    • One Reference page
    • 5 pages of written text (which does not include space taken up by photos, illustrations or charts).
  • Formatting
  • All paragraphs need to be indented.
  • Font should be Times New Roman and size 12.
  • The line spacing should be double spaced.
  • Make sure there is an introduction paragraph, that the body paragraphs are well organized and a conclusion paragraph.
  • Stay away from many short sentences in a paragraph, as the paragraph needs to flow. (These can be fragment sentences and can make the paper confusing when reading.)
  • Also stay away from many short paragraphs in the body of the paper, if organized well, then there will be medium length paragraphs.
  • Paper should be aligned to the left margin – not center or wide across.



- Writing

  • This is a science research paper about a geology topic and must be in third person, therefore words such as we, me, I you, our, or us are not allowed to be used. Make sure these are not in your paper.
    • This also pertains to let’s. (Let’s short for let us.)
  • Make sure that all of your sentences are strong and independent.
  • Paper needs to be written using proper mechanics (clear, concise, complete sentences and paragraphs), proper spelling, grammar and punctuation.
  • Do not start your introduction or paper off with ‘This paper will look at…’ or ‘This paper will cover…’ Your thesis should not contain these words and should be a stand alone sentence with a passive lead in.
  • Spell Check Spell Check Spell Check.
  • Any introduction of a new word or scientific word that your reader may not know the definition of, be sure to include the definition for better understanding.
  • Acronyms. The first time an acronym is used, be sure to define what it stands for – such as USGS (United States Geological Survey). Then each subsequent time this acronym is used in the paper, you can just write USGS since it has already been defined to the reader.
  • Make sure to capitalize proper nouns such as Earth.
  • Make sure paragraphs transition and flow well between each other. Read the paper out loud to yourself before final submission to make sure these transitions are in place.
  • Please do not be a casual writer in this paper. What I mean by that is do not write how you would talk in a casual conversation, text on your phone or email a friend. This is a research paper and therefore the presentation and writing style needs to be professional.




- Quoting, Copying Word for Word and In Your Own Words

  • This paper should be in your own words presenting the facts.
  • If you do copy something from a source word for word, even a phrase as small as three words together, then you are required to put quotations “” around what is copied, there should be an intext citation of the source and the source info should be added to the reference list. This allows you to show that the material is not your own words but a direct copy of the material.
  • Quotations should not be longer than a sentence or two per paragraph as this paper is supposed to be in your own words and your own work.
  • Without quoting the word for word copied material and providing a source –– then it can be considered a form of plagiarism.



- Reference/Sources List

  • Should have at least 5 sources.
  • Wikipedia is NOT an acceptable source for this paper, as anyone at anytime can change the content of this source.
  • Should be in APA Format
  • All web sources need to include their publication date – use ‘Copyright’ or ‘Last Updated On’ dates as needed of the webpage (scroll to the bottom of the page).
  • The reference list needs to be in alphabetical order of author last names.
  • Please note that some authors will be organizations such as National Geographic or the Colorado Geological Survey – these organizations are referred to as “Corporate or Group Authors.”
  • Also note that items like “The Landform Circuit” as an author needs to be filed under L for Landform and not T for The.
  • Majority of references have a year of publication – in the rare case it does not, in the citation and reference list you will use n.d. to indicate ‘no date.’



- Citations of Sources

  • All items, whether in the text, facts, photos, graphs, etc. need have their sources cited in the paper APA Style. Format is usually (author last name, year published) – but double check for exceptions on this.
  • Also make sure that all citations are to the left of the period at the end of the sentence they are in.
  • Duplicate citations are not needed. For example:

California is a state on the west coast and has one of the largest populations in North America (LA Times, 2012). California also has the leasing record of the amount of earthquakes that occur in a year, compared to any other state in the United States of America (LA Times, 2012).

The second citation is the only one needed because since all of the information in a row is from the same source and in the same paragraph then is should look like this:

California is a state on the west coast and has one of the largest populations in North America. California also has the leasing record of the amount of earthquakes that occur in a year, compared to any other state in the United States of America (LA Times, 2012).

- Need APA Information and Examples?

  • Find it under the “Resources” tab in our course, go to your campus or online library for help, or contact myself directly with questions. Or there is the Rasmussen APA guide at http://guides.rasmussen.edu/apa

- Review the grading Rubric (provided with each assignment respectively)

  • Make sure to review the grading rubric completely before the rough draft and final submission of your paper.
  • NOTE: The rough draft is required to be a complete paper and finished project. The point of the rough draft is to get some finalized feedback before final submission.
  • This paper is all about geology and make sure that everything in your paper is geology.

-

Course: G245/GLY1000 - Intro Geology - Rasmussen College

Instructor: Michelle Sutherland

Assignment: Rough Draft Geology Project

Section

Description

Points Possible

A.

Cover Page

1

B.

