Running head: PUBLIC POLICY
Race, National Origin, and Ethnicity
Race, National Origin, and Ethnicity
The United States is home to millions of individuals from various backgrounds.
Despite the fact that there are many citizens of national origin in the country, migration has
constituted to a large number of people of different races and ethnicity. This being the case,
discrimination is a common phenomenon in the country. The Federal government has
however prioritized the protection of citizens through various anti-discrimination laws.
Racism is considered an offense other than an opinion. Racism includes color, ethnic origins,
national origins, and nationality.
Racism is not a new concept in the United States because it started in as early as 1790.
In most cases, individuals often differentiated themselves as whites and non-whites. They
often associated black color with inferiority where the whites took advantage and used them
as slaves (Omi & Winant, 2014). Eventually, the blacks fought their way up and have even
held compelling positions like the presidency. In the year 1856, a racial Supreme Court
decision denied the blacks fundamental rights including citizenship. The Jim Crow laws that
were implemented between the 1950s and 1960s gave room for more racial discrimination
and eventually allowing the blacks selective rights (Byrne & Stanner, 2013). In the year 1896,
the same Supreme Court permitted blacks the use of similar though segregated facilities and
accommodation. Between the period 1896 and 1978, the courts made multiple decisions that
continued to discriminate against the blacks in the country. However, with time, people
learned to fight for their rights and today, the blacks and whites in America have equal rights
(Omi & Winant, 2014). The historical events in the United States including many court cases
have changed the perception of the American citizens. For instance, people have learned to
embrace diversity which has seen them elect black leaders to hold senior posts. For example,
the election of Obama as President is one of the ways to show changes in America’s
perception of ethnicity and racism. While most people commended Obama as an
extraordinary Negro, many whites stood behind him and appreciated his effort. With this
happening in the political arena, all other sectors are prone to follow suit and leave racism
Criminological theories aim at helping individuals to gain more insight on criminal
justice and crime in general. The rational choice theory is one of the arguments in
criminology that try to explain criminal justice. It adopts a utilitarian belief where individuals
make sound decisions according to the actions that give them maximum benefits (Eck &
Weisburd, 2015). Individuals who decide to do acts of crime do so while they weigh the costs.
Discriminating individuals by their origin, nationality or racism is a crime that is punishable
by law. Following the rational choice theory, individuals need to understand the consequences
of their actions both legally and to the social life of the victim. Even making racial remarks
regarding other people may cause individuals to face jail terms. Despite the fact that racism
has not ended in America, the immigration department opened its doors a long time ago to
individuals of every race to get to the country (Gerston, 2014). Millions of people have since
then moved to America in search of better life given that job opportunities are many.
However, those that have gone to America with formal skills in areas like nursing and
teaching have made better lives for themselves even holding significant positions in the
country. However, things are changing with the new Trump administration as he has already
started to exhibit racism by changing immigration policies not to include Muslims.
Byrne, D., & Stanner, W. E. H. (2013). Jim Crows. Made to Matter: White Fathers, Stolen
Eck, J. E., & Weisburd, D. L. (2015). Crime places in crime theory.
Gerston, L. N. (2014). Public policy making: Process and principles. Routledge.
Omi, M., & Winant, H. (2014). Racial formation in the United States. Routledge.
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