Page 1 of Paper of Text

11

a. Introduction paragraph with thesis present. Thesis is a strong, independent sentence. (1 point)

b. Paper written in complete sentences with proper punctuation. (1 points)

c. All words spelt correctly, including scientific terms. (1 point)

d. Paper flows from one paragraph to another (aka transitions). (1 points)

e. Material presented in a logical order. (1 point)

f. Font is Times New Roman, size 12, and paper is double spaced. (1 point)

g. Written in third person, thus NO USE of I, we, me, you, us, or our. (1 point)

h. All sources cited with intext citations in APA format - for written portions. (2 points)

i. Paper is in student own words and no material COPIED WORD FOR WORD from source. (In case of a quote present from a source, quoting requirements must be present per APA format.) (2 points)

Comments:

C.

Page 2 of Paper of Text

10

a. Paper written in complete sentences with proper punctuation. (1 points)

b. All words spelt correctly, including scientific terms. (1 point)

c. Paper flows from one paragraph to another (aka transitions). (1 points)

d. Material presented in a logical order. (1 point)

e. Font is Times New Roman, size 12, and paper is double spaced. (1 point)

f. Written in third person, thus NO USE of I, we, me, you, us, or our. (1 point)

g. All sources cited with intext citations in APA format - for written portions. (2 points)

h. Paper is in student own words and no material COPIED WORD FOR WORD from source. (In case of a quote present from a source, quoting requirements must be present per APA format.) (2 points)

Comments:

D.

Page 3 of Paper of Text

10

a. Paper written in complete sentences with proper punctuation. (1 points)

b. All words spelt correctly, including scientific terms. (1 point)

c. Paper flows from one paragraph to another (aka transitions). (1 points)

d. Material presented in a logical order. (1 point)

e. Font is Times New Roman, size 12, and paper is double spaced. (1 point)

f. Written in third person, thus NO USE of I, we, me, you, us, or our. (1 point)

g. All sources cited with intext citations in APA format - for written portions. (2 points)

h. Paper is in student own words and no material COPIED WORD FOR WORD from source. (In case of a quote present from a source, quoting requirements must be present per APA format.) (2 points)

Comments:

E.

Page 4 of Paper of Text

10

a. Paper written in complete sentences with proper punctuation. (1 points)

b. All words spelt correctly, including scientific terms. (1 point)

c. Paper flows from one paragraph to another (aka transitions). (1 points)

d. Material presented in a logical order. (1 point)

e. Font is Times New Roman, size 12, and paper is double spaced. (1 point)

f. Written in third person, thus NO USE of I, we, me, you, us, or our. (1 point)

g. All sources cited with intext citations in APA format - for written portions. (2 points)

h. Paper is in student own words and no material COPIED WORD FOR WORD from source. (In case of a quote present from a source, quoting requirements must be present per APA format.) (2 points)

Comments:

F.

Page 5 of Paper of Text

11

a. Paper written in complete sentences with proper punctuation. (1 points)

b. All words spelt correctly, including scientific terms. (1 point)

c. Paper flows from one paragraph to another (aka transitions). (1 points)

d. Material presented in a logical order. (1 point)

e. Font is Times New Roman, size 12, and paper is double spaced. (1 point)

f. Written in third person, thus NO USE of I, we, me, you, us, or our. (1 point)

g. All sources cited with intext citations in APA format - for written portions. (2 points)

h. Paper is in student own words and no material COPIED WORD FOR WORD from source. (In case of a quote present from a source, quoting requirements must be present per APA format.) (2 points)

i. Conclusion Paragraph

Comments:

G.

Reference Page

7

a. At least 5 references are used - none of which are WIKIPEDIA (as content in Wikipedia can be changed by anyone at any time). (2 points)

b. Reference list is in APA formatting - including proper placement of article title, author information and publication year. (2 points)

c. All publication dates presented, including webpage 'Copyright' or "Last Updated On' dates where appropriate. (1 points)

d. All photos, pictures, graphs, charts, etc have source citations by them in APA format, and sources included in reference list. (2 points)

Comments:

H.

TOTAL POINTS

60

Running head: VOLCANIC GEOLOGY 1 Volcanic Geology Institution Affiliation Date VOLCANIC GEOLOGY 2 1. Thesis Volcanic eruptions are triggered by a set of chemical and physical processes which can disrupt climate, alter weather patterns and lead to human suffering. 2. Volcanic Geology o Volcanism is a planetary process with tremendous insights on both spatial and transient impact on earth’s crust. o It causes the destruction of landscape, formation of lahar, rock falls and mudslides. o Cluster and subsequent single explosions of volcanic mountains results to earth’s geological unrest and such explosions affect ecological stability. 3. Volcanic phenology o Volcanoes are vents and earth’s crust with molten rock and gas which erupts in viscous fluids or outbursts in solid rock fragments into the atmosphere. o Intense radioactive isotope decay and primordial accretion heat are contributory agents to eruption. o The mythical concept of underwater movement to contribute to a volcanic eruption. 4. Volcanic eruption impact on earthquakes o Tectonic plates are characterized by seismic activities on the plate margin which can cause earth unrest and pressure. o Subduction zones create seismic waves which cause eruption on weak mantle leading to earthquakes. o Displacement of less dense larva towards earth’s surface through gravitational analogy also results to volcanism. 5. Impact of a volcanic eruption on landslides and ground displacement. VOLCANIC GEOLOGY 3 o Occasional gravitational force disintegrates rock fragments which form lahar. o Steep and tall volcanic cones are weakened by the explosion of molten magma which dissolves in underground water altering crust mineral to clay. o Landslides may cause hummocks in closed depression and valleys through massive rock debris buried under it. 6. Environmental impact of the volcanic eruption on tsunamis o Seismic waves, especially in underwater volcanic eruptions, lead to seafloor disturbance. o Phreatomagmatic eruptions and subduction of deep-sea magmatic chambers result to uplift and sinking of erupted lava which cools as it displaces large water quantity above the sea level. o A tidal zone with intense oceanic volcanic activity may cause the collapse of caldera sending pyroclastic materials offshore in greater heights of waves. 7. Destruction of earth’s stratosphere layer o Emitted aerosols deplete Ozone layer through alteration of chlorine and nitrogen compounds resulting in global warming. o Suspension of aerosol particles in the stratosphere scatters red light wavelength creating a luminous and vibrant optical effect on the skyline. o Sunken temperatures create impulsive heat cycle which can change the productivity of land to virtual desert.

Tutor Answer

HomeworkAcer1
School: UT Austin

Attached.

Running head: VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

1

Student name
Modulator
Institution
Date

VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

2

Volcanic eruptions can bring about devastating impacts both positive and negative on the
environment and people living in this areas. Volcanism is a planetary geological process that
causes both transient and spatial effects on the earth, therefore, developing a realistic
appreciation towards scientific and phenology understanding. Volcanic eruptions are triggered
by a set of chemical and physical processes which can disrupt climate, alter weather patterns and
lead to human suffering (Squire 2016).
Volcanic activities result in influxes and other earth processes creating a long-lasting
effect on the surface of the earth. These impacts include the destruction of landscape and
sceneries, formation of mudslides, lahar and rock falls. Furthermore, in insecure grounds
conditions, some volcanic eruptions lead to earthquakes. Earthquakes may cause fire through the
flow of lava and as result, many lives are lost. Cluster and subsequent single volcanic mountains
explosions also result to the earth’s geological unrest that is characterized with flaring up of
silicic material. These explosions have a great impact on the ecological stability because of the
changes in tectonic settings that cause global warming. Solid earth science shows how volcanic
eruption damage the environment causing landslides, tsunamis, earthquakes, ground
displacement and the depletion of the ozone layer (Rene, 2017).
Volcanoes are vents on the earth’s crust with molten rock and gas which erupts in viscous
fluid or outburst in solid rock fragments into the atmosphere that cause changes in stratus
composition. A narrowed down research on an estimated data of billion years shows how
changes in tectonic plates ultimately define the existence of earth’s crust through volcanic
eruptions (Baxter, 2015). A close correlation can also be drawn from a geometrical study which
unravels the different kinds of wisdom into the earth surface by definitively settling on the
subduction process of the earth’s crust. Intensive radioactive isotope decay and primordial heat

VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

3

are also considered to be agents of an eruption. They cause emission of internal heat that flares
up golden yellow lava on the earth’s crust.

The myth that movement of underwater contributes to volcanic eruptions is a mismatched
ideology that has no significant thesis that explains volcanic eruption. Scientists prelude this
mystery in an explained discovery that narrows on the subsistent convergence of plates that fall
over and under each other leading to thrust through the plate margin. Despite the fact that the
eruption is creating interactional processes that are quite difficult to study, hosting and
monitoring of geological records through powerful machines improves the understanding of the
eruption behaviors of volcanoes. Bringing together of mystical gaps through scientific research
helps in creating awareness through close evaluation and monitoring to avoid the unforeseen
disastrous stress of the earth’s surface (Squire, 2016).
Studies have shown how volcanic eruptions cause earthquakes. Although these volcanic
eruptions and earthquakes are indirectly connected, they still similarly complement each other

VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

4

when it comes to the study of the earth’s geology. First, tectonic plates are characterized by
seismic activities on the plate margin which could finally cause earth’s disturbance and pressure.
A good example is the Pacific Ocean which holds a Ring of Fire which cuts across Japan, South
America Philippines and other areas where subduction process occurs as a result of active
seismic waves. Subduction zones causes a disturbance in the magma chamber gases which in
turn creates strain. In the end, s...

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